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About Organic Chemistry 1.3

By Docta, Oct 29, 2011 | |
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  1. Docta
    Docta’s relearning of organic chemistry continues, with the spectre of chromatography and empirical formula looming large on the horizon.

    The organic states

    And so from the works of super star chemists of the eighteenth hundreds it is evident that the organic form is supported by the bonding of carbon atoms, the potential energy in these bond is the chemical energy that supports life, from bacteria to blue whales.

    99% of organic compounds contain hydrogen and of them the majority are made up of oxygen and nitrogen, the lions share of organic chemistry is taken up by the activities and intermolecular forces of the four main organic elements.

    The oxidation of organics’ is known well to us in the form of burning, wood, coal, petroleum etcetera . The main result is the release of carbon dioxide along with other elements and the heat energy from braking the bonds.

    Day to day experience shows us that heat can alter and or decompose organic substances.

    The vapours that evolve from decomposition under heat are referred to as Pyrolysis.

    Pyrolysis is an important tool of chemistry, the coking of coal to produce the distillate coal tar a prime example.

    If heated more conservatively an organic substance will transition from solid to liquid then gas without decomposition, when the heat is removed it will transition back to it’s primary state without decomposition.

    **Melting and boiling points are varied over a wide band of temperatures; Substances with boiling points that fall into the range 300-400 Celsius are prone to decomposition when distilled at atmospheric pressure. Common practice in this circumstance is reduced pressure distillation.

    Melting point (MP) and Boiling point (BP) are fundamental physical constants used in organic chemistry.

    MP and BP are quick and easy to ascertain with high degrease of accuracy, making it a valuable tool in establishing structure or the identification of compounds.

    Compounds of high purity melt rapidly within a narrow predictable temperature bandwidth.
    Compound that are impure have a wide unpredictable bandwidth and melt slowly at lower temperatures.

    Knowing this the Melting point of a substance can aid in identification as well as being a gauge of purity.

    Structural recognition

    “That’s no moon,… it’s a space station!”

    TO BE CONTINUED….

    **General chemistry explanations can be found on Wikipedia.

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