Sarah Steele and Langtian "Ren" Yuan were both self-admittedly inexperienced Duke freshmen in the spring of 2006. But then they followed helpful directions of an assistant chemistry professor, added their own patience and ingenuity, and ended up identifying compounds that might allay the powerful cravings of methamphetamine and cocaine addiction.
The two women, now seniors, have since moved on to other things. But their earlier accomplishment was recently celebrated by a research paper in a British journal. It also helped bring the professor, Jiyong Hong, a $390,000 stimulus grant from the National Institutes of Health and the American Recovery and Investment Act to do follow-up research.
"I think this is a kind of showcase for something that Duke is very strong in -- undergraduate research," Hong said. "And, socioeconomically, it deals with drugs of abuse that are huge problems."
Hong, whose research group investigates the synthesis of natural products for drug design as well as small molecules' roles in biological processes, got interested in finding small molecules that could inhibit the good feelings induced by meth and coke after reading a 2006 paper in the journal Science.
That study implicated a derivative of an enzyme called protein kinase C zeta (abbreviated PKCzeta) in brain chemistry changes involved in memory and learning.
"When people take methamphetamines and cocaine, that gets engraved in their memories," Hong said. "So the hypothesis was that by inhibiting a specific enzyme, in this case PKCzeta, we might be able to delete those memories."
The problem was that researchers had never identified a PKCzeta inhibitor, he added. "PKCzeta is one of the least studied members of the PKC family." In other words, his quest would be like searching for needles in a haystack.
Enter the two undergraduates. Steele, an intended biology major, showed up in Hong's lab to do an independent study tied to a freshman chemistry research seminar class. "I hadn't taken organic chemistry, but he explained everything to me so I was sure of what I was doing," she said.
Following Hong's elaborate instructions, Steele began the task of canvassing about 1,200 different small molecules looking for candidate PKCzeta blockers. "It was repetitive work, but once we learned the concept it was easy to continue," she recalled.
The work involved placing each candidate inhibitor into one of 96 tiny wells on a sample plate, along with PKCzeta and an energy-providing chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), plus a light-emitting enzyme called luciferase.
If a candidate compound was ineffectual, then the ATP in the well would be used by PKCzeta's activity. But if a compound did interfere with the PKCzeta, then the energy of the ATP would instead cause the luciferase to light up. The better the blocking action, the brighter the glow.
Yuan, originally a premed student planning to triple major in biomedical engineering, economics and public policy, had also approached Hong seeking freshman work as a lab assistant, though not as part of a class.
"Originally I was asked to try to find an inhibitor for something other than PKCzeta," she said. But when Steele entered a different summer research program after the spring semester, "I kind of picked up where Sarah stopped.
"I was doing similar things as she, but really trying to pinpoint which specific compounds worked as inhibitors," Yuan recalled. "We were almost out of molecules to test by then. But, in the last batch, there were a series that were similar that all lit up really well."
The work required lots of transferring chemicals with the aid of a pipette, and then incubating them at different temperatures and at different concentrations. "That was a lot of hours," she said. "I was working almost full time during the summer. But I'm glad it paid off."
Other researchers from Duke's Chemistry Department and Medical Center, as well as a separate group from Korea, filled in gaps in the research. Their results were published online on May 8, 2009 in Molecular Biosystems, a journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry. That paper identified several promising PKCzeta blockers for further follow-ups that are now underway.
"I didn't expect to have anything come out of it," said Steele, who was listed as a coauthor. "But it's nice that something good did." Yuan was listed as the paper's first author. "Honestly, I think I got too much credit," she said. "But it was exciting."
December 9, 2009
The Medical News
Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
Discovery of new compounds may dispel cravings of meth and cocaine addiction