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  1. chillinwill
    Sarah Steele and Langtian "Ren" Yuan were both self-admittedly inexperienced Duke freshmen in the spring of 2006. But then they followed helpful directions of an assistant chemistry professor, added their own patience and ingenuity, and ended up identifying compounds that might allay the powerful cravings of methamphetamine and cocaine addiction.

    The two women, now seniors, have since moved on to other things. But their earlier accomplishment was recently celebrated by a research paper in a British journal. It also helped bring the professor, Jiyong Hong, a $390,000 stimulus grant from the National Institutes of Health and the American Recovery and Investment Act to do follow-up research.

    "I think this is a kind of showcase for something that Duke is very strong in -- undergraduate research," Hong said. "And, socioeconomically, it deals with drugs of abuse that are huge problems."

    Hong, whose research group investigates the synthesis of natural products for drug design as well as small molecules' roles in biological processes, got interested in finding small molecules that could inhibit the good feelings induced by meth and coke after reading a 2006 paper in the journal Science.

    That study implicated a derivative of an enzyme called protein kinase C zeta (abbreviated PKCzeta) in brain chemistry changes involved in memory and learning.

    "When people take methamphetamines and cocaine, that gets engraved in their memories," Hong said. "So the hypothesis was that by inhibiting a specific enzyme, in this case PKCzeta, we might be able to delete those memories."

    The problem was that researchers had never identified a PKCzeta inhibitor, he added. "PKCzeta is one of the least studied members of the PKC family." In other words, his quest would be like searching for needles in a haystack.

    Enter the two undergraduates. Steele, an intended biology major, showed up in Hong's lab to do an independent study tied to a freshman chemistry research seminar class. "I hadn't taken organic chemistry, but he explained everything to me so I was sure of what I was doing," she said.

    Following Hong's elaborate instructions, Steele began the task of canvassing about 1,200 different small molecules looking for candidate PKCzeta blockers. "It was repetitive work, but once we learned the concept it was easy to continue," she recalled.

    The work involved placing each candidate inhibitor into one of 96 tiny wells on a sample plate, along with PKCzeta and an energy-providing chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), plus a light-emitting enzyme called luciferase.

    If a candidate compound was ineffectual, then the ATP in the well would be used by PKCzeta's activity. But if a compound did interfere with the PKCzeta, then the energy of the ATP would instead cause the luciferase to light up. The better the blocking action, the brighter the glow.

    Yuan, originally a premed student planning to triple major in biomedical engineering, economics and public policy, had also approached Hong seeking freshman work as a lab assistant, though not as part of a class.

    "Originally I was asked to try to find an inhibitor for something other than PKCzeta," she said. But when Steele entered a different summer research program after the spring semester, "I kind of picked up where Sarah stopped.

    "I was doing similar things as she, but really trying to pinpoint which specific compounds worked as inhibitors," Yuan recalled. "We were almost out of molecules to test by then. But, in the last batch, there were a series that were similar that all lit up really well."

    The work required lots of transferring chemicals with the aid of a pipette, and then incubating them at different temperatures and at different concentrations. "That was a lot of hours," she said. "I was working almost full time during the summer. But I'm glad it paid off."

    Other researchers from Duke's Chemistry Department and Medical Center, as well as a separate group from Korea, filled in gaps in the research. Their results were published online on May 8, 2009 in Molecular Biosystems, a journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry. That paper identified several promising PKCzeta blockers for further follow-ups that are now underway.

    "I didn't expect to have anything come out of it," said Steele, who was listed as a coauthor. "But it's nice that something good did." Yuan was listed as the paper's first author. "Honestly, I think I got too much credit," she said. "But it was exciting."

    December 9, 2009
    The Medical News
    http://www.news-medical.net/news/20...of-methamphetamine-and-cocaine-addiction.aspx

Comments

  1. chillinwill
    An American research has been successful in identifying compounds that might help ease the cravings of methamphetamine and cocaine addiction.

    The study, done by Sarah Steele and Langtian "Ren" Yuan of Duke University when they were freshmen in the spring of 2006, has recently been published in a British journal.

    Jiyong Hong, Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Duke, said: "I think this is a kind of showcase for something that Duke is very strong in -- undergraduate research...And, socioeconomically, it deals with drugs of abuse that are huge problems."

    Talking about the study he said: "When people take methamphetamines and cocaine, that gets engraved in their memories," Hong said. "So the hypothesis was that by inhibiting a specific enzyme, in this case PKCzeta, we might be able to delete those memories."

    But there was a problem: "PKCzeta is one of the least studied members of the PKC family."

    Steele, a major in biology, came to Hong''s lab to undertake an independent study related to a freshman chemistry research seminar class.

    She said: "I hadn''t taken organic chemistry, but he explained everything to me so I was sure of what I was doing."

    Steele now started testing about 1,200 different small molecules, hunting for PKCzeta blockers.

    She recalled: "It was repetitive work, but once we learned the concept it was easy to continue."

    Yuan, originally a premed student planning to triple major in biomedical engineering, economics and public policy, had also come to Hong looking for freshman work as a lab assistant, even though her course did not require it.

    She said: "Originally I was asked to try to find an inhibitor for something other than PKCzeta."

    However, when Steele took up a different summer research program after the spring semester, Yuan started working on the same field.

    She recollected: "I kind of picked up where Sarah stopped.

    "I was doing similar things as she, but really trying to pinpoint which specific compounds worked as inhibitors...We were almost out of molecules to test by then. But, in the last batch, there were a series that were similar that all lit up really well."

    Other researchers from Duke''s Chemistry Department and Medical Center, and a group from Korea
    , filled in voids in the research.

    Their findings appeared online on May 8, 2009 in Molecular Biosystems, a journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Steele, who was named as a co-author of the study, said: "I didn''t expect to have anything come out of it...But it''s nice that something good did."

    Yuan, who was listed as the paper''s first author, said: "Honestly, I think I got too much credit...But it was exciting."

    December 9, 2009
    New Kerala
    http://www.newkerala.com/news/fullnews-7442.html
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