DEATHS in US police custody during the early 1990s may have been the result of an interaction between capsaicin, the key ingredient in pepper sprays, and psychostimulant drugs, an experiment in mice suggests.
If the two have a fatal interaction in people then police forces might have to rethink their use of pepper spray as a non-lethal weapon, says John Mendelson of the Addiction and Pharmacology Research Laboratory at St Luke's Hospital in San Francisco, who led the mouse research.
In the early nineties, anecdotal reports emerged in the US of people dying after being sprayed by police. "They seemed to die very quickly," says Mendelson. At post-mortem, many of these people showed signs of having taken cocaine, so Mendelson wondered if capsaicin and cocaine could interact fatally in the body.
To investigate, his team injected cocaine, capsaicin or both at once into the abdomens of several groups of about 30 mice. Injections allowed them to control the dose of capsaicin the mice received, which wouldn't have been possible if the mice were simply sprayed, says Mendelson.
In one group of mice, cocaine was injected at a dose of 60 milligrams per kilogram of mouse weight, which killed just a few of them. But when the researchers injected a group with the same dose of cocaine plus capsaicin, the death toll was about half. "The presence of capsaicin in mice makes smaller amounts of cocaine more lethal," Mendelson says. When the team gave another group of mice capsaicin along with a higher dose of cocaine - enough to kill half of the mice on its own - the death toll rose to 90 per cent (Forensic Toxicology, DOI: 10.1007/s11419-009-0079-9). "We don't actually know how capsaicin reacts with cocaine to produce a lethal effect," admits Mendelson.
However, his team also reviewed 26 autopsy reports and Californian police reports between 1993 and 1995 of people who died shortly after being subdued with pepper spray. They noted that 19 of them had evidence of psychostimulants in their blood and nine had cocaine. Mendelson suspects that a fatal interaction takes place in the brain between capsaicin and psychostimulants.
Toxicologists are intrigued, but say further evidence is needed. "In real-life situations, humans inhale pepper spray, whereas these mice had the substance injected directly into their abdominal cavities," says Andy Smith of the Medical Research Council in Cambridge, UK. Kathryn Cunningham of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Texas in Galveston says we don't know how much of the capsaicin that is sprayed in someone's face makes it into their bloodstream.
Peter Bibring, an attorney at the American Civil Liberties Union in Los Angeles, says the study adds weight to the ACLU's concern that pepper spray could be fatal. "Police departments need to make adjustments to minimise the chance it will be used on those under the influence of cocaine."
Norm Leong, a sergeant at the Sacramento Police Department in California says this could be a tough call: "It's impossible to know if someone is under the influence of cocaine, some other drug", has mental issues, or is just resisting arrest.
November 13, 2009
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Fatal interaction takes place in the brain between Capsaicin and Psychostimulants