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  1. Terrapinzflyer
    First ever large-scale study of ketamine users published


    The first ever large-scale, longitudinal study of ketamine users has been published online today in the journal Addiction. With Ketamine (K, Special K) use increasing faster than any other drug in the UK (British Crime Survey, 2008) this research showing the consequences of repeated ketamine use provides valuable information for users and addiction professionals alike.

    For the study, researchers from University College London followed 150 people over a year to see if changes in their ketamine use could predict changes in their psychological well-being, memory and concentration. Of these 150 people, 30 were taking large quantities of the drug nearly every day, 30 were taking it 'recreationally' (once or twice a month), 30 were former users, 30 used illicit drugs apart from ketamine and 30 did not use any illicit drugs.

    The authors found that the heavy ketamine users were impaired on several measures, including verbal memory. Short term memory and visual memory in this group decreased over the year as ketamine use increased. These individuals also performed more poorly overall on verbal memory, displaying symptoms such as forgetfulness and experiencing difficulty recalling conversations and people's names.

    The amount of increase in ketamine use over the course of one year was also a source of concern. Hair analysis showed that ketamine levels among recreational users doubled at follow-up compared to initial testing, a pattern seen with other addictive drugs. Ketamine levels in the frequent using group did not change across the year, but this group was already using up to ten grams per day at initial testing.

    Interestingly, the recreational ketamine users and ex ketamine users did not differ from non-drug-taking controls on memory, attention and measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that occasional ketamine use does not lead to prolonged harms to cognitive function and that any damage may be reversed when people quit using the drug. However, all groups of ketamine users showed evidence of unusual beliefs or mild 'delusions', with these being greatest in the frequent users and least in ex-users (i.e. it appeared dependent on the amount of the drug used). It is not clear to what extent this is a pre-existing difference in ketamine users, something that develops from using the drug or a mixture of both.

    Says lead author Dr. Celia Morgan: "These findings have implications for the growing number of ketamine users in the UK as well as addiction professionals who may encounter increasing numbers of ketamine dependent users. These findings suggest these frequent ketamine users will be impaired, albeit transiently, in a variety of psychological domains."


    Public release date: 16-Nov-2009

    http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-11/w-fel111309.php

    _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Anyone have access to the full report?

Comments

  1. Terrapinzflyer
    Largest Study On Ketamine Users Finds Long Term Effects Of Drug Can Be Reversed

    London, England (AHN) - Researchers conducted the first ever large-scale, longitudinal study of ketamine users and reached some interesting findings about long term use of the drug that has a variety of medical uses but it is increasingly used as an illicit drug because of its hallucinatory effect. The findings suggest occasional ketamine use does not lead to prolonged harms to cognitive function and damage can be reversed when people stop using the drug.

    According to law enforcement officials in the United Kingdom Ketamine (K, Special K) use is increasing faster than any other drug in the region. Curiosity about the drug's effects and its rise in popularity prompted researchers from University College London followed 150 people over a year to see if changes in their ketamine use could predict changes in their psychological well-being, memory and concentration.

    Of the study participants 30 were identified as taking large quantities of the drug nearly every day, 30 were taking it 'recreationally' (once or twice a month), 30 were former users, 30 used illicit drugs apart from ketamine and 30 did not use any illicit drugs whatsoever.

    Researchers ascertained that the heavy ketamine users were impaired on several measures, including verbal memory. Short term memory and visual memory in this group decreased over the year as ketamine use increased. These individuals also performed more poorly overall on verbal memory, displaying symptoms such as forgetfulness and experiencing difficulty recalling conversations and people's names.

    The amount of increase in ketamine use over the course of one year was also a source of concern. An analysis of participants hair showed that the group identified as recreational users of the drug showed signs of doubling up on the substance. Meaning that after their initial testing and baseline data results, they exhibited typical addictive behavior towards the drug as seen with other addictive drugs. Ketamine levels in the frequent using group did not change across the year, but this group was already using up to ten grams per day at initial testing.

    However, a finding not typically expected was the fact that the recreational ketamine users and ex ketamine users did not differ from non-drug-taking controls on memory, attention and measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that occasional ketamine use does not lead to prolonged harms to cognitive function and that any damage may be reversed when people quit using the drug.

    All groups of ketamine users in the study showed evidence of the hallucinatory effects the drug is known to elicit. It remains unclear to what extent this is a pre-existing difference in ketamine users, something that develops from using the drug or a mixture of both.

    Ketamine produces effects similar to PCP and DXM. Unlike the other well known dissociatives PCP and DXM, ketamine is very short acting, its hallucinatory effects lasting sixty minutes when insufflated or injected and up to two hours when ingested, the total experience lasting no more than a couple of hours.

    Ketamine is originally created to be used in human and veterinary medicine. With humans, the effects of the drug can include analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation. However, in humans it is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug.


    Ayinde O. Chase - AHN Editor

    http://www.allheadlinenews.com/articles/7017007633
  2. adzket
    good old Dr. Celia Morgan. swim took part in one of her studys a few yrs back looking into behavior of ketamine use. she asked them to take part in this study but swim was taking to many other substances and medication at the time. they wish they had been able to take part in it now as this is something they have a major intrest in. maybe they can get in on next study they always after volenters. swim will then post about it like they did last time.
  3. Euphoric

    Ketamine drug use 'harms memory'


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    Frequent use of ketamine - a drug popular with clubbers - is being linked with memory problems, researchers say.

    The University College London team carried out a range of memory and psychological tests on 120 people.

    They found frequent users performed poorly on skills such as recalling names, conversations and patterns.

    Previous studies said the drug might cause kidney and bladder damage. The London team and charity Drugscope said users should be aware of the risks.

    Ketamine - or Special K as it has been dubbed - acts as a stimulant and induces hallucinations.

    It has been increasing in popularity, particularly as an alternative to ecstasy among clubbers, as the price has fallen over recent years.

    A gram now costs about £20 - half the price of cocaine.

    In response, the drug was made illegal three years ago - it is currently graded class C - although it still remains legal for use as an anaesthetic and a horse tranquiliser.

    The study split the participants into five groups - those using the drug each day, recreational users who took the drug once or twice a month, former users, those who used other drugs and people who did not take any drugs.

    All of the people took part in a series of memory tests as well as completing questionnaires and were then followed up a year later, the Addiction journal reported.

    Researchers found the frequent users group performed significantly worse on the memory tests - in some they made twice as many errors.

    The study also showed performance worsened over the course of the year.

    There was no significant difference between the other groups.

    However, all groups of ketamine users showed evidence of unusual beliefs or mild delusions, such as conspiracy theories, the psychological questionnaires showed.

    Addiction

    The study also raised concerns about the addictiveness of the drug - hair sampling from the recreational group showed drug use had doubled over the year.

    Lead researcher Dr Celia Morgan said: "Ketamine use is increasing faster than any other drug in the UK, particularly among young people, and has now become a mainstream club drug.

    "However, many young people who use this drug may be largely unaware of its damaging properties and its potential for addiction.

    "We need to ensure that users are informed of the potentially negative consequences of heavy ketamine use."

    Martin Barnes, chief executive of Drugscope, said the charity had already raised concerns about the drug and the study provided "further evidence" of the risk of using it.

    "It is important that people are aware of the harms associated with the drug and that treatment services are equipped to provide necessary support. "

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8362575.stm
  4. adzket
    swim was a very heavy user back threw mid 90's to erly 2000's swim found it deffinatly effected memory of names places and events. while working in clubs and clubbing them self's have seen first hand the rise in poularity of this drug. when swim started they where one of a few select people in very famous gay night club to start taking it using the story of michael alig origanal new york club kidz as insperation with a london twist on dress and performance art. plus hosting events. they where also frouned upon by many people for doin a dirty nasty drug. the horse tranquilizer! they may of well been shoting h on dance floor. not that many had bottle to ? swim to there face. over about 2 yrs any one important on gay club scean was doing it. aswell as free party scean where every man and there dog was doing it as it was much cheeper at those partys with supplys directly from goa. another yr straight underground club scean in peoples drug of choise. then slowly spreading till 2001 or 2002 when every body was doing a bump or two. now it is every where. even small town in country where swim now lives. atualy the price has gone back up compaired to what it feel to in 2003 but not to origional levels it is to pouler now to go back to those prices. before it geting graded at class c swim got done under missuse of medicine act for possesion of 8 grams. small mid week amount. swim had to pay a fine to get k back or give it up for distruction. swim gave it up as police lab had it for about 3 months. swim's memiory became attrous and still is swim used to have to write things down all the time or would forget them. even what they where ment to be going at times. never put it down to k use at the time. swim was useig lots of other drugs as well so could of been any thing. there use used to change all the time depending on what they where doing or where they where going. swim could leave it alone if needed to but would use again as soon as possible. mental addiction. swim did used to have random thoughts about life unervers and how they related to him and others but new this was drugs fucking with there mind so never aloud them to fully take hold by bluffing them self's they do same with parranoier by telling them self's it is just the drugs get over it people have no resion to stare at you there out having fun ect.. swim back then did not know the dangers asociated with ketamine use though they tried to find out but reserch had simply not been done. one of resions swim joined this site in fact. swim has since offen worried about its phsyical effects rather than mental. even with huge breaks from the drug some times a year or more swims tolerance has remained high and find it very hard to get full effects of drug. but then swim hugly missused it upto 1 lt at weekends thats about 50 -54 grams. swim recomends people to stick with bumps and not go onto huge lines as they start chasing the hole all the time while doing more and more not realising how bezare they are behaving. swims friend seriously thought the govenment where after them for knowlage they new from time in milertary how fuck is that and swim belived they had an alien garding them from harm again fucked. swims memorry and attension span are still rubish not as bad as at hight of use but there use of other drugs has hugly fallen to with them only clubbing for pleaser maybe 6-8 times a year instead of 12-20 club events a week not including ones they worked for or managed at there own club. they are also not shure if medication they are on is affecting memoriy and attension span at the moment or if side effect from yrs of polly drug use which started at 13 so they where doing the most drugs at 15-21 which is when swim's brain is developing lots. could be responsible for it. they took the time to educate them selfs on drugs while at school knowing they would come across them through work as swims parents used to run entertainment venus. though as a kid no one realy understands this is why swim beleves very much in education and not legislation.
    any ways rant over just glad this dr has taken the time over last 6 yrs swim knows of to take the time to look into this drug of ever gaining popularity.
    peace swinotadzket.
  5. chillinwill
    Clubbers Beware - New Study Links Ketamine to Paranoia, Memory Loss

    A new story paints a much darker picture of ketamine, commonly referred to as "Special K" among club users
    [IMGL="white"]http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/attachment.php?attachmentid=11684&stc=1&d=1258674384[/IMGL]
    The drug Ketamine was developed by Parke-Davis (today part of Pfizer) in 1962 and has played an important role in human and veterinary medicine. The drug has a variety of physiological effects on humans, significantly anesthetic (pain blocking), analgesic (pain relieving), and hallucinatory effects.

    Because of its hallucinatory effects, the drug also became a popular club drug among recreational users under the names "K", "Ket", "Special K", and "Vitamin K". Most of the illegal ketamine coming into the U.S. comes across the Mexican border, according to recent studies. The drug has risen greatly in popularity over the last decade and is taken by itself or in mixes with other drugs. One common mixture is Ecstasy (MDMA), Ketamine and other additives; names for these kind of mixes include "Strawberry" and "Sitting Duck".

    While the effects of recreational ketamine have remained mostly unknown, a new study by the University College London has linked the drug to memory problems and has raised concerns both about its legal and illegal uses. Previous studies had implicated the drug with kidney and bladder damage, but hadn't shown significant evidence of mental effects.

    The new study involved psychological tests being performed on 120 people, some of which were frequent users. Researchers found that the users had difficulty with memory-related chores, such as recalling names, conversations and patterns. While it was possible that the results were skewed by the use of other drugs (e.g. MDMA), there appeared to be a clear link between ketamine abuse and memory problems. The study helped reduce false positives based on other usage by splitting the participants into five groups -- those who used ketamine every day, recreational users who took the drug once or twice a month, former users, those who used other drugs, and people who did not take any drugs.

    Frequent users of the drug made as many as twice as many mistakes on the test, and a followup which took place a year later. The users' performance worsened from the initial study to the followup, indicating the drug was deteriorating brain function. The other groups, including those that used other drugs (which presumably included MDMA) did not show significant differences memory problems. Intriguingly, those on ketamine also showed growing signs of unusual beliefs or mild delusions, such as conspiracy theories in their psychological evaluations.

    The study also showed signs that the drug was addictive. Hair tests showed that users were taking twice the amount of ketamine they initially were, a year later. The need to increase the regularity or amount of drug dosing is a hallmark sign of addiction to a substance. Lead researcher Dr Celia Morgan comments, "Ketamine use is increasing faster than any other drug in the UK, particularly among young people, and has now become a mainstream club drug. However, many young people who use this drug may be largely unaware of its damaging properties and its potential for addiction. We need to ensure that users are informed of the potentially negative consequences of heavy ketamine use."

    Ketamine can be purchased illegally at lower prices, thanks to falling prices in the U.S., UK, and elsewhere. A gram is estimated to cost approximately £20 in the UK ($33), less than half the price of a gram of cocaine. With abuse on the rise, both the U.S. and UK have recently moved to class the drug as a controlled substance, making it a crime to purchase the drug without a prescription or to try to sell it outside the medical system. In the U.S. the United States Controlled Substance Act of 1999 classed it as a Schedule III drug -- the same class given to codeine/hydrocodone. In the UK it similar was made illegal for recreational use three years ago and classed as a Class C drug.

    Unfortunately, some patients legally rely on the drug for pain relief. The results raise greater questions about whether ketamine prescription is wise, though, versus alternatives.

    The new research was published in the advance copy of the Addiction journal, a psychological journal published on the behalf of the Society for the Study of Addiction.

    Jason Mick
    November 19, 2009
    Daily Tech
    http://www.dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=16868
  6. chillinwill
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