Re: A new paradigm for addiction therapy is needed
I have a BSc in Sociology and Economics and am a qualified recovery therapist/counsellor.
I'm currently working towards being registered with the British Association of Psychotherapists and Cousellors, so BSc Hons MBACP. It doesn't make any difference though. At the end of the day we're all just human.
I love Michel Foucault 15 October 1926 - 25 June 1984.
He was a french Philosopher and Postmodernist who wrote books, translated into English such as;
The Birth of the Asylum.
Madness; A History through time.
The Birth of the Clinic.
Basically modernism sets down ideals that we have reached a state within society which is highly developed, capitalist, advanced, institutionalised (Health, Education, Prisons are all institutions).
Post modernism looks at Paradigms, frameworks of knowledge through which we are able to conceive and view the world.
It looks at their fluidity, and change through time.
So my Post-Foucauldian (Post Foucault's death) discourse (narrative or 'story' that people agree on. eg. "Ask your Dr about Effexor XR today, it will cure depression")
analysis looked at depression through differing paradigms. It was 20,000 words and I don't know where it is , soz lol.
1600s - Lunatics were locked up in towers. A Scientific discourse hadn't been developed yet, so healthcare was looked at through the paradigm of 'the humours of the body' - bile, phlem, sputum, etc and conditions were treated accordingly.
There was a belief that if the humours of the body were out of balance then madness could occur.
1850 - The Birth of the Asylum. The Victorians in England, and also in America and the western world build massive mental asylums to lock away the 'insane', often because the parents of a child simply didnt like their unruly behaviour or they had slight anger issues. Often these people never left Victorian asylums, and treatment was largely through a religious paradigm. Vicars, Preists, Nuns ensured order and encouraged people to repent their sins and turn to god.
1950 - Scientific Discourse emerges, in order to view the body as a biological entity and take a view that mental illness or addiction was the result of a physical abnormality in the individual. ECT. Insulin Shock Treatment. Lobotomies. Then finally chlorperazine (Largactyl) became available. The first 'scientific' drug which controlled people not physically but bodily, through drugs for the first time. Asylums were still being built and used, but here the scientific discourse is being 'created'.
Dominant scientific discourse of using Barbiturates resulted in overdoses and terrible addiction problems.
1960 - Valium , the first blockbuster benzodiazepine was launched, a 'miracle' through that paradigm, and 'not addictive'
1970s - The addictive potential of benzodiazepines was known about, but they were still widely prescribed.
1989 - In the UK Margaret Thatcher announced the planned closure of the Asylums and a paradigm shift to 'care in the community' When a patient was exited from a Mental Asylum the bed was taken away to prevent others being admitted. Often people left after being institutionalised for so long with no money, job, home.
1989 - Blockbuster Drug 'Prozac' (Fluoxetine) was released by Eli Lilly and was a blockbuster drug worldwide. It even created a new field of science called Cosmetic Psychopharmacology, where Prozac was believed to make someone better than their 'natural' self'. No mention of suicide in under 25s yet......
You get the idea hopefully, I could go on and on and on but that's enough for me for now )
I hope it helps show you how dominant discourses change over time.
How many medicine adverts do you see on TV a month? Did you in the 60's?
Did you know that coca-cola used to contain coca leaves?
All paradigm shifts.
If you fancy an academic read....