1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.

Operation Paperclip: Nazi scientists helped U.S. test LSD on Soviet spies

  1. Phungushead
    Nazi scientists who produced chemical weapons for Adolf Hitler were hired by the United States to fight the Cold War, and helped U.S. intelligence test LSD and other interrogation techniques on captured Soviet spies, according to a book by U.S. journalist Annie Jacobsen published this week.

    "Under Operation Paperclip, which began in May of 1945, the scientists who helped the Third Reich wage war continued their weapons-related work for the U.S. government, developing rockets, chemical and biological weapons, aviation and space medicine (for enhancing military pilot and astronaut performance), and many other armaments at a feverish and paranoid pace that came to define the Cold War," writes Jacobsen in "Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program that Brought Nazi Scientists to America."

    Operation Paperclip was a postwar U.S. intelligence program the brought more than 1,600 German scientists to America under secret military contracts, she writes.

    The 21 men examined in the book were dedicated Nazis, and eight of them – including Walter Schreiber, the former surgeon general of the Third Reich who became the chief medical doctor of Camp King, a clandestine U.S. facility in the American zone of occupied Germany – worked side by side with Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler or Hermann Goring during the war, Jacobsen writes. Six stood trial at Nuremberg.

    They came to America, she writes, at the behest of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    "Operation Paperclip left behind a legacy of ballistic missiles, sarin gas cluster bombs, underground bunkers, space capsules, and weaponized bubonic plague," writes Jacobsen. "How did this happen, and what does this mean now? Does accomplishment cancel out past crimes? These are among the central questions in this dark and complicated tale."

    As part of Operation Paperclip, at least two Soviet spies captured by a Nazi spy ring were given LSD in a safe house in Oberursel, Germany, Jacobsen writes, in an excerpt posted on The Daily Beast.

    “Between 4 June 1952 and 18 June 1952, an IS&O [CIA Inspection and Security Office] team… applied Artichoke techniques to two operational cases in a safe house,” explains a memorandum about the U.S. Artichoke program on modifying behavior through covert means. “In the first case, light dosages of drugs coupled with hypnosis were used to induce a complete hypnotic trance,” states the document cited in the book, one of the few action memos on record that were not destroyed. “This trance was held for approximately one hour and forty minutes of interrogation with a subsequent total amnesia produced.”

    "The plan for the enhanced interrogation program was meant to be straightforward: drug the spies, interrogate the spies, and give them amnesia to make them forget," writes Jacobsen.

    Artichoke program administrator Richard Helms, the future director of the CIA, later said in an interview that America had a responsibility to test LSD.

    “We felt that it was our responsibility not to lag behind the Russians or the Chinese in this field, and the only way to find out what the risks were was to test things such as LSD and other drugs that could be used to control human behavior,” Helms told journalist David Frost in 1978. Other U.S. intelligence agencies, writes Jacobsen, were brought on board to help conduct these controversial interrogation experiments at Camp King.

    At the time, she writes, the CIA believed the Soviets were pursing mind control programs — supposedly a means of getting captured spies to talk — and the CIA wanted to know what it would be up against if the Russians got hold of its American spies.

    Some U.S. officials, writes Jacobsen, believed that by endorsing the Paperclip program, "they were accepting the lesser of two evils – that if America didn't recruit these scientists, the Soviet Communists surely would."

    February 13, 2014

    Image: Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS in Nazi Germany. Photo by AP.


  1. Phungushead
    Operation Paperclip: Nazi scientists in service of CIA

    [IMGL="white"]http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/attachment.php?attachmentid=37263&stc=1&d=1392278594[/IMGL] In aftermath of World War II, CIA recruited scientists of Nazi Germany to help develop psychedelic, mind-controlling drugs to be used in battle against Soviets. New book sheds light on Operation Paperclip.

    At a secret site in Germany, after World War II ended, Americans used the services of Nazi scientists to develop advanced techniques for the investigation of Soviet prisoners, including the use of "truth serum" (LSD) and mind controlling methods which they would use on prisoners.

    American journalist Annie Jacobsen gives an account of this story in her book "Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program that Brought Nazi Scientists to America", which was published this week.

    "Operation Paperclip" began at a secret scientific base on German soil and was pursued in the United States, where 1,600 of Germany's best scientific minds were moved along with their families – instead of being ostracized and tried for war crimes, they effortlessly slid into the American dream.

    The doctors and elite Nazi scientists helped the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the US intelligence system test the use of LSD and other investigative techniques that would help them extract information from the Soviet spies they had caught. The work took place in a German base named "Camp King", near Frankfurt. In 1945, the site served as a detention center for the German scientists, but within three years, the detainees were the Soviets, while the German scientists became collaborators with the Americans.

    An important asset for the Americans was Dr. Walter Schreiber, the Third Reich's former Surgeon General who was later moved to an Air Force base in the US. The services of former Deputy Surgeon General of the Third Reich Dr. Kurt Blome, who was involved in biological warfare research, were also used in the base.

    The motive behind the establishment of "Operation Paperclip" was a suspicion raised by top security and military American leadership's memos – that the US and the Soviet Union may enter a "total war" in 1952, a war that will include the use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. For that reason, the Americans decided to use every means at their disposal, including Adolf Hitler's top scientists and the chemical warfare they developed under the Third Reich, including sarin gas and biological weapons.

    LSD – Mind control weapon

    US scientists worked alongside Hitler's scientists in the Pennsylvania base on developing LSD, a hallucinogenic type of drug, which would become a potential weapon, employed to make enemy soldiers in the battlefield lose control without killing them.

    But the CIA soon showed an interest in using LSD outside of the battlefield, and in intelligence warfare. At the time, Americans were examining options of mind manipulation by using drugs, hypnosis and electric shock, in an attempt to match similar Soviet techniques of interrogation.

    The Americans the realized that LSD allows for a better understanding of changes in human behavior, as well as for performing cognitive manipulation to control people's minds.

    As a result, Operation Bluebird was launched, an operation meant to utilize drugs to brainwash Soviet spies so that they forget the content of their conversations with Americans.

    February 12, 2014

    Yitzhak Benhorin
    Ynet News
    Image: Cover of Annie Jacobsen's book (Photo: Book cover)
  2. Phungushead
    What Cold War CIA Interrogators Learned from the Nazis

    [IMGL="white"]http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/attachment.php?attachmentid=37264&stc=1&d=1392278810[/IMGL] At a secret black site in the years after the end of WWII, CIA and US intelligence operatives tested LSD and other interrogation techniques on captured Soviet spies—all with the help of former Nazi doctors. An excerpt from Annie Jacobsen’s Operation Paperclip, published this week.

    It was 1946 and World War II had ended less than one year before. In Top Secret memos being circulated in the elite ‘E’ ring of the Pentagon, the Joint Chiefs of Staff were preparing for ‘total war’ with the Soviets—to include atomic, chemical, and biological warfare. They even set an estimated start date of 1952. The Joint Chiefs believed that the U.S. could win this future war, but not for reasons that the general public knew about. Since war’s end, across the ruins of the Third Reich, U.S. military officers had been capturing and then hiring Hitler’s weapons makers, in a Top Secret program that would become known as Operation Paperclip. Soon, more than 1,600 of these men and their families would be living the American dream, right here in the United States. From these Nazi scientists, U.S. military and intelligence organizations culled knowledge of Hitler’s most menacing weapons including sarin gas and weaponized bubonic plague.

    As the Cold War progressed, the program expanded and got stranger still. In 1948, Operation Paperclip’s Brigadier General Charles E. Loucks, Chief of U.S. Chemical Warfare Plans in Europe, was working with Hitler’s former chemists when one of the scientists, Nobel Prize winner Richard Kuhn, shared with General Loucks information about a drug with military potential being developed by Swiss chemists. This drug, a hallucinogen, had astounding potential properties if successfully weaponized. In documents recently discovered at the U.S. Army Heritage Center in Pennsylvania, Loucks quickly became enamored with the idea that this drug could be used on the battlefield to “incapacitate not kill.” The drug was Lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD.

    It did not take long for the CIA to become interested and involved. Perhaps LSD could also be used for off-the-battlefield purposes, a means through which human behavior could be manipulated and controlled. In an offshoot of Operation Paperclip, the CIA teamed up with Army, Air Force and Naval Intelligence to run one of the most nefarious, classified, enhanced interrogation programs of the Cold War. The work took place inside a clandestine facility in the American zone of occupied Germany, called Camp King. The facility’s chief medical doctor was Operation Paperclip’s Dr. Walter Schreiber, the former Surgeon General of the Third Reich. When Dr. Schreiber was secretly brought to America—to work for the U.S. Air Force in Texas—his position was filled with another Paperclip asset, Dr. Kurt Blome, the former Deputy Surgeon General of the Third Reich and the man in charge of the Nazi’s program to weaponize bubonic plague. The activities that went on at Camp King between 1946 and the late 1950s have never been fully accounted for by either the Department of Defense or the CIA.

    Camp King was strategically located in the village of Oberursel, eleven miles northwest of the United States European Command (EUCOM) headquarters in Frankfurt. Officially the facility had three names: the U.S. Military Intelligence Service Center at Oberursel, the 7707th European Command Intelligence Center, and Camp King. In 1945, the place housed captured Nazis but by 1948 most of its prisoners were Soviet bloc spies. For more than a decade Camp King would function as a Cold War black site long before black sites were known as such—an ideal facility to develop enhanced interrogation techniques in part because it was “off-site” but mainly because of its access to Soviet prisoners.

    It was an international crisis in June of 1948 that gave Operation Paperclip momentum at Camp King. Early on the morning of June 24, the Soviets cut off all land and rail access to the American zone in Berlin, an action that would become known as the Berlin Blockade. “The Soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948 clearly indicated that the wartime alliance [between the Soviets and the United States] had dissolved,” explained CIA deputy director for operations Jack Downing. “Germany then became a new battlefield between east and west.”

    [IMGR="white"]http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/attachment.php?attachmentid=37265&stc=1&d=1392278810[/IMGR] At this time, the CIA believed the Soviets were pursing mind control programs—supposedly a means of getting captured spies to talk—and the Agency wanted to know what it would be up against if the Russians got hold of its American spies. Since the end of the war, the various U.S. military branches had developed advanced air, land and sea rescue programs, based in part by research conducted by Nazi doctors during the war. But the Soviets had also made great advances in rescue programs and this presented a serious, new concern for the Pentagon and the CIA. If a downed U.S. pilot or soldier was rescued and captured by the Russians, that person would almost certainly be subjected to unconventional Soviet interrogation techniques. In an attempt to determine what kinds of Soviet techniques might be used, a research program was set up at Camp King. Documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) reveal that the U.S. developed its post-war enhanced interrogation techniques here at Camp King, under the CIA code name Operation Bluebird.

    Initially, Bluebird was to be a so-called “defensive” program. Officers were instructed “to apply special methods of interrogation for the purpose of evaluation of Russian practices,” only. In other words, to merely mimic Soviet techniques. But it did not take long for the CIA to decide that the best defense is offense, and the Agency began developing enhanced interrogation techniques of its own. FOIA documents reveal that the CIA saw LSD as a potential, “truth serum.” What if its officers could drug captured Soviet spies, interrogate them using LSD, and somehow make them forget that they’d talked? Inside Camp King, the LSD program was expanded and given a new code name.

    “Bluebird was rechristened Artichoke,” writes John Marks, a former State Department official and authority on the CIA’s mind control programs. The goal of the Artichoke interrogation program, Marks explains, was “modifying behavior through covert means.” According to the program’s administrator, Richard Helms—the future director of the CIA—using drugs like LSD were a means to that end. “We felt that it was our responsibility not to lag behind the Russians or the Chinese in this field, and the only way to find out what the risks were was to test things such as LSD and other drugs that could be used to control human behavior,” Helms later told journalist David Frost, in an interview, in 1978. Soon, other U.S. intelligence agencies were brought on board to help conduct these controversial interrogation experiments at Camp King. As declassified dossiers reveal, with them they brought Nazi scientists from Operation Paperclip.

    Back in the United States, the CIA teamed up with the Army Chemical Corps at Camp Detrick, in Maryland, to conduct further research and development on the chemistry of mind-altering drugs. Scientists and field agents were culled from a pool of senior Army bacteriologists and chemists, then assigned to a unit called the Special Operations Division, a division of the CIA. The men worked inside a classified facility, designated Building No. 439, a one-story concrete-block building set among similar-looking buildings at Camp Detrick so as to blend in. Almost no one outside the Special Operations Division knew about the Top Secret work going on inside. One of these field agents was Dr. Harold Batchelor, the Army scientist in charge of consultations with Nazi doctor and former Deputy Surgeon General of the Third Reich, Dr. Kurt Blome. Another Special Operations Division agent was Dr. Frank Olson, a former army officer and bacteriologist turned agency operative whose sudden demise—by covert LSD poisoning—in 1953 would nearly bring down the CIA. Batchelor and Olson were assigned to the program at Camp King, where Dr. Blome was chief physician. Their assignment, according to documents obtained through the FOIA and interviews with Olson’s former partner, Norman Cournoyer, was to use unconventional interrogation techniques on Soviet prisoners, including dosing them with LSD.

    In April 1950, Frank Olson was issued a diplomatic passport. Olson was not a diplomat; the passport allowed him to carry items in a diplomatic pouch that would not be subject to searches by customs officials. Frank Olson began taking trips to Germany, flying to Frankfurt and making the short drive out to Camp King. In one of the rare, surviving official documents from the program, Deputy Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles sent a secret memo to Richard Helms and CIA Deputy Director for Plans Frank Wisner regarding the specific kinds of interrogation techniques that would be used. “In our conversation of 9 February 1951, I outlined to you the possibilities of augmenting the usual interrogation methods by the use of drugs, hypnosis, shock, etc., and emphasized the defensive aspects as well as the offensive opportunities in this field of applied medical science,” wrote Dulles. “The enclosed folder, ‘Interrogation Techniques,’ was prepared in my Medical Division to provide you with a suitable background.” Camp King was the perfect location to conduct these radical trials. Overseas locations were preferred for Artichoke interrogations, explained Dulles, since foreign governments “permitted certain activities which were not permitted by the United States government (i.e. anthrax etc.).”

    The next trip on record made by Frank Olson occurred on June 12, 1952. Frank Olson arrived at Frankfurt from the Hendon military airport in England and made the short drive west into Oberursel. There, Artichoke interrogation experiments were taking place at a safe house called Haus Waldorf. “Between 4 June 1952 and 18 June 1952, an IS&O [CIA Inspection and Security Office] team… applied Artichoke techniques to two operational cases in a safe house,” explains an Artichoke memorandum, written for CIA Director Dulles, and one of the few action memos on record not destroyed by Richard Helms when he was CIA director. The two individuals being interrogated at the Camp King safe house “could be classed as experienced, professional type agents and suspected of working for Soviet Intelligence.” These were Soviet spies captured by the Nazi spy ring, the Gehlen Organization, now being run by the CIA. “In the first case, light dosages of drugs coupled with hypnosis were used to induce a complete hypnotic trance,” the memo reveals. “This trance was held for approximately one hour and forty minutes of interrogation with a subsequent total amnesia produced.” The plan for the enhanced interrogation program was meant to be straightforward: drug the spies, interrogate the spies, and give them amnesia to make them forget. Instead, the program produced questionable results and evolved into one of the most notorious CIA programs of the Cold War, MKULTRA.

    LSD, the drug that induces paranoia and unpredictability and makes people see things that are really not there, would become its own strange allegory for the Cold War. Its potential use as a truth serum would also become a cautionary tale. One CIA report, declassified and shared with Congress decades later, in 1977, expressed Agency fears about Soviets plans to use LSD against Americans during the Cold War: “the Soviets purchased a large quantity of LSD-25 from the Sandoz [Pharmaceutical] Company [the only supplier of LSD at the time]… reputed to be sufficient for 50 million doses,” the report read. The CIA believed the Soviets might drug millions of Americans with LSD, through the U.S. water system, in a covert, psy-ops attack.

    Or so the CIA thought. A later analysis of the information revealed that the CIA analyst working on the report made a decimal point error while performing dosage calculations. The Soviets had in fact purchased enough LSD from Sandoz for a few thousand tests—a far cry from 50 million.

    It was a bizarre plan, in a foreign place, during a strange time. The Cold War had become a battlefield marked by doublespeak. Disguise, distortion, and deception were accepted as reality. Truth was promised in a serum. And Operation Paperclip, born of the ashes of World War II, was the inciting incident in this hall of mirrors. As it grew, it created monsters of its own.

    February 11, 2014

    Annie Jacobsen
    The Daily Beast
    Photo by Everett Collection
  3. Phungushead
    Army Ordered to Keep Cold War Drug-Test Subjects Up to Date

    [IMGL="white"]http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/attachment.php?attachmentid=37408&stc=1&d=1393084010[/IMGL] A federal judge has ordered the Army to track down soldiers who were subjected to secret medical experiments during the Cold War and warn them of any newly discovered health hazards they could face.

    In a ruling (PDF) entered Thursday in U.S. District Court in Oakland, Calif., Judge Claudia Wilken lifted a stay she had briefly imposed on her earlier ruling that the Army must keep soldiers who took part in the tests up to date. The government wanted the ruling to remain shelved while it pursued appeals.

    The experiments, many of them conducted as part of a program called Operation Paperclip, tested hundreds of chemical and biological agents — including LSD, the nerve gas sarin, mustard gas and amphetamines — on soldiers beginning in the early 1950s.

    President Richard Nixon ended the program in 1969, and all chemical testing on humans is believed to have ended in 1976.

    The issue isn't that the approximately 7,800 soldiers didn't know that they were being used in the experiments — all of them signed consent agreements, lawyers representing them in the class-action suit acknowledge. Instead, they argue, the Army abandoned the soldiers once the terms of their consent expired, generally after five years.

    But Wilken ruled in November (PDF) that the Army has an obligation to continue tracking the test subjects and to alert them to new information developed after 2006 about the effects of the agents they were given. The order she filed Thursday directs the Army to comply even though it's still appealing her decision.

    Government lawyers had argued that the cost of implementing the order — which they estimated at $1.8 million a year — would constitute an "irreparable harm."

    But Wilken wrote that that was an insignificant burden compared to the "irreversible health consequences" suffered by the soldiers.

    The government also argued that courts have no jurisdiction to assess the medical judgments of military scientists and that there is no constitutional right to notice or health care. Wilken sided with the government on some claims, removing the CIA and Attorney General Eric Holder from the suit.

    21 February 2014

    M. Alex Johnson
    NBC News
To make a comment simply sign up and become a member!