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Peru takes Colombia's place as world's biggest cocaine producer: US

By YIPMAN, Oct 30, 2011 | Updated: Oct 30, 2011 | | |
    Peru takes Colombia's place as world's biggest cocaine producer

    Colombia is no longer considered the world's largest producer of pure cocaine, having been surpassed by Peru, according to the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) of the United States.

    The information was released Wednesday in testimony before the U.S. Senate regarding U.S.-Andean security cooperation.

    The three major cocaine producing countries in the world are still Peru, Colombia and Bolivia, all of which are Andean nations, with Peru now thought to be the largest producer.

    The Peruvian President Ollanta Humala expressed his disappointment about the news at a press conference. "That is a record that, if it is true, should make us very sad because it is not something to be proud about," said the Peruvian leader.

    According to the report by the DEA, Colombia is still the world's largest cultivator of coca.

    Colombian statistics agency DANE released data relating to coca cultivation in Colombia Wednesday, and concluded that the land used for coca cultivation in the country has decreased by 62% in ten years. The figures were produced using data from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

    Friday, 21 October 2011 10:51
    Alice Boyd



  1. frog
    So what happens to all that excess coca?
    Well, this is really a kind of sticky piece of Information, which will be explained further.
    I have researched further and found this article, which basically explains the decrease in coca cultivation:

    Area of Colombian coca cultivation drops by 62% in 10 years

    Wednesday, 19 October 2011 06:23 Toni Peters

    The number of hectares of Colombian land used for coca cultivation has dropped by 62% from 402 acres in 2000 to 153 acres in 2010 according to preliminary figures from the Colombian statistics agency DANE.

    The number of hectares of harvested coca fell from 400 acres in 2000 to 166 acres in 2010, a drop of 59%. DANE produced these figures using data from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

    The proportion of GDP of illicit crops in relation to national GDP at current prices fell from 1.7% in 2000 to 0.4% in 2010. The biggest drop in this figure was registered between the 2002 and 2003 when the the proportion fell by 0.3 percentage points from 1.5% to 1.2%. There was no registered drop in this figure between 2008 and 2009 as the proportion remain static at 0.5%.

    In 2000 the GDP of illicit coca was valued at $1.873 billion but in 2010 this value had fallen to $1.196 billion, a reduction of 36%.

    The figures relating to coca cultivation are definitive for the years 2000-2008, provisional for the year 2009 and preliminary for the year 2010. Not included in the figures are the merchandising or associated capital flows because official data does not exist.

    The supply of cocaine hydrochloride has fallen substantially as a consequence of the reduction in the areas of cultivation, a decrease reflected in the exportation to the rest of the world.

    The methodology used to estimate the production of coca was divided in to processes, the agricultural phase with the production of cocaine base, poppy latex, marijuana and the industrial phase with the production of cocaine hydrochloride and heroin.

    Source: CR. Colombia Reports is the world's main English news source on Colombia.

    I also found an article, that informs:

    “Despite these impressive achievements,” Benson added, “Colombian criminal organizations are still responsible for a majority of the world’s supply of cocaine.”


    Under intense U.S. eradication policies in the 2000s, she said, coca production simply moved to Bolivia and Peru and there are still many groups involved in drug trafficking in Colombia.

    Source: Excerpt quotes from "Colombia: leader in coca and counter-narcotics"
    Medill School of Journalism, Washington reporting program

    So, they just moved the problem to other vicinities. This kind of of "moving problems" applies from a micro scale - city - to national and international scale.

    Also following article shows us the statistic diversity - marked in red colour - obtained by different sources, i.e. U.S. Goverment and UN/UNODC, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime:

    Wednesday, October 5, 2011
    Updated coca cultivation estimates

    (Note as of October 6: This post has been updated to reflect a U.S. estimate of 34,500 hectares of coca cultivation in 2010 in Bolivia, revealed in President Obama's September 15 determination (PDF) "decertifying" Bolivia for failure to cooperate in counter-drug efforts. Production in Bolivia remains flat, or slightly down, according to both the U.S. and UN estimates.)

    With the mid-September release of its report on Bolivia, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime has now completed its estimates of how much coca -- the plant used to make cocaine -- was under cultivation in South America in 2010.

    Here are the last 12 years of UNODC coca-growing estimates, measured in hectares (1 hectare is about 2 1/2 acres):


    The UN figures show a drop in coca-growing after 2002, then eight years of stasis: regional cultivation has remained within the range of 150,000-170,000 hectares per year. During this period, cultivation decreased in Colombia, while it increased in Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia. According to the UN, Peru may have eclipsed Colombia last year as the world's largest coca-growing nation.

    The U.S. government maintains a separate, and quite different, set of coca-growing estimates. These are published in the State Department's annual International Narcotics Control Strategy Reports. The U.S. government has not yet finalized its coca-growing estimates for 2010, though a June White House press release noted that "Between 2009 and 2010, the change in coca cultivation was not statistically significant" in Colombia.

    With 2010 incomplete, here are the last 12 years of U.S. coca-growing estimates:


    The U.S. government finds far more coca under cultivation in Colombia, and significantly less in Peru, than the UNODC does. The U.S. data show a 66,000-hectare gap between Colombia and Peru in 2009; it is unlikely that the 2010 U.S. estimates, when they become available, will join the UN in showing Peru as the region's number-one coca-growing country.

    The U.S. chart appears to show a jump in 2005; this is the result of a readjustment made after officials determined that they had been under-estimating the area of coca in Colombia.

    As it stands, though, the U.S. chart shows little fundamental change in coca cultivation amounts over the past decade. The 2009 estimates bear a striking resemblance to the estimates for 1999, the year before Plan Colombia began.

    The following chart combines the previous two, juxtaposing the U.S. and UN estimates.


    Plainly, the U.S. and UN estimates often fail to correspond -- a reminder that these coca statistics are, in the end, merely educated guesses. Both, though, seem to show some decrease in cultivation -- principally in Colombia -- after 2007, which was an unusually high year. 2007 was also the year in which the U.S. government funded the most aerial coca fumigation in Colombia. This herbicide-spraying program has since been reduced -- yet coca cultivation in Colombia has not increased at all.

    The two charts are also notable for their Bolivia estimates. Neither shows an explosion of coca cultivation after the 2005 election of coca federation leader Evo Morales to the Bolivian presidency. Coca has increased slowly under Morales -- continuing a trend that began several years earlier -- and the UN figures actually show Bolivian cultivation to be flat between 2008 and 2010.

    Finally, here are the U.S. and UN estimates of how much cocaine, in tons, was produced from all of this coca. Both charts are notable for the steadiness of supply. Also note how much lower the recent U.S. estimates of Colombian cocaine production are compared to the UN estimates. The recent U.S. estimates of Bolivian production, meanwhile, are much higher than the UN estimates.



    Source: Just the Facts - A civilian`s guide to U.S. defense and security assistance to Latin America and the Carribean
    By Adam Isacson at 10/05/2011 - 17:28
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