This was an interesting lecture as well, although I don't know much about such studies of plants, it seemed to be thoroughly done and had some interesting and important conclusions for research on Salvia Divinorum and other ethnobotanical study. They discovered that salvia divinorum had been incorrectly classified in several big ways, and that many assumptions about the behavior and history of the plant were in fact incorrect. An interesting aspect was the discovery of Salvia Venulosa, considered to be a match as a sister species to Sal. D. edit: The presenter/researcher for this presentation was Aaron A. Jenks.
This quote was used to start off the presentation which I really liked:
"The highest potential of psychedelics is the unification of scientific world view with the transcendental and the mystical." Albert Hofmann
Salvia Divinorum Genealogy
March 23, 2008 Basel
Aaron A. Jenks
-study of new world sages- plant relationships as basis for broader discussion of pharmacology, ethnobotany
Evolutionary History of Salvia D:
-Wasson 1962- noted it rarely flowers, and never sets seed in the field
-"Pipilzintzintl" an Aztec entheogen
-Use by Mazatecs
-Historically, wider use/range than previously thought
-Epling 1962- placed species
-Reisfield- field work in the 1980's- Hypothesized that Salvia Divinorum is a self-incompatible, inbreeding hybrid
-Valdes- declared it as NOT a cultigen- meaning it depends on humans for reproduction- 30% seeds viable
Initial Questions of the Study:
1. Is/was Salvia Divinorum correctly classified as Dusenostachys?
2. Is it a hybrid- what are the parents if so?
3. Is it a cultigen or can it naturally reproduce?
Salvia as polyphyletic (genus), calosphace(sp?) (subgenus), and monophyletic- one common ancestor
-3 Areas: Mexico, Andes, Antilles-
Gene region selection and sequencing:
-Chose to be selectively neutral: psbA-trnH and chloroplast (latter maternally selective)
-Sequencing process- Isolation, amplification (PCR), and then sequencing, alignment and parsimony analysis
-Molecular phylogeny of Calosphace (3 data sets, major lineages)
-Affinities and placements- same placement resulted within the different data sets
*Found 100% support for Salvia Venulosa as a sister species*
-found in NW Columbia- rare
-similar morphology Ethno. records of med. use? NO- not reported until 1935
-working on secondary comparisons
Study's answers to main questions posed:
-Evidence is against the idea of Salvia D. as a hybrid
-Same placement in different data sets, no additivity in biparentally inherited gene region
-NOT correctly classified as Dusenostachys
-Tubiflorae polyphyletic= artificial group
-Multiple long distance dispersals (at least seven known from Mexico to S. America)
-determined that while it does not reproduce well on its own, it is not a cultigen
-not self incompatible and not a recent hybrid
More questions raised:
-Divinorum/Venulosa group- originated in Mexico or Columbia? Idea that Divinorum selection of Venulosa transported North by the Aztecs?
-Is "pipilzintzintl" Salvia Divinorum? Better suited to reproduce elsewhere, so may have had a wider history of distribution than known, or originated elsewhere
-Sister species as possibly psychoactive in similar way?? Potential terpenoids in Salvia Venulosa??
No Salvinorin A but other terpenoids- further research needed on this