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I have a friend that used dilaudid twelve days ago and today got a drug patch unsuspectingly slapped on her arm. She has been told by the people in charge that people have tested positive for up to 45 days with the patch. Is this possible or is my friend being mislead? It seems a bit far-fetched but there is so little info out there about the sweat patch so she asked me to present her delimma to you fine folks on DF in hopes that someone will have any knowledge about this issue. On a related note, will hydromorphone show up as an opiate on the 5-panel patch test (morphine, codeine, heroin)? Thanks so much.
she she took dilauded 12 days ago and now she has a drug test patch on her arm?
how long does it stay on? i would suspect it could be more sensitive than say a cheek swab, mainly because the body slowly excretes everything through the skin, and if it's on there long enough it could get it. 12 days ago is usually a clean test, 45 days is for people who are regular users
Chemical analysis of human sweat may become an effective method of monitoring drug use over extended periods, according to NIDA researchers. Sweat, collected over several days or weeks in patches worn on the skin, is a sensitive indicator of heroin and cocaine use, according to Division of Intramural Research investigators at NIDA's Addiction Research Center in Baltimore.
The current standard test for evidence of drug use is urinalysis. But most drugs of abuse are cleared from urine within 2 to 3 days, meaning that urine screening must be performed two to three times a week to effectively monitor drug use on a continuing basis.
Refinements in tests that use hair or sweat may provide a reliable drug-use monitoring procedure that could be performed less frequently and with less invasion of privacy than urine tests. Drugs and their chemical byproducts of metabolism, called metabolites, are excreted into sweat and then bind to hair, where they can remain detectable for months. Human hair is now being used for some drug-use testing, although far less commonly than urine. Sweat testing is now being performed for cocaine, amphetamines, and opiates.
"It appears that chemical analysis using sweat patches worn continually for a week could provide effective drug-use surveillance," says Dr. Edward J. Cone, principal investigator and a research chemist at the ARC. The patch might serve as a useful monitoring device for people in drug abuse treatment or under court supervision or probation, he says. To prevent tampering to conceal drug use, the patch is specially designed so that once removed, it cannot be reattached to the skin.
Previous research has determined that residues of a number of drugs can be detected in human sweat, including alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, morphine, methadone, methamphetamine, and phencyclidine (PCP). In recent studies, researchers used a sweat patch, which resembles a common Band-Aid¨, to collect sweat from test participants. The subjects were residents of the ARC's clinical ward with a history of cocaine or heroin abuse. The patch, which collects accumulating sweat on an absorbent cellulose pad, is designed to be worn for several days, although test participants said that the patches could be worn for up to 4 weeks with minimal discomfort.
Sweat patches were removed after varying lengths of time and frozen until the accumulated sweat residue was assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a precise analytical process for separating and identifying chemical compounds. The sweat residues were analyzed for cocaine and heroin.
After cocaine was administered to test participants, the drug was detectable in sweat within 1 to 2 hours and concentrations peaked within 24 hours. Cocaine was detectable in trace amounts following doses as small as 1 milligram. Concentrations of cocaine in sweat increased in apparent relation to the amount of the dose. The lowest dose of cocaine (1 to 5 milligrams) detectable in sweat was below the dose needed to produce drug-induced effects and euphoria, Dr. Cone says. In addition to cocaine, smaller amounts of cocaine metabolites were also detected.
Heroin traces in sweat were also studied. After administration of the drug, the heroin metabolite 6-acetylmorphine appeared rapidly in the sweat, and levels continued to increase while levels of heroin decreased over time. This suggests that heroin was undergoing hydrolysis (fragmentation from heroin to the metabolite) in the sweat patch, according to the ARC researchers.
The investigators compared characteristics of drug testing using specimens of human urine, sweat, and hair. Costs of sweat testing have not yet been determined.
"Sweat testing is a relatively noninvasive way to obtain a cumu-lative estimate of drug use over several weeks," says Dr. Cone. But analyses of sweat and hair to detect drug use involve new technologies that require further research and development, he adds.
Cone, E.J.; Hillsgrove, M.J.; Jenkins, A.J.; Keenan, R.M.; and Darwin, W.D. Sweat testing for heroin, cocaine, and metabolites. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 18:298-305, 1994.
From NIDA NOTES, September/October, 1995
This is a newer way of testing that has been in the works for some time now to help avoid fake test results. As technology advances, electronic analysis of sweat is on the horizon and should be expected to be utilized in certain situations.