Magic Mushroomsare hallucinogenic fungi primarily of the genus Psilocybe. There are five primary substances found in these mushrooms which make them famous for their effects on the mind, including euphoria, lethargy, increased appreciation of music and colour, amplified emotions and visual and aural distortion. These substances are tryptamines, related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
[top]Introduction to Magic Mushrooms
are hallucinogenic fungi primarily of the genus Psilocybe. There are five primary substances found in these mushrooms which make them famous for their effects on the mind, including euphoria, lethargy, increased appreciation of music and colour, amplified emotions and visual and aural distortion. These substances are tryptamines, related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
[top]Using Magic Mushrooms
[top]Ways of Administration
Magic mushrooms can be consumed as is, be it dry or fresh, by simply chewing and swallowing like any other food. The longer they are chewed on, the better the absorption through the linings of the mouth and stomach.
An effective method is to let them sit in tea for approximately fifteen minutes after which the tea is drunk and the mushroom residue is eaten. Note that the mushrooms are not added to boiling water, but to the tea itself, as heat destroys many of the tryptamines. There are many different ways to consume magic mushrooms.
Dried Psilocybe cubensis.
Mushrooms can be eaten raw, put into food, made into a tea, and so on. However, heat destroys tryptamines including psilocybin and psilocin so a tea or hot food may decrease the potency.
Dried magic mushrooms are easier/safer to dose. In the process of drying, some psilocin, psilocybin and other psychedelic tryptamines are lost if heat is used. Psilocin is prone to oxidation and breaks down during the drying process at any temperature.
A good way of illustrating this is that you need (depending on what strain) 12 to 15 kg fresh magic mushrooms to get 1 kg dry magic mushrooms. In the case of Psilocybe cubensis you will need around 13 -14 kg fresh magic mushrooms for 1 kg dry. But the dry magic mushrooms are only 12 times stronger (if you dry it well and without heat), not 13-14 times. This is why fresh magic mushrooms are stronger per mushroom and dry is stronger per gram. Dry mushrooms are easier in dosage as a fresh mushrooms contains a variable amount of water between 85 and 93 percent, so somewhere between 7 and 15 percent of a fresh mushroom when you don't count water. Although rare, this means one fresh mushroom can be more than twice as potent as the next.
Magic mushrooms are not known for any culinary properties. In fact, most seem to hold them as being somewhat disgusting, if not nauseating. However this can be masked without much effort. The simplest method of avoiding this is to consume them with something that tastes pleasant, such as chocolate, or mixed into fruit juice or a milkshake. Alternatively, they can be ground up and put into empty capsules or gelcaps and swallowed. (see Magic Mushroom Recipes
and Cooking With Shrooms
* Note: Psilocybe tampanensis truffles in their dry state are extremely hard and can damage teeth. They should be soaked in warm water (or tea) for fifteen minutes prior to consumption.
| Species || Beginners dose fresh || Beginners dose dry || Full dose fresh || Full dose dry || Massive dose fresh || Massive dose dry |
|Psilocybe tampanensis * || 7.5 grams || 2.5 grams || 15 grams || 5 grams || 30 grams || 10 grams |
|Psilocybe cubensis || 15 grams || 1.25 grams || 30 grams || 2.5 grams || 45-60 grams || 3.75-5 grams |
|Panaeolus cyanescens || 5 grams || 0.4 grams || 10 grams || 0.8 grams || 15-20 grams || 1.2-1.6 grams |
|Psilocybe McKennaii || 5 grams || 0.4 grams || 20 grams || 1.6 grams || 30-40 grams || 2.4-3.2 grams |
|Psilocybe azurescens || 4 grams || 0.4 grams || 8 grams || 0.8 grams || 15 grams || 1.5 grams|
Anecdotal evidence suggests that smoking magic mushrooms does not work. The intense heat required to combust dried material would quickly destroy the psychoactive tryptamines. Some report a mild trippy effect when mixed with cannabis, but this may be just a placebo effect and nothing near the effect obtained through oral ingestion. In addition, the smoke is reported to taste disgusting.
Insufflating grams of dried mushrooms is probably not a good idea. While is it possible that some active compounds would be absorbed into your bloodstream, pain and the possibility of choking are realistic dangers.
[top]Consumption of pure psilocybin
Following an extraction
, psilocybin can be consumed in a relatively pure form through oral ingestion, insufflation et cetera.
|Psilocybin dosages || Dose in milligrams|
|Threshold || 2 - 4 mg|
|Light || 4 - 8 mg|
|Common || 6 - 20 mg|
|Strong || 20 - 40 mg|
|Heavy || 35+ mg|
[top]Effects of Magic Mushrooms
[top]Combinations with Magic Mushrooms
Deadens the effects of tripping; increase in nausea; can easily provoke risky and dangerous behaviour. Alcohol was involved in the incidents which led to the prohibition of mushrooms in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Generally not recommended.
Increased unpredictability; energising; paranoia usually increased; comedown may be particularly unpleasant.
Can be used to relieve anxiety and arrest panic attacks during a bad trip, but can also dull positive experiences.
Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids
Heightens peak of trip, intensifies visuals, can ease comedown and bring back effects. Paranoia-inducing effects of cannabis can cause bad trips.
Probably no physical dangers, similar to amphetamines. Increased heart rate could induce a bad trip if the user thinks they'll have a heart attack or stroke from the tachycardia and increased blood pressure.
No reported problems. Users report simultaneous mushroom and ketamine effects.
D-Lysergic acid diethylamide
LSD activates the 5-HT2A receptor and is cross tolerant with psilocin. Like with mescaline, some report trips unlike either substances individually and intense, unique experiences.
Mescaline also acts on the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor and is cross-tolerant with psilocin. Some have reported this combination to be enjoyable, with the gentleless of the mescaline experience negating any anxiety-inducing effects of mushrooms and more obvious visuals.
No dangers if MDMA's safety limits are adhered to. May reduce chance of a bad trip due to MDMA's tendency to induce happiness and euphoria.
[top]Different Uses for Magic Mushrooms
Cluster headache is a neurological condition which prominently features excruciatingly painful headaches occuring in "cycles" followed by periods of remission. Attacks last anywhere from fifteen minutes to three hours and can happen multiple times daily - the pain is often debilitating or crippling. Psilocybin and other substances such as LSD are the subject of much anecdotal evidence suggesting that they can help cluster headache sufferers by aborting a headache cycle and increasing remission period length.
There is also evidence that psilocybin and other hallucinogens like LSD, salvinorin A and so on can be useful in therapy for those suffering from depression by improving mood and a person's overall outlook on life.
[top]Obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms are found to be eased by administration of magic mushrooms.
Over thousands of years, people have used magic mushrooms in for the purposes of gaining insight and a new perspective on a troubling matter. They can create profound experiences of understanding and the feeling of becoming one with the universe at high doses, which can lead to life-changing epiphanies.
[top]Pharmacology of Magic Mushrooms
The mushrooms dealt with here are distinct from those of the Amanita genus, whose psychoactive constituents are muscimol and ibotenic acid.
Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, C12
O) is responsible for most psychoactive effects in the majority of psychoactive mushroom species. It acts by interaction with neurotransmitter receptors on nerve cells in the brain where it mimicks the action of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine). Specifically, psilocin is a post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptor agonist.
Psilocybin (O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, C12
P) is usually referred to as being the main psychoactive compund in magic mushrooms. It is thought by some to be dephosphorylated into psilocin upon consumption, acting as a prodrug. The following three compounds are N
-methyl analogues of psilocybin.
Baeocystin (O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, C11
P) is a demethylated derivative of psilocybin, first isolated from the species Psilocybe baeocystis.
Norbaeocystin (O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-tryptamine, C10
P) is a minor compound and demethylated analogue of baeocystin. Its activity is undetermined.
Aeruginascin (O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine, C13
P) is a indoleamine derivative which occurs naturally only within the mushroom Inocybe aeruginascens. It is the N
-trimethyl analogue of psilocybin. It is closely related to the frog skin toxin bufotenine (5-hydroxy-dimethyltryptamine), a potent 5-HT3 receptor agonist, and has been found exclusively in Inocybe aeruginascens so far.
[top]Chemistry of Magic Mushrooms
[top]The Dangers of Magic Mushrooms
Magic mushrooms are remarkably safe. They present no physical dangers but there is a degree of psychological risk which can be minimised through proper preparation of oneself. It must be noted, however, that they are not for recreational use and must be respected.
[top]Physical Health Risks
The therapeutic index of psilocybin is 641. This is the ratio between the LD50 (lethal dose in 50% of subjects) and the ED50 (effective or therapeutic dose in 50% of subjects), meaning that the LD50 is 641 times higher than the ED50.
Deaths caused by acute poisoning by magic mushrooms have not been reported in medical literature. The intravenous LD50 of psilocybin in rats is 260mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram body weight). While this does not translate directly to humans and the lethal dose of psilocybin in humans is not known (also, humans will typically ingest mushrooms orally instead of intravenously injecting psilocybin), this indicates that psilocybin is of a very low toxicity and that a lethal overdose of magic mushrooms is unimaginable.
While hunting for mushrooms in the wild, great care must be taken to not confuse poisonous mushrooms for psychoactive ones. Accidental poisonings by inexperienced foragers are common and some mushroom poisonings can cause a slow, agonising death.
Hypholoma fasciculare or Sulphur Tuft
is a common poisonous mushroom which grows abundantly in temperate woodland regions such as northern Europe and North America. It is yellow-brown, has a brown spore print and grows on dead organic matter like many Psilocybe
species. Poisoning can result in diarrhoea, vomiting and seizures.
There have been several deaths reported following consumption of magic mushrooms. The link between mushrooms and some of these deaths has been hotly contested.
Brian McCracken, 31, leapt through a window in his flat to his death in 2005 after consuming magic mushrooms and allegedly becoming panicky.
Colm Hodkinson's death resulted in the immediate prohibition of psilocybin mushrooms in Ireland in 2006, which were previously available for sale in their raw, unprocessed form. This followed the UK's 2005 ban. Colm jumped from a balcony in Dún Laoghaire after consuming three mushrooms. He was reported to have been consuming alcohol and cannabis also. (Go to the related thread
Calls for a re-evaluation of the law on psilocybin mushrooms grew after Gaelle Caroff, a seventeen-year-old French girl who had previously been suffering psychological problems, jumped from a building after eating magic mushrooms during a school trip to Amsterdam. The Dutch parliament subsequently voted to ban fresh magic mushrooms. Dried mushrooms were previously illegal. Go to the related thread
An eighteen-year-old man jumped from a window on August 1st 2008 after misuse of magic mushrooms. He was badly injured and later died as a result in hospital. (Go to the related thread
[top]Mental Health Risks
The infamous "bad trip" is simply an experience with a hallucinogen that the person perceives to be unpleasant or negative. They are commonly characterised as being disturbing in nature, however a bad trip can be as simple as the one having the experience feeling down or sad. Bad trips are entirely subjective - one person may find the patterns on a carpet morphing into one another to be hilarious whereas someone else may find it frightening. Susceptibility to a negative experience depends entirely on the personality and frame of mind of the one having the experience. Bad trips can sometimes be traumatising and on occasion can cause hidden mental disorders to emerge in those who were already susceptible. Common results of a bad trip include paranoia, fear, panic attacks, depression and inability to sleep following the experience. The risk of a bad trip can be reduced by having the correct set and setting. Some have theorised that bad trips are internal conflicts within the user's psyche which emerge, forcing the person to deal with the problem and to engage in a self-healing process. There are cases, however, when attempting to help someone out of a difficult experience is absolutely necessary.
It must be noted, however, that bad trips are not necessarily confined to use of hallucinogens - substances such as alcohol are also known to cause profoundly negative psychological experiences.
Methods of making a trip pleasant again or easing the negative effects include reassuring the tripper that they are safe, that the effects will soon wear off, changing the environment to something soothing and sedation through the use of benzodiazepines such as lorazepam.
Psychological damage is the most significant danger from ingesting magic mushrooms. Hallucinogens can occasionally trigger latent and underlying mental disorders such as psychosis. As such, they should only be taken if the user is mentally healthy (no history of schizophrenia or psychosis) and in a safe environment. If these precautions are taken, the risk is minimised, but still significant to warrant solely responsible use and caution. (See: indirect deaths).
[top]Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)
HPPD, also known as "flashbacks", comprises visual distortions reminiscent of a psychedelic experience, such as "trails", colours, lights appearing more radiant and so on. Prevalence of HPPD among psychedelic users is unknown, but can be estimated to be around 4%.
The active compounds in mushrooms - like most psychedelics - are not psychologically or physically addictive. Tolerance builds rapidly and users must wait at least several days between doses to experience the full effect. Additionally, the experience is typically quite taxing on the mind and body, thus regular use is rarely desirable. Psilocin is cross-tolerant with other serotonergic agonists such as LSD, mescaline and 2C-B, although when taken simultaneously they may produce synergistic effects. Cessation of regular use will not produce withdrawal symptoms.
[top]Growing Magic Mushrooms
Various methods have been developped for growing mushrooms. However, those methods only applies to saprophytic mushrooms, for which one can artificially provide a source of nutrients.
Note that some psychoactive species are not saprophytic thus cannot be grown by the means given below. The typical example is Amanita Muscaria
which is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom.
Mushrooms are typically cultivated in a controlled, sterile environment on a nutritious substrate. There are many methods
for this, all of which can be found online.
See Psilocybe Fanaticus Tek
This is the easiest method developped to grow magic mushrooms. The costs are the lowest.
Step 1: Mix water, vermiculite, brown rice flour in a bowl.
Step 2: Fill jars with mixture.
Step 3: Pressure cook jars to sterilise them.
Step 4: Inject spores into jars in a sterile environment.
Step 5: Wait three weeks then place colonised cakes into terrarium.
Step 6: Maintain >95% humidity and fresh air exchange in terrarium.
Step 7: Harvest fruits when veil has torn.
The casing technique can provide much higher and consistent yields than the PF tek, but requires more equipment. The method is summarized as below :
The mushroom is allowed to colonize some sterilized grain (usually rye, but also wild bird seed; see
, Wild Bird Seed Tek
The colonized substrate is then placed in some container, and covered with a casing substrate (a mixture of coco coir, vermiculite, oyster shell and crushed lime in various proportions).
The containers are left in a dark, humid environment in order to let the mycellium colonize the casing substrate (it usually takes less than 2 weeks).
The containers are then open and exposed to light.
The casing substrate is inert and serves as a source of water for the sporocarp (the "mushroom") growth and as a protection for contaminants.
Outdoor growing provide lower yields than casing, but requires much less attention and care than casing. Moreover, an outdoor settlement can provide mushrooms for many years.
Outdoor growing is not available to all species, and some species cannot be grown (satisfactorily) by other means than outdoors (P. Azurescens).
The point of the method is to colonize a wood substrate by the means of spawn substrate : grain, dowels (small cylinders of wood), PF jars, etc.
The substrate can be a bed of wood chips, or a log of wood.
Here's a list of suitable wood essences for P. Azurescens growth :
- To a lower extent : hardwoods
[top]Cultivation on "bale of"
This method provides good yields and big sporocarps. The method consists in colonizing a bale of straw (may be mixed with other things like horse manure) with precolonized grain. The bale can be left outdoors or in a specific chamber for sporocarp growth.
This technique require some attention to avoid contamination and to maintain a specific level of humidity in the bale : too much brings contaminations, not enough kills the mycellium.
This method is the method commonly used by biologists to grow bacteria and fungi. It doesn't allow for sporocarp production. It is used to provide a good source of definite stain of mycellium for colonization of grain or liquid cultivation.
Liquid cultivation allows for the spreading of a mycellium stain prior to colonization of grain or PF jars. The lifetime of mycellium in a liquid culture is lower than on agar media due to the lower amount of nutrients, and the higher risk of contamination.
[To be verified : is it possible to germinate spores in liquid media ?]
The liquid substrate is generally made of honey and water, mixed with other nutrients.
This method is viable for massive productions, where one can use some sort of gun to quickly inject the liquid in many grain bags or PF jars.
In Vitro Tek
In vitro growing is useful for those who cannot use a terrarium.
[top]Sterility and contaminants
It is important to remember that no matter which technique is used for growing, sterility is always of the utmost importance. Substrates should be sterilised in a pressure cooker prior to inoculation and sterile technique (such as the use of disinfectant and sterile surgical gloves) adhered to at all times. There are billions of microscopic organisms in the air, on surfaces and on skin and hair that will do their best to consume the mushroom's substrate and the mycelium itself.
Mould (or mold)is the biggest problem for mushroom cultivators. While mushroom mycelium is a form of mould, the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma are particularly problematic as their spores are ubiquitous and they are extremely aggressive. Not only that, but many of their species produce mycotoxins and are harmful to health. Many moulds have a distinctive smell which can indicate contamination. Any form of discolouration should be suspect, particularly fuzzy green, blue and red colours.
However, mycelium and mushrooms may bruise green-blue when damaged or exposed to air due to the oxidation of psilocin, so it is important to differentiate between mould and bruising. If rubbed, bruising will not come off, but mould will. This is because the distinctive colour of the mould is actually its spores, which are easily removable.
Green mould contamination
in PF Tek jar.
Cobweb mould is a nuisance particularly for growing methods which use casing. This organism is grey-white and strandy, somewhat resembling a spider's web, but it can be easily confused for mushroom mycelium by the untrained eye. It grows extremely quickly and can consume an entire substrate in a matter of days.
[top]Species of Magic Mushrooms
aka Copelandia cyanescens
Potent. Most popular psilocybin mushroom not of the genus Psilocybe.
Contains psilocybin, serotonin and urea. Commonly cultivated indoors.
Native to tropical and neotropical climates.
Considered by some to be the most potent psilocybin mushroom in the world.
Cultivated both indoors and outdoors.
Native to moderate climates.
Medium potency. Most commonly cultivated psychedelic mushroom.
Native to warm, humid climates.
High potency. Not cultivated indoors.
Native to moderate climates.
When a mushroom tests positive for all of these characteristics, it may
be a magic mushroom.
- Blue-green bruising when damaged.
- Brown/purple spore print.
- Relatively small, brownish fruiting body.
Ideally a mushroom should meet the characteristics of a species which has already been identified as safe for consumption. This should be confirmed by an expert mycologist. Safe species have poisonous lookalikes
[top]List of species
This is a simple list of known species of fungi containing psychoactive tryptamines and will need to be expanded. You can help here: Psilocybin Mushroom Species Index
|Galerina steglichii||Gerronema solidipes||Gymnopilus aeruginosus, Gymnopilus braendlei, Gymnopilus intermedius, Gymnopilus junonius, Gymnopilus lateritius, Gymnopilus liquiritiae, Gymnopilus luteofolius, Gymnopilus luteoviridis, Gymnopilus luteus, Gymnopilus purpuratus, Gymnopilus sapineus, Gymnopilus subpurpuratus, Gymnopilus validipes, Gymnopilus viridans||Hypholoma gigasporum, Hypholoma guzmanii, Hypholoma naematoliforme, Hypholoma neocaledonicum, Hypholoma popperianum, Hypholoma rhombispora|
|Inocybe aeruginascens, Inocybe coelestium, Inocybe corydalina var. corydalina, Inocybe corydalina var. erinaceomorpha, Inocybe haemacta, Inocybe tricolor||Mycena cyanorrhiza||Panaeolus africanus, Panaeolus castaneifolius, Panaeolus cyanescens (aka Copelandia Cyanescens), Panaeolus fimicola, Panaeolus microsporus, Panaeolus moellerianus, Panaeolus olivaceus, Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus, Panaeolus retirugis, Panaeolus rubricaulis, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, Panaeolus subbalteatus, Panaeolus venezolanus||Pluteus cyanopuz, Pluteus glaucus, Pluteus nigroviridis, Pluteus salicinus, Pluteus villosus|
|Psilocybe acutipilea, Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata, Psilocybe antioquiensis, Psilocybe atlantis, Psilocybe aquamarina, Psilocybe arcana, Psilocybe argentipes, Psilocybe armandii, Psilocybe aucklandii, Psilocybe australiana, Psilocybe aztecorum, Psilocybe aztecorum, Psilocybe azurescens, Psilocybe baeocystis, Psilocybe banderillensis, Psilocybe barrerae, Psilocybe bohemica, Psilocybe brasiliensis, Psilocybe brunneocystidiata, Psilocybe caeruleoannulata, Psilocybe caerulescens var. caerulescens, Psilocybe caerulescens var. ombrophila, Psilocybe caerulipes, Psilocybe carbonaria, Psilocybe chiapanensis,Psilocybe collybioides, Psilocybe columbiana, Psilocybe cordispora, Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa, Psilocybe dumontii, Psilocybe eucalypta Psilocybe fagicola var. fagicola, Psilocybe fagicola var. mesocystidiata, Psilocybe farinacea, Psilocybe fimetaria, Psilocybe fuliginosa, Psilocybe furtadoana, Psilocybe galindoi, Psilocybe goniospora, Psilocybe graveolens, Psilocybe guatapensi, Psilocybe guilartensis, Psilocybe heimii, Psilocybe heliconiae, Psilocybe herrerae, Psilocybe hispanica, Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. hoogshagenii, Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. convexa, Psilocybe inconspicua, Psilocybe indica, Psilocybe isabelae, Psilocybe jacobsii, Psilocybe jaliscana, Psilocybe kumaenorum, Psilocybe laurae, Psilocybe lazoi, Psilocybe liniformans var. liniformans, Psilocybe liniformans var. americana, Psilocybe mairei, Psilocybe makarorae, Psilocybe mammillata, Psilocybe meridensis, Psilocybe mexicana, Psilocybe moravica, Psilocybe moravica var. macrospora, Psilocybe moseri, Psilocybe muliercula, Psilocybe natalensis, Psilocybe natarajanii, Psilocybe ochreata, Psilocybe papuana, Psilocybe paulensis, Psilocybe pelliculosa, Psilocybe pericystis, Psilocybe pintonii, Psilocybe pleurocystidiosa, Psilocybe plutonia, Psilocybe portoricensis, Psilocybe pseudoaztecorum, Psilocybe puberula, Psilocybe quebecensis, Psilocybe ramulosa, Psilocybe rostrata, Psilocybe rzedowskii, Psilocybe samuiensis, Psilocybe sanctorum, Psilocybe schultesii, Psilocybe semiinconspicua, Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe septentrionalis, Psilocybe serbica, Psilocybe sierrae, Psilocybe silvatica, Psilocybe singeri, Psilocybe strictipes, Psilocybe stuntzii, Psilocybe subacutipilea, Psilocybe subaeruginascens var. subaeruginascens, Psilocybe subaeruginosa, Psilocybe subcaerulipes, Psilocybe subcubensis, Psilocybe subtropicalis, Psilocybe subyungensis, Psilocybe subzapotecorum, Psilocybe tampanensis, Psilocybe tasmaniana, Psilocybe uruguayensis, Psilocybe uxpanapensis, Psilocybe venenata, Psilocybe verae-crucis, Psilocybe villarrealiae, Psilocybe wassoniorum, Psilocybe weilii, Psilocybe weldenii, Psilocybe wrightii, Psilocybe xalapensis, Psilocybe yungensis, Psilocybe zapotecorum|
|Weraroa novae-zelandiae||Weraroa novae-zelandiae|
[top]Legal Status of Magic Mushrooms
Cultivation Illegal in all states except New Mexico, where the appeals court ruled, on June 15, 2005, that cultivating psilocybin mushrooms for personal use is not manufacture of a controlled substance.
Possession Psilocybin and psilocin are DEA Schedule I substances, so possession is illegal under federal law, except in Florida, where the Supreme Court ruled in 1978 that possession of wild specimens is not illegal. Intent to consume was not addressed. Possession of spores is illegal in Georgia, Idaho and California (for California, only if imported from outside the state and intented for cultivation). Researchers and their subjects are granted exemption subject to scrutiny by the Drugs Enforcement Administration.
Sale is illegal.
Cultivation Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005.
Possession Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005. (Illegal whatever form they are in, whether raw or prepared, including when packaged for sale.)
Sale Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005. (Illegal whatever form they are in, whether raw or prepared, including when packaged for sale.)
Cultivation illegal if for the purpose of extracting a narcotic substance
Possession & Sale not legally controlled, but the judge may choose to convict for “attempt to commit a drug offence” depending on the motive.
Cultivation Specifically prohibited by the criminal law of 24 February 1921
Possession Specifically prohibited by the Royal Decree of 22/1/1998
Sale Specifically prohibited (as is offer for sale) by the Royal Decree of 22/1/1998
Cultivation ‘Mushrooms’ as such not controlled, might be treated as psilocybin/psilocin (prohibited by the Penal Code, s. 187)
Possession Might be treated as psilocybin/psilocin (prohibited by the Penal Code – possession in the quantity ‘greater than small’, s. 187a)
Sale Specifically prohibited by s.15 of the Act on Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances (No. 167/1998 Coll.), but no penalty. May be treated as psilocybin/psilocin, or “promotion of drug use” (any addictive substance other than alcohol)
Cultivation Prohibited by Law 29/77 which prohibits the cultivation of any plant or product from which such substances (class A controlled substances) may be extracted.
Possession Treated as psilocin and psilocybin-prohibited by Law 29/77
Sale Treated as psilocin and psilocybin-prohibited by Law 29/77
Cultivation Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993
Possession Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993
Sale Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993
Cultivation Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication
Possession Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication
Sale Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication
Cultivation Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
Possession Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
Sale Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
Cultivation Prohibited by law 1729/87 (cultivation of any plant from which narcotic substances are produced)
Possession May be treated as psilocin
Sale May be treated as psilocin
Cultivation Illegal if cultivated
Possession Specifically prohibited under Misuse of Drugs Act
Sale Specifically prohibited under Misuse of Drugs Act
Cultivation Specifically prohibited under art.26 of DPR 309/90
Possession Specifically listed under Table I of the amended drug law 2006.
Sale Specifically listed under Table I of the amended drug law 2006.
Cultivation Illegal under S. 256 of the Penal Code if a repeated offence
Possession Treated as possession of a narcotic substance
Sale Treated as sale of a narcotic substance
Cultivation Illegal under Art. 265 of the Penal Code: Cultivating large amount of poppies, cannabis or any other plants included in the list of narcotic or psychotropic substances is prohibited.
Possession No specific prohibition.
IlIegal under Art. 44 Code of Administrative Offences.
Illegal under Art. 259/260 of the Penal Code; Treated as possession of a narcotic or psychotropic substances.
Sale No specific prohibition.
Illegal under Art. 260 of the Penal Code; Treated as sale of a narcotic or psychotropic substance.
Cultivation Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin
Possession Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin
Sale Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin
Cultivation Illegal under Art. 282 of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.
Possession Illegal under Art. 282 of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.
Sale Illegal under Art. 282/A of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.
Cultivation Not controlled
Possession Only prepared mushrooms are specifically prohibited under the Opium Act.
Sale Only prepared mushrooms are specifically prohibited under the Opium Act.
Cultivation Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.
Possession Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.
Sale Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.
Cultivation Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction
Possession Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction
Sale Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction
Cultivation Treated as psilocin
Possession Treated as psilocin
Sale Treated as psilocin
Cultivation Treated as psilocin.
Possession Treated as psilocin.
Sale Treated as psilocin.
Cultivation Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).
Possession Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).
Sale Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).
Cultivation According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.
Cultivation of narcotic drugs is punishable according to the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64).
Possession According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.
Sale According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.
Cultivation Counts as manufacture of illegal drugs.
Possession & Sale Illegal under the Criminal Code Act of 1995 (CCA).
Cultivation Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances but mushrooms are not illegal.
Possession Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances but mushrooms are not illegal.
Cultivation Treated as a narcotics offence, with severity according to the quantity.
Possession Treated as a narcotics offence with severity according to the quantity.
Sale Treated as a narcotics offence with severity according to the quantity.
Cultivation, Possession & Sale Psilocybin is a controlled substance and the Hong Kong Narcotics Bureau considers psilocybin-containing mushrooms to be controlled under Schedule I, Part I, of the Dangerous Drug Ordinance.
Illegal as of June 2002, Narcotic and Psychotropic Drug Control Law.
Cultivation Psilocin and psilocybin are prohibited under the Ley General de Salud of 1984. Presumably, this also prohibits production. Wild occurence of does not constitute production.
Possession Prohibited, but rarely enforced against indigenous populations.
Sale Presumably prohibited.
[top]History of Magic Mushrooms
Magic mushrooms have been used for thousands of years by humans.
Ancient paintings dating back to 5000 BC and relating to mushrooms have been found in Algeria. As early as 1000 - 500 BC, Central and South American peoples were carving stone mushrooms or statues depicting figures under the caps of mushrooms.
The Mesoamerican culture of the Mixtec worshipped multiple deities and gods, one of whom, Piltzintecuhtli, was the god of natural hallucinogens including mushrooms.
The Aztec people had their own god of hallucinogenic plants, Xochipilli. Teonanácatl, or 'wondrous mushroom', was used at holy ceremonies along with other substances such as salvia divinorum (salvinorin A), morning glory seeds (lysergic acid amide) and Peyote (mescaline).
European conquest of Central America at the hands of Hernándo Cortés led to the prohibition of non-alcoholic psychoactives and the use of psilocybin mushrooms became an underground activity.
At present, hallucinogenic mushroom use has been reported among a number of groups spanning from central Mexico to Oaxaca, including groups of Nahua, Mixtecs, Mixe, Mazatecs, Zapotecs, and others. There has not, however, been any confirmed observations of hallucinogenic mushroom use among the Maya peoples, either in the pre-Columbian or post-Contact eras.
The first mentioning of hallucinogenic mushrooms in the Western medicinal literature appeared in the London Medical and Physical Journal in 1799: a man had served Psilocybe semilanceata mushrooms that he had picked for breakfast in London's Green Park to his family. The doctor who treated them later described how the youngest child "was attacked with fits of immoderate laughter, nor could the threats of his father or mother refrain him."
In 1955, Valentina and R. Gordon Wasson became the first Westerners to actively participate in an indigenous mushroom ceremony. The Wassons did much to publicize their discovery, even publishing an article on their experiences in Life in 1957. In 1956, Roger Heim identified the hallucinogenic mushroom that the Wassons had brought back from Mexico as Psilocybe and in 1958, Dr. Albert Hofmann became the first person to isolate psilocin and psilocybin. Hofmann was also responsible for the discovery and first ever synthesis of LSD.
Inspired by the Wassons' Life in 1960, he and article, Timothy Leary traveled to Mexico to experience hallucinogenic mushrooms firsthand. Upon returning to Harvard, Richard Alpert started the Harvard Psilocybin Project, promoting psychological and religious study of psilocybin and other hallucinogenic drugs. After Leary and Alpert were dismissed by Harvard in 1963, they turned their attention toward evangelizing the psychedelic experience to the nascent hippie counterculture.
The popularization of entheogens by Wasson, Leary, and others has led to an explosion in the use of hallucinogenic Psilocybe throughout the world. By the early 1970s, a number of psychoactive Psilocybe species were described from temperate North America, Europe, and Asia and were widely collected. Books describing methods of cultivating Psilocybe cubensis in large quantities were also published, as well as hundreds of articles and tutorials distributed on the Internet. The relatively easy availability of hallucinogenic mushrooms from wild and cultivated sources has made it among the most widely used of the hallucinogenic drugs.
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