(4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC) is a research chemical
drug of the beta-ketone
family, first reported in Israel during the mid-2000's. It is a substituted cathinone and structurally related to both methcathinone
. It is usually taken orally or insufflated with a typical active oral dose ranging from 100 - 250mg. It has euphoric and stimulant properties. A boom in the popularity of this chemical as a recreational drug
across the UK, Republic of Ireland and mainland Europe during 2009 attracted substantial media and political interest, and in many nations resulted in possession and distribution of mephedrone being criminalized.
Mephedrone (1-(4-methylphenyl)-2-methylaminopropan-1-one) is a phenethylamine, structurally comparable to cathinone ((S)-2-amino-1-phenyl-1-propanone) and methylone
((±) 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-one). The name "mephedrone" was logical (methyl-ephedrone, ephedrone being a name for methcathinone) and probably not just coined to resemble "methylone". While MCat is a name for MethCathinone, the media often mislabels Mephedrone as such. Very little is known about the pharmacology or toxicity of mephedrone, as no studies have been published that establish such characteristics. We’re currently awaiting access to a recently-conducted study that may elucidate such properties.
The compound appears to typically be used analogously to other recreational stimulants
in a wide variety of settings - from large social groups
to isolation. Though reports exist for a number of different methods of administration, mephedrone appears to be most commonly ingested orally and intranasally. Some individuals consider the compound to be strictly stimulant in effect, while many observe pseudo-psychedelic
visual and auditory distortion.
[top]Routes of administration
Taking a fixed amount orally can help limit the common urge to redose and prevent excess use.
Oral doses can be taken in a variety of ways; the easiest being either mixed with water, or wrapped in a rizzla paper and swallowed.
First time doses should range between 100mg and 150mg and users are advised to try to avoid eating for a few hours before administration as this can dampen the effects.
"250mg is a good oral dose, but the tail end effects will last a lot longer and sleep will be difficult."
A dose of 150mg-250mg is the average, giving a duration of around 2 hours.
Oral doses last longer but also take longer at onset; it is important not to redose early even if users feel it has not affected them. When using a gel capsule, onset of effects can take up to 45 minutes to be felt.
Side-effects from oral dosages can be nausea, stomach cramps and vomiting (especially in larger 250mg+ dosages).
Insufflating mephedrone can dramatically increase the urge to redose, therefore it is important users set out a maximum amount for the night and stick to it.
First time doses should range between 25-75mg and can take up to 15 minutes to start working. Crushing/chopping the powder as finely as possible and placing a straw well inside the nostril before snorting
can greatly increase the effects.
Many people consider snorting to be a dangerous method of administration; especially for drugs
which are active when taken orally, due to increased risk of nose damage. Side-effects from snorting seem to be worse when compared to taking the same total dose orally - it's "harsh" on the body.
It's recommended to not share straws/notes with other people as this can increase the risk of infection. This is particularly important with mephedrone, as nose bleeds and nasal sores are a common complaint compared with many other drugs taken via this route.
Administering intravenous mephedrone is extremely dangerous, and highly enhances the potential for dangerous side-effects. Both sample purity and handling are important factors to consider. Additionally, the drug is observed to be quite addictive by individuals favoring oral and intranasal
routes; the addictive components of the effects of the drug are likely to be quite higher, and may compel users to pursue dangerously high levels.
Doses for IV administration of 4-MMC range widely, and have been observed to range from 40mg to approximately 500mg.
Rectal administration, otherwise referred to as 'plugging
', is characterized by a faster onset relative to oral dosing, requires lower doses, and has been suggested to be characterized as having a more rapid termination of activity relative to oral doses. A dose of 100 mg has been observed to last approximately 20 minutes, but this is quite likely variable between individuals.
Two general methods include the use of a syringe (needle removed) with 200 mg in fewer than 10 mL of water (approaching 5 mL) inserted while lying prone, allowing the solution to absorb over 3-5 min - as well as the use of gelatin caps as a vehicle for the compound to be inserted.
Rectal (plugging) administration of mephedrone
Mephedrone capsule...inserted anally?
[top]Effects of Mephedrone
The primary effects tend to reflect those of sympathomimetic stimulants such as amphetamines, cocaine
, or MDMA
. There appears to be a distinct euphoria
and sociability inspired by the compound, as well as a strong urge to ingest large quantities subsequent to initial administration. Recreational doses induce transient anorexia, and appear to affect cardiac activity in typical CNS stimulant patterns.
The after-effects, or 'come-down' associated with mephedrone - occurring immediately subsequent to the duration of effects of the compound - is highly variable, but commonly consists of overall behavioral sedation and a desire to ingest more. There indeed appears to be an effect upon mood that reflects those of other recreational psychomotor stimulants such as cocaine or methamphetamine; individuals report 'come-downs' along a range of severity, from mild depression and languid disposition to intense depression. There is discussion of a transient suppression of immune system function, as many observe short periods of illness subsequent to ingestions of over 500 mg.
Side-effects are similarly variable, and include reactions as mild as persistently raised heart rate to severe - such as seizures and a bluing, or apparent bruising, of extremities. Other side-effects include difficulties with memory, persistently low body-temperature, anhedonia, and chest pain.
Mephedrone Experiences & Side-Effects Database
Very grumpy when mephedrone wears off?
Mephedrone comedown or just from sleep deprivation?
Cross Tolerance Mephedrone, Methylone and Ecstasy
[top]Combinations with Mephedrone
[top]Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Mephedrone
Pharmacology: 4-Methylmethcathinone is sympathomimetic stimulant. From proposed SAR modelling, 4-methylmethcathinone is expected to have similar pharmacological properties to methcathinone, but with increased activity on the serotonin
neurotransmitter systems. Methcathinone is suggested as being more potent than its parent cathinone, and methamphetamine .
Methcathinone is a drug with a high abuse potential, with prolonged, high dosages known to cause psychosis and withdrawal
tremors. Methcathinone is regarded as being similar in profile to methamphetamine in relation to neurotoxicity, with marked decreases in DA levels noted among abstinent users. While generally below levels associated with Parkinsons Disease, this is considered to be demonstrative of permanent, or semi-permanent neurological damage . The compound is considered by some to be more potent than cathinone and methamphetamine. High doses of mephedrone have consistently generated convulsions, addictive tendencies, and symptoms of withdrawal.
Ethcathinone is closely related to mephedrone and causes many side effects
: Stroke, Psychosis, Pulmonary hypertension
, hypertension, arrhythmia, chest pain, Bone marrow depression, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, Rash, hives, alopecia, ecchymosis, impotence, dizziness, anxiety, headache, mental depression, seizures, Nausea/vomiting, constipation, abdominal cramps, diarrhea. (From drug info thread)
According to M.R. Meyer, F.T. Peters, H.H. Maurer a number of metabolites are possible, however the n-demethyl metabolite of Mephedrone will be 4-Methylcathinone (compound number 18 in table 1). This metabolite appears to be nearly inactive as a Monoamine
Oxydase Inhibitor (table1,- ).
On further metabolism of this metabolite one of the possible metabolites is 4-Methylnorephedrine (compound number 31 in table 3 ), caused by the reduction of the Keto. This metabolite has almost the same level of MAO-A inhibition as that of Amphetamine (table 1).
is 11, while the 4-Methylnorephedrine metabolite's is 12.
It is currently unclear as to the significance of this in normal recreational doses.
[top]Mephedrone receptor binding
Awaiting cellular/molecular studies.
Mephedrone exhibits a strong desensitization effect upon repeated dosing, reminiscent of other traditionally addictive psychomotor stimulants. This compound in particular, however, appears to compel users to ingest higher subsequent doses as well as ‘booster-doses’. Physiological desensitization appears to be associated with long-term complications
[top]The health risks of Mephedrone
Mephedrone has been observed to cause cardiovascular abnormalities when administered at doses above 200mg, though this isn’t ubiquitous. These abnormalities include heart palpitations, vasoconstrictive sensations, numbing as well as ‘bluing’ of limbs reminiscent of posturally dependent bruising.
Your BPM on Mephedrone
Awaiting studies that may elucidate such characteristics
Awaiting studies to further elucidate this dynamic
|Systematic (IUPAC) name:||(RS)-2-methylamino-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one|
|Molecular Formula:||C11H15NO, C11H15NO.HCl|
|Molar mass:||177.24 g/mol, 213.70 g/mol |
|CAS Registry Number:||1189805-46-6, 1189726-24-4 (hydrochloride)|
|Melting Point:|| |
|Boiling Point:|| |
|Flash Point:||no data|
|Additionnal data:|| |
|Notes:||stability of the mephedrone molecule|
The Marquis reagent
is a test to facilitate identification of alkaloids, composed of formaldehyde and sulfuric acid. Compounds will produce signature colors characterizing their reactions.
Taken by Viscis
[top]Mecke & Mandelin
The Mecke reagent
consists of selenous acid in sulfuric acid, and purportedly offers enhanced capabilities at detecting MDMA. The Mandelin reagent
is a 1% solution of ammonium vanadate in sulfuric acid, and similar to both the Marquis
, different compounds will generate different color reactions.
[top]Simons & Robadope
reagent is sodium nitroprusside in 50 mL distilled water, with 2 mL acetaldehyde added.
Mephedrone samples have been observed to vary in physical appearance.
[top]Legal status of Mephedrone
Mephedrone is a Class B controlled substance, effective 16th April 2010. This came into effect due to an amendment to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, which controls a number of synthetic derivatives of cathinone. The penalties for possession and supply of mephedrone are therefore in line with other class B controlled substances. The maximum penalty in a Crown prosecution for possession and supply of mephedrone are 5 years and 14 years imprisonment respectively (plus an unlimited fine in both cases). The maximum penalty for a Magistrates prosecution is 3 months imprisonment plus a fine up to £2,500 for possession of mephedrone, and 6 months imprisonment plus a fine up to £5,000 for supply of mephedrone. Any proceeds from the illicit sale of mephedrone may also be seized under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.
Which drugs will likely be outlawed by the cathinone ban?
Call for ban on 'legal high' drug: Mephedrone
UK Mephedrone vendor arrested & charged with harm to public health.
Mephedrone is a Schedule I controlled substance under Federal law, and also under state law in a majority of US states.
Purported to remain legal, but there is discussion that this isn't to be assumed.
While some claim the compound remains legal, methcathinone is explicitly prohibited - and so the compound may potentially be considered illegal.
Mephedrone legality in Romania
Banned in December 2007
Banned on December 15, 2008, classified as a narcotic on June 15, 2009.
Illegal to manufacture, import, possess, sell, or transfer without prescriptions.
Remains legal (due to be banned soon, it's inclusion in an amendment to a narcotics
bill is confirmed - June 2010).
[top]Related News Threads
4-methylmethcathinone is structurally related to other beta-ketone compounds, and differs from methcathinone by an additional methyl group on the phenyl ring.
Posted by Benga, 05-10-2009, 05:00
: History of bath salts
A new Israeli company came up, and pretty much singlehandedly opened the way by introducing cathinone derivatives and other RC's in commercially marketed legal highs.
RC's, real R.C.'s in pill form, some of them quite obscure / untested, most cathinone derivatives this coming after the hagigat trend in which had become quite popular in Israel, especially in the rave/clubbing world.
After a little suspense, the mystery ingredients were soon revealed following an analysis partly funded by a new-zealand piperazine pill vendor, and their leading product identified as mephedrone, 4-MMC. The pills were first sold from Israel directly, then banned in Israel, then quickly distributed by other outlets in the U.K. and Europe. A new line was created after the Israeli ban, but never got as popular as the mephedrone pills.
Mephedrone sales, however, actually expanded, stimulating Chinese production, first in the R.C. market across Europe, with new R.C. vendors popping, up, some almost exclusively focusing business on mephedrone / betaketone / novel stimulant sales.
these stores were increasingly crossing the boundary between "proper" R.C. outlets, which traditionnally also offered psychedelic R.C.'s and rare chemicals over to the legal high market, and the legal high / party pill world.
new hybrid shops appeared, in the U.K. and Ireland specifically, specialised in betaketone and stimulant R.C.'s, mephedrone, methylone and a few others.
Then new legal high mephedrone pill lines came out, sold by head/smart shops.
Fueled by the headshop associated-legal high forum buzz, ear to mouth and either increasingly specialised R.C. outlet or legal high outlets sales, openly identified and packaged as such (snuffs, pills rather than pured powder); mephedrone use expanded, and still is. It then started to hit the media, with an increasing buzz, and governmental attention.
Increasingly, alarming reports started coming in, with vasoconstriction and potentially mephedrone related deaths- yet such negative reports are actually quite ancient, actually starting with the original Israeli pill range.
More recently some of these outlets have remarketed their products as plant feeders / hormones for more "discretion".
The (Irish?) bathsalts represent the last evolution of this movement, with the possible introduction of another untested R.C., (as was mephedrone in the first place). This new R.C. is thought to be "local synth" rather than a import from China, and particularly potent, long lasting and inducing severe near psychotic episodes in quite a few users...
[top]More Mephedrone Sections
[top]The latest mephedrone threads
, Snouter Fancier
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