Home Wiki Studies Forum Groups Blog Video Images News Chat
Go Back   Drugs Forum > Wiki Articles > Drug Articles
Mark Forums Read
Register Tags


Drug Articles Articles about drugs

[top]Introduction to Thebaine

Thebaine, also known as Paramorphine is a white, crystalline, slightly water-soluble (in pure form after a synthesis), poisonous alkaloid, with the molecular Formular: C19H21NO3,[1] present in opium in small quantities.[2] The Thebaine-Constituent of Raw-Opium is normally between 0.2% and 1.5% But higher amounts up to 6% have also been reported.[3]

[top]Using of Thebaine

Thebaine is not used for therapeutic or recreational purposes, but is converted industrially into a variety of compounds including oxycodone, oxymorphone, nalbuphine, naloxone, naltrexone, buprenorphine and etorphine. [1]


Thebaine is metabolized via O-demethylation [1]

[top]Effects of Thebaine

Thebaine has more strychnin-like "convulsive" properties (see warnings!) rather than any narcotic effect, and possesses a sharp astringent taste and a tetanic action like strychnine.

Thebaine was long believed to have no morphine-like agonistic properties and many studies, old and recent, are supportive of this view. [3]

However, it is now evident that it has a meaningful dependence potential, both physical and psychological, when large doses are ingested over a certain period. (ie. in Poppy/ Poppyseed-tea)

[top]Pharmacology of Thebaine

LD50 (mg/kg) [1]:
Rabbit : 14 subcutaneously (hydrochloride monohydrate)

[top]Chemistry of Thebaine

Systematic (IUPAC) name:(5[alpha])-6,7,8,14-tetradehydro-4,5-epoxy-3,6-dimethoxy-17-methylmorphinan
Molecular Formula:C19H21NO3
Molar mass: 311.38 g/mol, 365.85 g/mol (hydrochloride monohydrate), 820.89 g/mol (oxalate hexahydrate), 419.43 g/mol (binoxalate monohydrate), 479.48 g/mol (bitartrate monohydrate), 449.50 g/mol (salicylate)
CAS Registry Number:115-37-7
Melting Point:193C (rapid heating)
Boiling Point:no data
Flash Point:no data
Solubility:Freebase : 1 g dissolves in 1460 mL water (15C), 15 mL hot alcohol, 25 mL benzene, about 200 mL ether, 13 mL chloroform, 12 mL pyridine; almost insoluble in petroleum ether. Hyrochloride monohydrate : soluble in about 12 parts water, soluble in alcohol. Oxalate hexahydrate : soluble in about 10 parts water, soluble in alcohol; almost insoluble in ether. Binoxalate monohydrate : soluble in 45 parts water. Bitartrate monohydrate : soluble in about 130 parts water; quite soluble in hot water, hot alcohol. Salicylate : soluble in 750 parts water.
Additionnal data:Freebase : sublimation at 170-180C (atmospheric pressure), pK (15C) 6.05, pH of saturated water solution 7.6. Hydrochloride monohydrate : pH (0.05 molar solution) 4.95.
Notes:Freebase aspect : orthorhombic, rectangular plates by sublimation. Hydrochloride monohydrate aspect : orthorhombic prisms from alcohol. Oxalate hexahydrate aspect : prisms. Binoxalate monohydrate aspect : prisms. Bitartrate monohydrate aspect : prisms. Salicylate aspect : crystals.

[top]Different uses for Thebaine

Thebaine is used only in synthesis into other pharmaceutical drugs. People should avoid contact with thebaine itself due to the toxicity of thebaine.

[top]The Dangers of Thebaine

Thebaine is far more toxic (ten times higher) than morphine. Compared to morphine sulfate, thebaine is 10 times more lethal: Morphine sulfate anhydrous: oral rat LD50: 461 mg/kg; oral mouse LD50: 600 mg/kg!

(!) Thebaine is the most poisonous opium alkaloid.

The UNHDOC mentioned[3] that the LD. 50 of Thebaine in mice is 31 mg/kg s.c. and 20 mg/kg i.p.; other authors have reported an intraperitoneal
(the area that contains the abdominal organs.) LD50 of 42 mg/kg in mice.

In rabbits, the intravenous LLD50 is 3-4 mg/kg and is dependent on the age of the animals. In the dog the lethal doses are reported to be 10-30 mg/kg s.c. and 5-7 mg/kg i.v.. In chicken embryo, Thebaine has been reported to induce pseudohyperfeminization (change of the Gender-features).

[top]Legal status of Thebaine

Thebaine is a controlled substance : 21 CFR 1308.12

[top]Status in the USA

Thebaine is a controlled substance (opiate), Schedule 2. listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 [1]

[top]Status in Europe

It is controlled in Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act as well as under international law.

Thebaine is listed as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 in the United Kingdom [1]

[top]History of Thebaine

So called from a kind of Egyptian opium produced at Thebes. "Opium Thebacium" and Thebaine share only the origin of the name, the first is the Roman Trade-name!

[top]Further Information

Papaver bracteatum Lindl., is a Highly Rich Source of Thebaine
Papaver somniferum strain with high concentration of thebaine (and oripavine)

[top]The latest Thebaine threads

  Article / Page Starter Last Post Comments Views
30-05-2016 21:09
by vervain Go to last post
7 527
27-05-2016 18:45
by Rexcavator Go to last post
2 321
27-05-2016 15:30
by MPM242 Go to last post
11 30,635
25-05-2016 15:20
by gonzochef Go to last post
2 342
24-05-2016 17:32
by Beenthere2Hippie Go to last post
2 239
24-05-2016 03:24
by Harry02 Go to last post
0 151
22-05-2016 19:57
by TheWookie Go to last post
2 421
18-05-2016 02:35
by bratitude Go to last post
32 180,574
15-05-2016 10:22
by sativa.tmp Go to last post
117 33,563
11-05-2016 20:26
by vervain Go to last post
9 700

Attached Images
File Type: jpg thebaine.jpg (48.4 KB, 918 views)
Created by Jasim , 25-04-2010 at 23:12
Last edited by John_bob, 23-04-2014 at 19:34
Last comment by NeuroChi on 11-05-2010 at 14:53
4 Comments, 51,214 Views

Share this on:

thebaine, wiki
Page Tools

Posting Rules
You may not create new articles
You may not edit articles
You may not protect articles

You may not post comments
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your comments

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Sitelinks: Information:

All times are GMT +1. The time now is 08:27.

Copyright: SIN Foundation 2003 - 2014, All rights reserved