1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Cannabinoid-induced tolerance is associated with a CB1 receptor G protein coupling switch that is pr

Cannabinoid-induced tolerance is associated with a CB1 receptor G protein coupling switch that is pr

  1. nibble
    The analgesic effect of opioids is enhanced, and tolerance is attenuated, by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of an opioid antagonist, an effect that is mediated by preventing the receptor from coupling to Gs proteins. Recently, we demonstrated a cannabinoid-opioid interaction at the ultra-low dose level, suggesting that the effect might not be specific to opioid receptors. The purpose of this study was to examine, both behaviorally and mechanistically, whether the cannabinoid CB1 receptor was also sensitive to ultra-low dose effects. Antinociception was tested in rats after an injection of either vehicle, the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55 212-2 (WIN), an ultra-low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR 141716), or a combination of WIN and the ultra-low-dose rimonabant. In the acute experiment, tail-flick latencies were recorded at 10-min intervals for 90 min; in the chronic experiment, tail-flick latencies were recorded 10 min after a daily injection over 7 days. Ultra-low dose rimonabant extended the duration of WIN-induced antinociception. WIN produced maximal tolerance by day 7, whereas WIN+ultra-low dose rimonabant continued to produce strong antinociception, demonstrating that ultra-low dose rimonabant prevented the development of WIN-induced tolerance. Animals chronically treated with WIN alone had CB1 receptors predominantly coupling to Gs receptors in the striatum, whereas the vehicle, ultra-low dose rimonabant, and WIN+ultra-low dose rimonabant groups had CB1 receptors predominantly coupling to Gi receptors. Cannabinoid-induced tolerance is thus associated with a G protein coupling switch from the inhibitory Gi protein to the excitatory Gs protein, an effect which is prevented by the ultra-low dose rimonabant.