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Cannabis withdrawal in the United States: a general population study. (2008)

Cannabis withdrawal in the United States: a general population study. (2008)

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    Hasin, D. S., Keyes, K. M., Alderson, D., Wang, S., Aharonovich, E., & Grant, B. F. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 69(9), 1354-1363.

    Objective
    Although cannabis is the most widely abused illicit drug, little is known about the prevalence of cannabis withdrawal, its factor structure, clinical validity and psychiatric correlates in the general population.

    Methods
    National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions participants were assessed with structured in-person interviews covering substance history, DSM-IV Axis I and II disorders, and withdrawal symptoms after cessation of use. Of these, 2,613 had been frequent cannabis users (≥3 times/week), and a cannabis-only subset (N=1,119) never binge-drank or used other drugs ≥3 times/week.

    Results
    In the full sample and subset, 44.3% (se 1.19) and 44.2% (se 1.75), respectively, experienced ≥2 cannabis withdrawal symptoms, while 34.4% (se 1.21) and 34.1% (se 1.76), respectively, experienced ≥3 symptoms. The symptoms formed two factors, one characterized by weakness, hypersomnia, and psychomotor retardation, and the second by anxiety, restlessness, depression, insomnia. Both symptom types were associated with significant distress/impairment (p