1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone toxicity and concomitant drug and

Clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone toxicity and concomitant drug and

  1. Bajeda
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2006 Feb 28;81(3):323-6

    Liechti ME (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e...l.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus), Kunz I (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e...l.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus), Greminger P (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e...l.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus), Speich R (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e...l.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus), Kupferschmidt H (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e...l.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus).

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) toxicity. METHODS: Retrospective case-study of 65 GHB and GBL intoxications seen in an urban emergency department. RESULTS: 63% of intoxications occurred in male patients. The median age was 24 years (range 16-41 years). 65% co-ingested alcohol or illicit drugs, mostly MDMA and cocaine. 83% presented with coma. The mean+/-S.D. time to regain consciousness among comatose patients was 111+/-61 min and was significantly longer in patients who co-abused illicit drugs such as cocaine or MDMA (155+/-60 min). Bradycardia occurred in 38%, hypotension in 6% and hypothermia in 48%. Agitation was observed in 17% of all patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with alcohol co-use (29%). Vomiting occurred in 31% of all patients and tended to be more frequent in patients who co-used alcohol (39%). Management of GHB and GBL overdose was supportive. Four patients needed admission to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Overdosing of GHB and GBL frequently results in non-reactive coma reflecting the severity of poisoning. Multiple drug use is common and significantly influences the clinical presentation.

    Discussion Thread