1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Clinically available NMDA receptor antagonists memantine and dextromethorphan reverse existing toler

Clinically available NMDA receptor antagonists memantine and dextromethorphan reverse existing toler

  1. Alfa
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology 2000 Apr;361(4):425-32

    Popik P, Kozela E, Danysz W

    The tail-flick test was used to investigate the effects of chronic administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, dextromethorphan, memantine and MRZ 2/579, on the development and reversal of morphine tolerance in mice in three separate experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on the development of tolerance. Morphine (10 mg/kg for 6 days, twice daily) produced a 5.9-fold rightward shift of the cumulative dose-response curves. Co-administration of dextromethorphan, memantine or MRZ 2/579 between tests 1 and 2 dose-dependently (5-10 mg/kg) inhibited the development of morphine tolerance. In experiment 2, in which the effects on the reversal were investigated, morphine-tolerant mice were treated b.i.d. for an additional 6 days (between tests 2 and 3) with vehicle+vehicle, NMDA receptor antagonist+vehicle, vehicle+morphine or NMDA receptor antagonist+morphine. Morphine-tolerant mice treated with vehicle+vehicle remained morphine tolerant, whereas this residual morphine tolerance was inhibited by administration of all three NMDA antagonists (each 10 mg/kg). Morphine-tolerant mice receiving vehicle+morphine injections demonstrated an unchanged degree of antinociceptive tolerance. In these mice, the co-administration of memantine and MRZ 2/579, but not dextromethorphan, resulted in the reversal of morphine tolerance. In experiment 3, memantine and MRZ 2/579 (10 mg/kg) inhibited the acute antinociceptive effect of morphine, but dextromethorphan did not. These data indicate that low-affinity, clinically available and/or therapeutically promising NMDA receptor antagonists may be used to inhibit ongoing morphine tolerance