1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.

Depressive symptomatology in young adults with a history of MDMA use: a longitudinal analysis (2008)

Depressive symptomatology in young adults with a history of MDMA use: a longitudinal analysis (2008)

  1. Jatelka
    Psychopharmacol 2008 Jan,22(1):47-54

    Falck RS, Jichuan Wang, Carlson RG

    Research suggests that methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)/;ecstasy' can cause serotonin depletion as well as serotonergic neurodegradation that may result in depression. This longitudinal study used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) to assess depressive symptomatology every six months over a two-year period among a community sample of young adult MDMA/;ecstasy' users (n = 402). Multilevel growth modeling was used to analyze changes in BDI scores. Between baseline and 24 months, the mean BDI score declined from 9.8 to 7.7. Scores varied significantly across individuals at baseline and declined at a rate of 0.36 points every six months. Persons with higher baseline scores were more likely to have their scores decrease over time. Several factors were significantly associated with score levels, independent of time: gender - men's scores were lower than women's; ethnicity - whites' scores were lower than those of non-whites; education - persons with at least some university education had scores that were lower than those without any college experience; benzodiazepines - current users' scores were higher than non-users'; opioids - current users' scores were higher than non-users'; and cumulative ecstasy use - people who had used MDMA more than 50 times had scores that were higher than persons who had used the drug less often. The results reported here show low levels of depressive symptoms among a sample that, after 24 months, consisted of both current and former MDMA users. The low and declining mean scores suggest that for most people MDMA/;ecstasy' use does not result in long-term depressive symptomatology

    Discussion Thread