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Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

  1. Alfa
    Journal of Toxicology
    Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 378168, 6 pages

    Research Article
    Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke
    Nicholas Sullivan, Sytze Elzinga, and Jeffrey C. Raber

    The Werc Shop, Inc., Pasadena, CA 91107, USA

    Received 11 February 2013; Accepted 22 April 2013

    Academic Editor: Steven J. Bursian

    Copyright © 2013 Nicholas Sullivan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks.