1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Ecstasy (MDMA) does not have long-term effects on aggressive interpretative bias: a study comparing

Ecstasy (MDMA) does not have long-term effects on aggressive interpretative bias: a study comparing

  1. Jatelka
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2007,15(4):351-358

    Hoshi R, Cohen L, Lemanski L, Piccini P, Bond A, Curran HV

    +/-3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) remains a widely used recreational drug, which, in animals, can produce long-lasting changes to the brain's serotonergic system. As serotonin has been implicated in human aggression, it is possible that ecstasy users are at risk of increased aggression even after prolonged abstention from the drug. The objective of this study was to indirectly assess aggression in current and abstinent ecstasy users using an information-processing paradigm that measures cognitive bias toward material with aggressive content. The task employed has previously shown increased aggressive bias 3-4 days after ecstasy use. An interpretative bias task was administered to 105 male participants: 26 ex-ecstasy users, 25 current ecstasy users, 29 polydrug using controls, and 25 drug-naive controls. Accuracy and response times to process and recognize ambiguous sentences were tested. There were no group differences in aggressive interpretative bias. All 4 groups processed neutral sentences faster than aggressive sentences and were subsequently faster and more confident in recognizing neutral compared with aggressive sentences. Further, self-ratings of aggression also showed no group differences, even though self-rated impulsivity was significantly higher in current ecstasy users than in drug-naive controls. The findings that all groups were biased toward neutral and away from aggressive interpretations of ambiguous sentences add to the existing body of knowledge in suggesting that increased aggression found in ecstasy users a few days after taking the drug is a transient phenomenon and not a long-term, persisting effect.