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Excited delirium following use of synthetic cathinones (bath salts) (2012)

Excited delirium following use of synthetic cathinones (bath salts) (2012)

  1. stryder09
    TM Penders, RE Gestring, DA Vilensky

    General Hospital Psychiatry 34 (2012) 647-650

    Synthetic analogs of the cathinone molecule have seen increasing recreational use as substitutes for cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) and methamphetamine. Repeated use of these drugs is associated with a paranoid hallucinatory delirium. A subset of patients using these substances develops a syndrome of extreme agitation and violent behavior that has been reported following the use of other stimulant drugs that also produce rapid changes in brain monoamines. This syndrome, characterized as "excited delirium," presents to the acute care setting with a challenging combination of paranoia, severe agitation and violent behavior. These patients frequently suffer from dehydration, skeletal muscle damage and renal failure that may lead to multiorgan failure and death. Management of these individuals requires careful consideration of the consequences of interventions commonly implemented in medical settings to control dangerous aggressive behavior.

    PMID: 22898445