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From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use

From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use

  1. NeuroChi
    Kratom (or Ketum) is a psychoactive plant preparation used in Southeast Asia. It is derived from the plant
    Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Kratom as well as its main alkaloid, mitragynine, currently spreads around
    the world. Thus, addiction potential and adverse health consequences are becoming an important issue
    for health authorities. Here we reviewed the available evidence and identified future research needs.
    It was found that mitragynine and M. speciosa preparations are systematically consumed with rather
    well defined instrumentalization goals, e.g. to enhance tolerance for hard work or as a substitute in the
    self-treatment of opiate addiction. There is also evidence from experimental animal models supporting
    analgesic, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory as well as strong anorectic effects. In humans, regular consumption
    may escalate, lead to tolerance and may yield aversive withdrawal effects. Mitragynine and its
    derivatives actions in the central nervous system involve -opioid receptors, neuronal Ca2+ channels and
    descending monoaminergic projections. Altogether, available data currently suggest both, a therapeutic
    as well as an abuse potential.