1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Further characterization of the discriminative stimulus effects of spiradoline

Further characterization of the discriminative stimulus effects of spiradoline

  1. Anonymous
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000 Jul;66(3):517-22.
    Holtzman SG.

    Abstract

    The results of a previous study in rats indicated that spiradoline has pharmacologically selective discriminative effects that are mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. However, the training dose, 3.0 mg/kg, increased response latencies, suggesting that it was relatively high. The current study was performed to characterize further the discriminative effects of spiradoline by using a lower training dose, 1.0 mg/kg, and testing a larger number of drugs for generalization with spiradoline. Rats were trained in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg spiradoline, SC, from saline in an average of 19.7 sessions; response latencies after saline and spiradoline were not different from each other. The rats generalized dose dependently and completely to other kappa-opioid agonists that have relatively high efficacy: ethylketocyclazocine, U69,593, and U50,488. They generalized partially to ketocyclazocine, (-)-N-allylnormetazocine, and DuP 747, and not at all to cyclazocine, butorphanol, nalorphine, and pentazocine, discriminable opioids that have relatively low efficacy at kappa-opioid receptors, or to morphine and dextromethorphan, discriminable drugs that do not act at kappa-opioid receptors. The discriminative effects of spiradoline were unaffected by the mu-opioid antagonist beta-funaltrexamine, but were blocked completely for at least 4 weeks by the kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Thus, spiradoline-like stimulus control of behavior remains kappa-opioid selective, and continues to have a high efficacy requirement even at a training dose that does not impair performance.