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Heroin Production in Afghanistan: Helmand, Nangarhar and Badakhshan

Heroin Production in Afghanistan: Helmand, Nangarhar and Badakhshan

  1. Spucky
    Opium markets, located throughout Afghanistan and along major transit routes, are where traders can sell raw opium and obtain precursor chemicals and other supplies for refinement (morphine base and heroin). Refinement workshops are located in areas typically situated near unofficial border crossing points, near poppy farms, extremely isolated locales, or areas where governance is weak and instability is high (Figure 1). Refinement workshops are fairly crude and can be contained within two rooms of any given compound. Metal drums, wood‐fire stoves, and simple iron presses (car jacks) are typical instruments used in basic processing. Some reports suggest foreign chemists, such as Iranian, Turkish and Pakistani nationals, provide technical assistance, particularly when it comes to further refining morphine base into heroin.1