1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

In Vivo Measurement of Ethanol Metabolism in the Rat Liver Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of

In Vivo Measurement of Ethanol Metabolism in the Rat Liver Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of

  1. Anonymous
    Daniel M. Spielman,1* Dirk Mayer,1,2 Yi-Fen Yen,3 James Tropp,4 Ralph E. Hurd,3 and
    Adolf Pfefferbaum2,5
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 62:307–313 (2009)

    [1-13C]Pyruvate is a readily polarizable substrate that has been
    the subject of numerous magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    (MRS) studies of in vivo metabolism. In this work 13C-MRS of
    hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate was used to interrogate a metabolic
    pathway involved in neither aerobic nor anaerobic metabolism.
    In particular, ethanol consumption leads to altered
    liver metabolism, which when excessive is associated with adverse
    medical conditions including fatty liver disease, hepatitis,
    cirrhosis, and cancer. Here we present a method for noninvasively
    monitoring this important process in vivo. Following the
    bolus injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, we demonstrate
    a significantly increased rat liver lactate production rate
    with the coadministration of ethanol (P  0.0016 unpaired ttest).
    The affect is attributable to increased liver nicotinamide
    adenine dinucleotide (NADH) associated with ethanol metabolism
    in combination with NADH’s role as a coenzyme in pyruvate-
    to-lactate conversion. Beyond studies of liver metabolism,
    this novel in vivo assay of changes in NADH levels makes
    hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate a potentially viable substrate for
    studying the multiple in vivo metabolic pathways that use NADH
    (or NAD) as a coenzyme, thus broadening the range of applications
    that have been discussed in the literature to
    date.