1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Intranasal delivery: An Approach to Bypass the Blood Brain Barrier

Intranasal delivery: An Approach to Bypass the Blood Brain Barrier

  1. User-126494
    Indian Journal of Pharmacology
    Year: 2004 Volume: 36 Issue: 3 Page: 140-147

    S Talegaonkar, PR Mishra
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi -110062, India

    Abstract
    The blood brain barrier (BBB) represents one of the strictest barriers of in vivo therapeutic drug delivery. The barrier is defined by restricted exchange of hydrophilic compounds, small proteins and charged molecules between the plasma and central nervous system (CNS). For decades, the BBB has prevented the use of many therapeutic agents for treating Alzheimer«SQ»s disease, stroke, brain tumor, head injury, spinal cord injury, depression, anxiety and other CNS disorders. Different attempts were made to deliver the drug across the BBB such as modification of therapeutic agents, altering the barrier integrity, carrier-mediated transport, invasive techniques, etc. However, opening the barrier by such means allows entry of toxins and undesirable molecules to the CNS, resulting in potentially significant damage. An attempt to overcome the barrier in vivo has focused on bypassing the BBB by using a novel, practical, simple and non-invasive approach i.e. intranasal delivery. This method works because of the unique connection which the olfactory and trigeminal nerves (involved in sensing odors
    and chemicals) provide between the brain and external environments. The olfactory epithelium acting as a gateway for substances entering the CNS and peripheral circulation is well known. Also, it is common knowledge that viral infections such as common cold, smallpox, measles, and chicken pox take place through the nasopharynx. The neural connections between the nasal mucosa and the brain
    provide a unique pathway for the non-invasive delivery of therapeutic agents to the CNS. This pathway also allows drugs which do not cross the BBB to enter the CNS and it eliminates the need for systemic
    delivery and thereby reducing unwanted systemic side effects. Intranasal delivery does not require any modification of therapeutic agents and does not require that drugs be coupled with any carrier. A wide variety of therapeutic agents, including both small molecules and macromolecules can be rapidly delivered to the CNS using this method. The present review discusses the various applications, advantages and limitations of this novel approach.