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Measuring Reward With the Conditioned Pleace Preference Paradigm: A comprehensive review of drug eff

Measuring Reward With the Conditioned Pleace Preference Paradigm: A comprehensive review of drug eff

  1. NeuroChi
    AbstractÐThis review gives an overview of recent ®ndings and developments in research on brain
    mechanisms of reward and reinforcement from studies using the place preference conditioning paradigm,
    with emphasis on those studies that have been published within the last decade. Methodological issues
    of the paradigm (such as design of the conditioning apparatus, biased vs unbiased conditioning, state
    dependency e€ects) are discussed.
    Results from studies using systemic and local (intracranial) drug administration, natural reinforcers,
    and non-drug treatments and from studies examining the e€ects of lesions are presented. Papers
    reporting on conditioned place aversion (CPA) experiments are also included. A special emphasis is put
    on the issue of tolerance and sensitization to the rewarding properties of drugs.
    Transmitter systems that have been investigated with respect to their involvement in brain reward
    mechanisms include dopamine, opioids, acetylcholine, GABA, serotonin, glutamate, substance P, and
    cholecystokinin, the motivational signi®cance of which has been examined either directly, by using
    respective agonist or antagonist drugs, or indirectly, by studying the e€ects of these drugs on the reward
    induced by other drugs.
    For a number of these transmitters, detailed studies have been conducted to delineate the receptor
    subtype(s) responsible for the mediation of the observed drug e€ects, particularly in the case of
    dopamine, the opioids, serotonin and glutamate.
    Brain sites that have been implicated in the mediation of drug-induced place conditioning include the
    `traditional' brain reward sites, ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens, but the medial prefrontal
    cortex, ventral pallidum, amygdala and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus have also been shown
    to play important roles in the mediation of place conditioning induced by drugs or natural reinforcers.
    Thus, although the paradigm has also been criticized because of some inherent methodological
    problems, it is clear that during the past decade place preference conditioning has become a valuable
    and ®rmly established and very widely used tool in behavioural pharmacology and addiction research.
    # 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved