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Monoamine Oxidase-B Mediates Ecstasy-Induced Neurotoxic Effects to Adolescent Rat Brain Mitochondria

Monoamine Oxidase-B Mediates Ecstasy-Induced Neurotoxic Effects to Adolescent Rat Brain Mitochondria

  1. Gradient
    The Journal of Neuroscience, September 19, 2007, 27(38):10203-10210

    Ema Alves, Teresa Summavielle, Cecília Juliana Alves, Joana Gomes-da-Silva, José Custódio Barata, Eduarda Fernandes,Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Maria Amélia Tavares and Félix Carvalho

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity and the protective role of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibition were evaluated at the mitochondrial level in various regions of the adolescent rat brain. Four groups of adolescent male Wistar rats were used: (1) saline control, (2) exposed to MDMA (4 x 10 mg/kg, i.p.; two hourly), (3) treated with selegiline (2 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the same dosing of MDMA, and (4) treated with selegiline (2 mg/kg, i.p.). Body temperatures were monitored throughout the whole experiment. Animals were killed 2 weeks later, and mitochondria were isolated from several brain regions. Our results showed that "binge" MDMA administration causes, along with sustained hyperthermia, long-term alterations in brain mitochondria as evidenced by increased levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. Additionally, analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed that NDI nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase subunit I and NDII (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase subunit II) subunits of mitochondrial complex I and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I of complex IV suffered deletions in MDMA-exposed animals. Inhibition of MAO-B by selegiline did not reduce hyperthermia but reversed MDMA-induced effects in the oxidative stress markers, mtDNA, and related protein expression. These results indicate that monoamine oxidation by MAO-B with subsequent mitochondrial damage may be an important contributing factor for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.