1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Novel endogenous peptide agonists of cannabinoid receptors

Novel endogenous peptide agonists of cannabinoid receptors

  1. Gradient
    Hemopressin (Hp), a 9-residue alpha-hemoglobin-derived peptide, was previously reported to function as a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist (1). In this study, we report that mass spectrometry (MS) data from peptidomics analyses of mouse brain extracts identified N-terminally extended forms of Hp containing either three (RVD-Hpalpha) or two (VD-Hpalpha) additional amino acids, as well as a beta-hemoglobin-derived peptide with sequence similarity to that of hemopressin (VD-Hpbeta). Characterization of the alpha-hemoglobin-derived peptides using binding and functional assays shows that in contrast to Hp, which functions as a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, both RVD-Hpalpha and VD-Hpalpha function as agonists. Studies examining the increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 levels or release of intracellular Ca(2+) indicate that these peptides activate a signal transduction pathway distinct from that activated by the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, or the classic CB1 agonist, Hu-210. This finding suggests an additional mode of regulation of endogenous cannabinoid receptor activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the CB1 receptor is involved in the integration of signals from both lipid- and peptide-derived signaling molecules.-Gomes, I., Grushko, J. S., Golebiewska, U., Hoogendoorn, S., Gupta, A., Heimann, A. S., Ferro, E. S., Scarlata, S., Fricker, L. D., Devi, L. A. Novel endogenous peptide agonists of cannabinoid receptors.