1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Opioid Pharmacology!

Opioid Pharmacology!

  1. Spucky
    Background: Mu agonists have been an important component of pain
    treatment for thousands of years. The usual pharmacokinetic parameters
    (half-life, clearance, volume of distribution) of opioids have been known for
    some time. However, the metabolism has, until recently, been poorly understood,
    and there has been recent interest in the role of metabolites in modifying
    the pharmacodynamic response in patients, in both analgesia and adverse
    effects. A number of opioids are available for clinical use, including
    morphine, hydromorphone, levorphanol, oxycodone, and fentanyl. Advantages
    and disadvantages of various opioids in the management of chronic
    pain are discussed.

    Objective: This review looks at the structure, chemistry, and metabolism of
    opioids in an effort to better understand the side effects, drug interactions,
    and the individual responses of patients receiving opioids for the treatment
    of intractable pain.

    Conclusion: Mu receptor agonists and agonist-antagonists have been used
    throughout recent medical history for the control of pain and for the treatment
    of opiate induced side effects and even opiate withdrawal syndromes.
    Opioid metabolism, opioid interactions, morphine, codeine,