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Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review

Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review

  1. davestate
    José AS Crippa
    Harm Reduction Journal 2012, 9:7 doi:10.1186/1477-7517-9-7


    Background

    Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition.
    Objective

    To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis.
    Methods

    A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the terms cannabis, intoxication, psychosis, anxiety, and treatment. The articles selected from this search had their reference lists checked for additional publications related to the topic of the review.
    Results

    The reviewed articles consisted of case reports and controlled clinical trials and are presented according to interventions targeting the physiological, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms provoked by cannabis. The pharmacological interventions reported in these studies include: beta-blockers, antiarrhythmic agents, antagonists of CB-1 and GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, antipsychotics, and cannabidiol.
    Conclusion

    Although scarce, the evidence on pharmacological interventions for the management of cannabis intoxication suggests that propanolol and rimonabant are the most effective compounds currently available to treat the physiological and subjective effects of the drug. Further studies are necessary to establish the real effectiveness of these two medications, as well as the effectiveness of other candidate compounds to counteract the effects of cannabis intoxication, such as cannabidiol and flumazenil.