1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use in Adolescence: A Cross-National Study in Six European Coun

Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use in Adolescence: A Cross-National Study in Six European Coun

  1. Jatelka
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2007 Jan 5;86(1):67-74

    Kokkevi A , Richardson C , Florescu S , Kuzman M , Stergar E.

    AIMS: To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. Setting: High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. PARTICIPANTS: Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of data collection. MEASUREMENTS: Anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported substance use was measured by core items on tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and any illegal drug use. Psychosocial correlates included scales of self-esteem, depression, anomie and antisocial behavior, and items pertaining to family, school and peers. FINDINGS: Logistic regression analyses for each potential correlate adjusted for country, taking into account the clustered sample, showed statistically significant associations with each substance use variable separately, in almost every case. Particularly strong associations were found between smoking and going out most evenings and having many friends who smoke, while cannabis and illegal drugs were strongly correlated with having friends or older siblings who used these substances. The self-esteem scale score was not correlated with substance use. Anomie and antisocial behavior were more strongly associated than depression with substance use. In the case of depression, anomie and most of the other items examined, associations were stronger for girls than for boys. CONCLUSION: The present cross-national study identified correlates of legal and illegal substance use which extend outside specific countries, providing grounds to believe that they can be generalized. They provide evidence for the need to address both the use of the gateway drugs and deviant behavior in conjunction with environmental risk factors when designing and implementing preventive interventions in schools