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Studies on the metabolism ofmitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and hum

Studies on the metabolism ofmitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and hum

  1. Anonymous
    Anika A. Philipp,a Dirk K. Wissenbach,a SiegfriedW. Zoerntlein,b
    Oliver N. Klein,b Jidapha Kanogsunthornratc and Hans H.Maurera∗

    Journal of Mass Spectrometry DOI 10.1002/jms.1607

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have
    opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of
    the presented study is to identify the phase I and IImetabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE)
    using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode
    particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis
    of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the
    intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four
    metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, threemetabolites to glucuronides
    and three to sulfates.