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Study on the neuroprotective effect of fluoxetine against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity on the serotoni

Study on the neuroprotective effect of fluoxetine against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity on the serotoni

  1. ThirdEyeFloond
    Neuroimage. 2010 Jan 15;49(2):1259-70. Epub 2009 Aug 12.

    Li IH, Huang WS, Shiue CY, Huang YY, Liu RS, Chyueh SC, Hu SH, Liao MH, Shen LH, Liu JC, Ma KH.

    3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") has toxic effects on serotonergic neurons in the brain. Our aim was to determine whether N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[(18)F]-fluorophenylthio) benzylamine (4-[(18)F]-ADAM; a serotonin transporter imaging agent) and micropositron emission tomography (micro-PET) can be used to examine in vivo the effect of fluoxetine on MDMA-induced loss of serotonin transporters in rat brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with fluoxetine [1 dose, 5 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)] followed by MDMA (twice a day for 4 consecutive days, 10 mg/kg, s.c.). Micro-PET with 4-[(18)F]-ADAM was performed on days 4, 10, 17, 24, and 31. In addition, the time course of occupancy by fluoxetine at 4-[(18)F]-ADAM sites was measured. Specific 4-[(18)F]-ADAM uptake ratios (SURs) were calculated from the micro-PET imaging data for various brain regions. Immunohistochemistry was performed 7 days after the last micro-PET scan. From day 4 to day 31, SURs were markedly decreased (by approximately 55-75% compared to control values) in all brain regions in MDMA-treated rats. The effect of MDMA was markedly attenuated (approximately 30-50%) by fluoxetine. The fluoxetine-induced decrease in uptake in different brain regions was 40-75% at 90-min postinjection, and this decrease returned to baseline values in most brain regions by day 31. The distribution and intensity of serotonin transporter (SERT) immunostaining in the brain paralleled the PET imaging results, suggesting that a single dose of fluoxetine provides long-lasting protection against MDMA-induced loss of SERT and that such neuroprotection is detectable in vivo by 4-[(18)F]-ADAM micro-PET.