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The Neurobiology of Craving: Implications for the Understanding and Treatment of Addiction (1988)

The Neurobiology of Craving: Implications for the Understanding and Treatment of Addiction (1988)

  1. ex-junkie
    Wise, R. A. The neurobiology of craving: Implications for the understanding and treatment of addiction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(2),118-132.


    Abstract
    Studies of the brain mechanisms of addictive drug actions suggest a two-factor model of addiction. First, all addictive substances are argued to have psychomotor stimulant properties that reflect their activation, at one or more levels, of a common neural mechanism of positive reinforcement. These effects are seen as the biological basis of "psychological" dependence and as the basis for drug cravings that are not rooted in withdrawal symptoms or some other form of distress. Second, at least some addictive substances are thought to activate mechanisms that suppress pain and distress signals, including those associated with the drug's own withdrawal symptoms. These effects represent negative reinforcement effects that, when they occur, can contribute further to the habit-forming impact of a drug and to drug cravings. The brain mechanisms of positive and negative reinforcement are anatomically and functionally distinct, at least in the case of the opiates (on which the concept of physiological dependence is largely modeled). Separate consideration of drug-induced positive and negative reinforcement suggests several new perspectives on the acquisition and extinction of drug habits.