1. Dear Drugs-Forum readers: We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. We serve over 4 million readers per month, and have costs like all popular websites: servers, hosting, licenses and software. To protect our independence we do not run ads. We take no government funds. We run on donations which average $25. If everyone reading this would donate $5 then this fund raiser would be done in an hour. If Drugs-Forum is useful to you, take one minute to keep it online another year by donating whatever you can today. Donations are currently not sufficient to pay our bills and keep the site up. Your help is most welcome. Thank you.
    PLEASE HELP

The Physiology, Signaling, and Pharmacology of Dopamine Receptors

The Physiology, Signaling, and Pharmacology of Dopamine Receptors

  1. methylman251
    Jean-Martin Beaulieu and Raul R. Gainetdinov
    Pharmacological Reviews March 2011 vol. 63 no. 1 182-217

    G protein-coupled dopamine receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) mediate all of the physiological functions of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, ranging from voluntary movement and reward to hormonal regulation and hypertension. Pharmacological agents targeting dopaminergic neurotransmission have been clinically used in the management of several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Huntington's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD1), and Tourette's syndrome. Numerous advances have occurred in understanding the general structural, biochemical, and functional properties of dopamine receptors that have led to the development of multiple pharmacologically active compounds that directly target dopamine receptors, such as antiparkinson drugs and antipsychotics. Recent progress in understanding the complex biology of dopamine receptor-related signal transduction mechanisms has revealed that, in addition to their primary action on cAMP-mediated signaling, dopamine receptors can act through diverse signaling mechanisms that involve alternative G protein coupling or through G protein-independent mechanisms via interactions with ion channels or proteins that are characteristically implicated in receptor desensitization, such as β-arrestins. One of the future directions in managing dopamine-related pathologic conditions may involve a transition from the approaches that directly affect receptor function to a precise targeting of postreceptor intracellular signaling modalities either directly or through ligand-biased signaling pharmacology. In this comprehensive review, we discuss dopamine receptor classification, their basic structural and genetic organization, their distribution and functions in the brain and the periphery, and their regulation and signal transduction mechanisms. In addition, we discuss the abnormalities of dopamine receptor expression, function, and signaling that are documented in human disorders and the current pharmacology and emerging trends in the development of novel therapeutic agents that act at dopamine receptors and/or on related signaling events.