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Urinary endogenous concentrations of GHB and its isomers in healthy humans and diabetics (N Shima et

Urinary endogenous concentrations of GHB and its isomers in healthy humans and diabetics (N Shima et

  1. ThirdEyeFloond
    Forensic Science International 149 (2005) 171–179

    Noriaki Shima, Akihiro Miki, Tooru Kamata, Munehiro Katagi,
    Hitoshi Tsuchihashi

    Abstract
    Urinary endogenous concentrations of g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a-hydroxybutyric acid (AHB) and b-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) have been investigated for both healthy humans and diabetics by using a newly optimized GC–MS procedure. The endogenous concentrations in healthy volunteers’ urine ranged 0.16–2.14 mg/ml for GHB, 0.10–2.68 mg/ml for AHB and 8.51– 34.7 mg/ml for BHB. In diabetics, the concentrations ranged 0.17–3.03 mg/ml for GHB, 0.14–124 mg/ml for AHB and 4.94–4520 mg/ml for BHB. Although notably elevated BHB and AHB concentrations were observed for severely uncontrolled diabetics, their GHB concentrations ranged within or near the range seen in healthy humans. The results of this study confirm the previously suggested 10 mg/ml cutoff concentration of urinary GHB to distinguish exogenous GHB, even for uncontrolled diabetic patients suffering severe ketoacidosis.