A FEW QUESTIONS ABOUT SCULLCAP, & OTHERS

Discussion in 'Ethnobotanicals' started by IceBurn, Feb 25, 2004.

  1. IceBurn

    IceBurn Newbie

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    Hi,



    I'm very new to ethnobotanicals. I really wanted to try some herbs, especially Dream herb, and Passion flower since it helps people fall asleep (I have insomnia).



    Here's my problem. I brought skullcap, dream herb, and passion flower (the whole flower not just foilage). The site that I brought it from did mention how it is taken, but it doesn't really give directions. Like how much to use if I was to brew it into a tea. Or how much is enough to use as a smoke. I am basically experimenting with these but I want to make sure I do this right.



    They didn't have much information about skullcap so if you have more information about it please write to me <img border="0" src= "smileys/smiley4.gif">



    I am also looking for an herb that can be smoked that will help me "see God" as my friend puts it. I am an artist and writer and I am curious about something that will give me some inspiration. She suggested shrooms but they are illegal in the U.S. so I want something that is legal (pigs are everywhere in New York now and search everyone whenever they can find an excuse). <img border="0" src= "smileys/smiley11.gif"> </font>
     
  2. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Calea Zacatechichi (Leaf of god/bitter leaf) a shrub, native from Mexico to Costa Rica. It is used by the Chontals of Oaxaca as well as other meso-american tribes. Dreams are important in mesoamerican cultures. They are believed to occur in a realm of suprasensory reality and, therefore, are capable of conveying divine messages. They take it to 'clarify the senses' and to enable one to communicate with the spirit world. After drinking a BITTER tea from the shrub's crushed dried leaves, the Chontal lies down in a quiet place meditates and smokes a cigarette made of the dried leaves. In native folk medicine calea is also used for gastrointestinal disorders, fever and nausea. Resent studies show that Calea Zacatechichi produces ' significantly more meaningful dreams'. In human healthy volunteers, low doses of the extracts administered in a double-blind design against placebo increased reaction time end time-lapse estimation. A controlled nap sleep study in the same volunteers showed that Calea extracts increased the superficial stages of sleep and the number of spontaneous awakenings. The subjective reports of dreams were significantly higher than both placebo and diazepam, indicating an increase in hypnagogic imagery occurring during superficial sleep stages.Other techniques are breathing the stream from the boiling tea and placing a little bit of the herb under your bottom lip while you sleep & dream, and putting leaves under your pillow at night.


    Smoke a 50/50 joint calea/tabacco for a good high. Drinking Calea is so foul that I cannot do it.


    Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) grows originally in Asia and North-America, but is cultivated almost everywhere. The most important active ingredients belong to the harmala alkaloids, such as harmine and harmaline.


    Effects
    It is used as a sedative in nervous disorders (including gastrointestinal complaints of nervous origin), difficulties in sleeping, and anxiety or restlessness. Passion Flower reduces spasms and depresses the central nervous system.
    In larger quantities it can have an mild hallucinogenic effect and combined with magic mushrooms it will make the trip stronger.


    Usage:
    Passionflower is often combined with other herbs such as Damiana, Lobelia, Skullcap and Hop (Humulus lupulus).
    Passionflower can also be drunk as tea. Steep 30 grams (1 oz.) in hot water for half an hour.


    I can advise Salvia extract to you. I do not know if you'll see god, but you'll sure see some weird stuff.
     
  3. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Calea Zacatechichi, Dream Herb
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18 (1986) 229-243 Elsevier Scientific
    Publishers Ireland Ltd
    PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF AN ALLEGED
    ONEIROGENIC PLANT: CALEA ZACATECHICHI

    Lilian MAYAGOITIA. Jose-Luis DIAZ and Carlos M. CONTRERAS

    Departamenta de Psicobiologia y Cunducto, Instituto Mexicano de
    Psiquiatria, Antiguo

    Camino a Xochimilco 101, San Lorenzo Huipulco Tlalpan 14370 y
    Departamento de Fisiologia. Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional
    Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70228. Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510
    (Mexico, D.F.)

    (8 octobre 1986)


    Resume

    Calea zacatechichi is a plant used by the Chontal Indians of Mexico to
    obtain divinatory messages during dreaming. At human doses, organic
    extracts of the plant produce the EEG and behavioral signs of somnolence
    and induce light sleep in cats. Large doses elicit salivation, ataxia.
    retching and occasional vomiting. The effects of the plant upon cingulum
    discharge frequency were significantly different from oneirogenic
    drugs (ketamine, quipazine, phencyclidine and SKF-10017). In
    human healthy volunteers, low doses of the extracts administered in a
    double-blind design against placebo increased reaction time end time-lapse
    estimation. A controlled nap sleep study in the same volunteers showed
    that Calea extracts increased the superficial stages of sleep and the
    number of spontaneous awakenings. The subjective reports of dreams
    were significantly higher than both placebo and diazepam, indicating an
    increase in hypnagogic imagery occurring during superficial sleep stages.

    Introduction

    Dreams are important in mesoamerican cultures. They are believed to
    occur in a realm of suprasensory reality and, therefore, are capable of
    conveying messages (Lopez-Auatin. 1980). The use of plant preparations in
    order to produce or to enhance dreams of a divinatory nature constitutes
    an ethnopharmacological category that can be called "oneiromancy" and
    which justifies rigorous neuropharmacological research.
    There are several plants used in Indian communities of Mexico to obtain
    divinatory messages from dreams. Several puffball mushrooms
    (Lycoperdon spp.), wrongly reported as hallucinogens (Ott et al., 1975),
    are eaten fresh by Mixtec Indians before going to bed in order to dream (Diaz,
    1975. 1979). Nahuatl Indians from the Sierra de Puebla use an as yet
    unidentified species of Salvia, known by the name of Xiouit, for the same
    purpose (T. Knab, pers. commun.). The plant known as Bacana to the
    Tarahumara Indians, which has been reported to be an analgesic,
    antipsychotic and divinatory agent(Bye. 1979), was later found to be
    employed for dreaming during night sleep (William Merrill, pers.
    commun.). Finally, Calea zacatechichi Schl. (Compositae) is used in the
    same context by the Chontal Indians of Oaxaca.
    C. zacatechichi is a plant of extensive popular medicinal use in Mexico
    (Diaz. 1976). An infusion of the plant (roots. leaves and stem) is employed
    against gastrointestinal disorders, as an appetiser,cholagogue, cathartic.
    antidysentry remedy, and has also been reported to be an effective
    febrifuge. With other aromatic Compositae, dry C. zacatechichi is used as
    insecticide (Diet, 1975). There is also some information concerning
    psychotropic properties of this plant that require further clarification
    (Schultes and Hofmann, 1973).
    The pioneer study on the appetiser properties of zacatechichi, conducted
    at the Instituto Medico Nacional of Mexico, mentioned some psychotropic
    effects (Sandoval, 1882). MacDougall (1968) reported that a Chontal
    informant knew that the leaves of the plant were to be either smoked or
    drunk as an infusion to obtain divinatory messages. Subsequent
    interviews with MacDougall's informant and active participation in
    ceremonial ingestion revealed that the plant is used for divination during
    dreaming (Diaz, 1975). Whenever it is desired to know the cause of an
    illness or the location of a distant or lost person, dry leaves of the plant
    are smoked, drunk and put under the pillow before going to sleep.
    Reportedly, the answer to the question comes in a dream. A collection of
    interviews and written reports concerning the psychotropic effects of
    these; preparations on 12 volunteers has been published (Diaz. 1975, 1979). Free,
    reports and direct questioning disclosed a discrete enhancement of all
    sensorial perceptions, an increase in imagery, mild thought discontinuity,
    rapid flux of ideas and difficulties in retrieval. These effects were followed
    by somnolence and a short sleep during which lively dreams were reported
    by the majority of the volunteers. These preliminary observations
    suggested that the psychotropic effects of the plant were similar to those
    interesting from ethnobotanical. psychological and neuropharmacological
    of the "cognodysleptic" drugs, whose prototype is Cannabis saltva
    (Diaz, 1979). The possible effects upon dreaming are the most
    perspectives .
    C. zacatechichi is a shrub measuring 1-1,5 m in height. The plant has
    many branches with oviform and opposite leaves (3-5 cm long and 2-4 cm
    wide). The leaves show serrated borders, acute endings and a short petiole.
    They are rugose and pubescent. The inflorescence is small and dense
    (comprising around 12 flowers each) with the pedicels shorter than the
    heads (Martinet, 1939). The plant grows from Mexico to Costa Rica in dry
    savannas and canyons (Schultes and Hoffmann, 1973). The name of the
    species comes from Nahuatl "zacatechichi" which means "bitter grass' and
    is the common name of the plant all over Mexico. It is also known with the
    Spanish names of "zacate de perro" (dog's grass), "hoja madre" (mother's
    leaf) "hoja de dies" (Cod's leaf), and thle-pela-kano in Chontal Diaz, 1975).
    Several sesquiterpene lactones had been isolated from the plant. Calaxin
    and ciliarin were identified by Ortega et al. (1970), and the
    germacranolides, 1B-acetoxy zacatechinolide and l-oxo zacatechinolide, by
    Bohlmann and Zdero (1977). Quijano at al. (1977. 1978) identified
    caleocromenes A and B and caleins A and B. while Ramos (1979) found
    caleicins I and II. Herz and Kumar (1980) isolated acacetin, o-methyl
    acacetin, zexbrevin and an analogue, as well as several analogues of
    budlein A and neurolenin B, including calein A. C. zacatechichi samples
    show differences in chemical composition, which has led Bohlmann et al.
    (1981) to suggest that chemical taxonomy may help to reclassify the
    genus. Further taxonomic work is required since our Chontal informant
    distinguishes between "good" and "bad" varieties according to their
    psychotropic properties.

    In the present paper we report some properties of zacatechichi extracts
    upon cat behaviour and EEG, human reaction time, nap EEG, and
    subjective experiences.

    Materials and methods

    Plant collection and extract preparations:
    "Good" samples of C. zacatechichi were collected under the guidance of
    the Chontal informant near Tehuantepec, Oaxaca during November, 1978.
    Specimens of this collection were identified by Dr. Miguel Angel Martinet
    Alfaro at the National Herbarium of Mexico as C. zacatechichi despite the
    Fact that there were minor morphological differences relative to previously
    collected material. The samples were identical with collections made in the
    area of the isthmus of Tehuantepec.
    One kilogram of the dried plant (stem and leaves) was mashed and
    extracted with hexane until exhaustion in a Soxhlet apparatus. This
    fraction was dried and 308 of an solvent-free hexane extract were
    obtained. The remaining material was thoroughly extracted with methanol
    and the organic fraction evaporated. This procedure resulted in 86 g of a
    solvent-free gummy residue called the methanol extract. Both extracts
    were separated in fractions and packed in gelatin capsules for
    pharmacological experiments. The dose was estimated in the following
    manner: the human dose for divinatory purposes reported by the Chontal
    informant is "a handful" of the dried plant. Since the mean weight of
    many handfuls taken by several people was 60 g. we decided that the
    average human dose (HD-1) is around 1 g/kg of dried-mashed material.
    Therefore, the HD-1 for the hexane extract was 30 mg/kg, and 86 mg/kg for
    the methanol extract. In the experiments with cats. doses of HD-2. -4. -6
    and -10 of both extracts were used. The EEG effects of C. zacatechichi
    extracts were compared with those elicited by phencyclidine (Bio-ceutic
    Laboratories), quipazine (Miles Research Products),ketamine (Parke
    Davis) and SKF-10047 (Smith Kline B French), and industrial solvent
    toluene which can produce the appearance of 6 cps spike and wave
    activity in the cingulum of cats. During the appearance of this
    electrographic activity,animals show oneiromimetic behaviour (Conteras
    et al.. 1979, 1984).

    Behavioral toxicology in cats

    This first experiment was performed in order to assess the possible toxic
    behavioral effects of C. zacatechichi extracts. For this purpose three male
    cats (3 kg each) were used. Observations were done from 1300 to 1500 h in
    a sound-attenuated recording chamber (109 x 76 x 74 cm) with a triple-glass
    wall. Each animal was placed in the cage and its behavior was recorded for
    1 h prior to oral administration of a gelatin capsule (25 x 8 mm)
    containing a zacatechichi extract and 2 h thereafter. Each capsule was placed inside
    the mouth and swallowing was forced by giving 2-3 ml of saline solution.
    The extracts (methanol or hexane) and doses (HD-1, HD-2. HD-4. HD-10)
    were randomly assigned and tested only once. Two cats were observed
    three times and the third animal twice. Between tests each animal was
    allowed to rest for 6 days. Sampling ad libitum (Altmann. 1974) was used
    to evaluate the cats' response. Attention was given to abnormal behaviors
    such as ataxia, bizarre postures and movements directed to non-existing
    objects (Fischer. 1969).

    EEG activity in cats

    Several common EEG effects to a series of oneiromimetic compounds
    have been reported by Winters et al. (1972). A dissociative action in
    multi-unitary activity between the reticular formation and basolateral
    amygdala and a hypersynchronic rhythm (2-3 cpa) in cortical recording are
    the two most characteristic features. Tracheal administration of
    neurotoxic industrial solvents produce limbic discharges while cats display
    "hallucinatory behavior" (Contreras et al., 1979). The following experiment
    was designed to ascertain whether C. zacatechichi extracts share these
    neurophysiological actions.
    Six adult male cats were stereotaxically implanted with stainless steel
    concentric bipolar electrodes in the basolateral amygdala, the septum and
    cingulum according to the atlas of Snider and Niemer (1961). Epidural
    electrodes were placed on the cortex at the marginal circumvolution. After
    surgery the animals were allowed a & 1 week recovery period. Each cat was
    used as its own control and the effects of oral administration of
    zacatechichi extracts (HD-6) were compared to those of phencyclidine
    (400 ug/kg i.m.), quipazine (10 mg/kg i.p.), ketamine (6 mg/kg i.m.) and
    SKF-10047 (3 mg/kg i.m.). These drugs are dissociative psychodysleptics
    and produce 6 cps wave-and-spike activity in cingulum recording in
    addition to the characteristic hypersynchronic rhythm (Contreras at al.,
    1984). In each experiment, control recordings were taken in addition to
    t 60 min and + 120 min after drug administration.

    Reaction Time and Time-lapse estimation in humans

    Measurement of reaction time to a light flash and the ability to calculate
    fixed lapse times in humans allows the identification of hypnotic
    compounds (Fernandez-Guardiola et al., 1972). Objective evaluations of
    time perception modification by marihuana have been achieved with the
    same technique (Fernandez-Cuardiola et al., 1974). From the experiments
    performed in cats it appeared that zacatechichi had hypnotic properties.
    Therefore, we chose this experimental paradigm to evaluate human effects.
    The study was performed in 5 healthy volunteers (3 women and 2 men.
    ages 23-34) according to the procedure described by Fernandez-Guardiola
    et al. (1972, 1974). The subjects were informed about the experiment and
    the known effects of the plant and a written consent was obtained.
    Capsules containing either a Calea extract (HD-1) or placebo were
    administered 1 H before the task in a double-blind randomised design,
    where neither the volunteers nor the evaluator knew which substance had
    been ingested. The first session did not involve the administration of any
    substance in order to habituate the subjects to the experimental
    manipulations. Physiological responses recorded included EEG,
    electromyogram, electrocardiogram, and galvanic akin response. All
    sessions were done at the same time period (1700-1820 h). A complete
    session consisted of alternated 10-min periods for reaction-time evaluation
    and 10-min periods for time-lapse estimation. In the reaction-time periods.
    the subjects were instructed to press a button with their dominant hand as
    soon as possible after a light wee dashed. Intervals between consecutive
    Bashes were of 10-s duration. In the following 10 min, alternating with the
    reaction-time periods, the subjects were asked to estimate the dash
    intervals by pressing the button each time they thought the light should
    have been dashed. The entire test lasted 80 min. Analysis of variance was
    used to assess results between and within individuals, the protected "t"
    and Least Significant Difference tests were used in paired comparisons.

    Sleep recordings in humans

    The conventional procedure for EEG recording of sleep (Rechtschaffen
    and hales. 1968) was used in a similar double-blind randomized design
    which, in this case, included a low dose of an active hypnotic drug
    (diazepam, 2ยท5 mg orally). In order to standardize the nap session, all
    volunteers were asked to reduce their normal sleep time by 2 h the night
    before testing. The extract, diazepam or placebo capsule was ingested 1 H
    prior to the recording session (17-19 h). The physiological variables
    recorded included respiratory and heart rates, number of nap episodes.
    total time spent in wakefulness (W). in slow wave sleep stages (SWS stages
    I to IV) and in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM) (Rechtschaffen and Kales,
    1968). The respiratory rate was recorded by means of a thermistor located
    in the nostril and connected to a polygraph amplifier measuring the air
    temperature in each inhalation-exhalation cycle. This is an indirect method
    which provides the frequency and amplitude of respiratory rate. Data
    analyses were done by means of factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA).
    For paired comparisons, the Student Newman-Keuls test was used.

    Dream reports

    The psychological effects of Calea extracts were evaluated by the
    application of directed questionnaires and analysis of free reports of the
    subjective sensations and dreams in all human volunteers after the
    reaction-time, nap sessions and the following night. Neither the subjects.
    the interviewer nor the evaluator knew whether the individual had taken a
    plant extract, diazepam, or placebo. The results were compared by the
    binomial test.

    Results and discussion

    Behavioral toxicology in cats

    Some minor behavioral changes were observed with low doses of both
    extracts (HD-1 and HD-2). The cats stared for long periods of time and
    30 min after the administration of the zacatechichi extracts somnolence
    and sleep were frequently observed. The HD-4 and HD-1O doses of the
    hexane extract produced ataxia, bilateral contractions of nasal and
    maxillar muscles, and stereotyped pendulum head movements. The HD-10
    dose also induced salivation with vomiting occurring about 90 min after
    administration. The methanol extract produced ataxia (HD-4) and
    compulsive grooming (HD-2). A common toxic effect of both extracts
    (doses HD4 and HD-10) was retching and thick salivation.
    It was not clear if these effects were elicited by direct central nervous
    system stimulation or in response to local gastric irritation caused by
    some bitter principle of the plant. This activity was noted by Giral and
    Ladabaum (1959) and may be responsible for the appetiser properties of C.
    zacatechichi. Stare and pendular head movements can be elicited by several
    psychotropic drugs such as toluene (Alcaraz et al., 1977; Contreras et al.,
    1977), quipazine (Sales et al.. 1966, 1968) and dopamine agonists (Ernst.
    1967). These effects are,therefore, not specific for any one of the several
    classes of psychotropic compounds. Moreover, staring and pendular head
    movements may merely be indications of somnolence. In order to analyse
    more precisely the neural effects, electrophysiological recordings were
    taken in free-moving cats.

    EEG activity in cats

    Both plant extracts produced similar EEG changes which were very
    different from the other drugs used(Fig. 1). The hexane extract induced 3
    cps large voltage rhythms in the cortex, cingulum and septum while the
    methanol extract provoked 8 slowing of the EEG rhythm more
    predominant in subcortical structures. Somnolence was observed during
    the appearance of these changes. A quantitative analysis of frequency of
    discharge in the cingulum was performed for all drugs tested (Fig. 2). The
    hexane extract produced only minor changes while the methanol extract
    clearly decreased the frequency. This response is in contrast to the known
    psychodysleptic compounds which produce decreases of 6-7 cps (Contreras:-
    et al.. 1984).

    The results of these experiments show that zacatechichi does not share
    the neurophysiological effects of the dissociative psychodysleptics and
    only induces the behavioral and EEG signs of somnolence and sleep. The
    apparent low toxicity of the plant in these experiments and its history of
    ethnobotanical use allowed us to ascertain the hypnotic potency, dream-
    inducing effects and other psychotropic properties in human beings.

    Reaction time and time-lapse estimation in humans

    No differences among the three treatments were found for human
    rate, galvanic skin response and EEG recordings. With the methanol extract, short periods of sleep (stage I) usually appeared between flash intervals, and the subjects were awakened by the light. Both extracts
    produced a statistically significant slowness of reaction-time (Fig. 3):
    250 ms with placebo, 280 ms with hexane extract and 290 ms with
    methanol extract (P &lt; 0.01). Similarly, the IO-s lapse was overestimated
    with the zacatechichi extracts (Fig. 4). The methanol extract increased
    estimation by 3 s on average (P &lt; 0.001). Both extracts increased
    respiratory rate, but this change was not significantly different from
    controls.

    The characteristic EEG slowness and the increased reaction times of
    subjects treated with both extracts suggested that zacatechichi may
    contain hypnotic compounds. Moreover, a larger effect was elicited by the
    methanol extract suggesting that the active compounds might be found in
    the polar fractions. An increase in time-lapse estimation and a weak
    respiratory analeptic effects have been reported after marihuana
    administration (Fernandez-Guardiola et al., 1974).

    Sleep recordings in humans

    Since the experiment just discussed did not allow an analysis of sleep
    stages, the possibility of sleep and dream modifications by zacatechichi
    was tested in a nap study conducted in the same human volunteers.
    Heart rate, total time and frequency of each stage of sleep did not
    change with any treatment in comparison to placebo (Fig. 5). However. it
    was found that the frequency of W and SWS-IV stages were significantly
    modified by treatments (W F(3,32)= 5.28, P &lt; 0.01; SWS-IV F(3,32) = 3.35.

    P&lt;0.05). Post-hoc paired comparisons showed that, upon onset of sleep,
    the methanol extract and diazepam increased significantly the frequency of
    W stages (P &lt; 0.05) when compared to placebo. In contrast, methanol
    extract and diazepam decreased significantly (P &lt; 0.05) the number of
    SWS-IV stages. The other stages of sleep were not significantly modified
    by treatments. SWS-I and SWS-II showed a light increase in comparison
    to placebo and, in contrast, SWS-III and REM stages decreased slightly.
    Respiratory rate was significantly modified by treatments (F(3,400)=
    79.92, P &lt; 0.005). Paired comparisons showed that the methanol extract
    increased (P &lt; 0.05) when compared to all other treatments (Fig. 6).
    Although this small increase may lack physiological relevance, it does
    suggest a pharmacological effect upon respiratory rate.

    These results support the idea that zacatechichi extracts, particularly
    the methanol fraction, contain compounds with activity equivalent to sub-
    hypnotic diazepam doses. Ingestion of the plant produces a light hypnotic
    state with a decrease of both deep slow-wave sleep and REM periods. The
    question of the ethnobotanical use and open trial reports of dream
    enhancement was studied in the following section by the evaluation of
    subjective reports during the sleep study.

    Dream reports

    The quantitative results concerning hypnagogic imagery and dreams are
    summarizsd in Table 1. Data from the reaction-time and the nap sessions
    end the following night were pooled. Significantly more dreams (P &lt; 001,
    in comparison to placebo) were reported after the methanol extract.
    Similarly, the number of dreams reported during naps was significantly
    higher following the administration of the plant extracts than with
    diazepam (P &lt; 0.01). It can be appreciated that, although not significant,
    the number of dreams reported was greater after the ingestion of Calea
    extracts than placebo. A more detailed analysis of dream content is shown
    in Table 2. The number of subjects that did not remember dreaming was
    always greater after placebo and diazepam administration and, conversely,
    the individuals that reported more than one dream per session were always
    the ones treated with zacatechichi extracts. The dreams reported by
    subjects ingesting Calea extracts, were of a shorter content (measured by
    the number of lines written in the report). Spontaneous reports of
    emotions and nightmares were not different among the four treatments.

    Nevertheless, with the methanol extract more colors during dreaming were
    mentioned .

    These results show that zacatechichi administration appears to enhance
    the number and/or recollection of dreams during sleeping periods. The data
    are in agreement with the oneirogenic reputation of the plant among the
    Chontal Indians but stand in apparent contradiction to the EEG sleep-
    study results. It is well known that dreaming activity is correlated to the
    REM or paradoxical phase of sleep (Aserinsky and Kleitman, 1953) and it
    could be expected that a compound that increases dream would also

    increase REM stage frequency or duration, as it has been shown to occur
    with physostigmine (Sitaram et al., 1978). In contrast, zacatechichi
    increases the stages of slow wave sleep and apparently decreases REM
    sleep. This also occurs with low doses 12-10 mg) of diazepam (Harvey,
    1982). Despite this similarity in EEG effects, diazepam decreases dreaming
    reports (Firth, 1974) while zacatechichi extracts enhances them. Such
    discrepancy may be explained by the fact that dreaming and imagery are
    not restricted to the REM episodes but also occur during slow wave sleep
    (SWS I and II) as lively hypnagogic images (Roffwarg et al., 1962). Such
    images are reported as brief dreams and are known to be enhanced by
    cannabis sativa (Hollister, 1971). All this suggests that Calea zacatechichi
    induces episodes of lively hypnagogic imagery during slow wave stage I of sleep,
    a psychophysiological effect that would be the basis of the ethnobotanical
    use of the plant as an oneirogenic and oneiromantic agent.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors wish to express their gratitude to Dr. Alfredo Ortega for
    advice in the preparation of the plant extracts.
     
  4. poorphucker

    poorphucker Newbie

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    Hello I have recently recieved both passion flower and damiana and have smoked them and am gonna make a strong tea soon to see what I think. But I do have a question pertaining to the passion flower and its use with shrooms (which is what I got it for). How would it best be taken with the shrooms? How much would be an adequate portion like in some sort of ratio? And, what would be the best place to go for any info that might be floating around on the net? Any suggestions?


    thanks
     
  5. sands of time

    sands of time Gold Member

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    Syrian rue also contains harmala alkaloids but it is very foul tasting.
     
  6. xxgaretjaxx

    xxgaretjaxx Newbie

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    As for skullcap, if you plan on smoking it, you better plan on smoking
    the whole quantity you have in one day. Making an extraction can
    provide more intense effects, but scutellarian is just not the greatest
    chemical to ingest. I would try placing 30g of skullcap into a
    mixture of everclear and water. Let the whole mixture sit for 24
    hours. Strain the liquid into a pyrex baking pan. Repeat
    the process with the used foilage several times. Evaporate the
    liquid and scrape the resin that is left. Place resin in capsules
    and enjoy or not enjoy. I would recommend starting with a real
    small dosage. In my few experiences using a scutellarian extract,
    the extract provides effects similar to a low benzo dose.