Amphetamine Information

Discussion in 'Amphetamine' started by Sitbcknchill, Apr 30, 2005.

  1. Sitbcknchill

    Sitbcknchill Retired Platinum Member & Advisor Donating Member

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    Various general information about amphetamines from various different sources...this might get kind of long...but I do not need confirmation of such...so no "dude way to long" posts.

    Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally studied (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. It was first synthesized in 1887 by the German Chemist L. Edeleano, which he called "phenylisopropylamine." Amphetamine and its derivatives (amphetamines) are part of a broader class of compounds called phenethylamines.

    Amphetamine is a synthetic stimulant used to suppress the appetite, control weight, and treat disorders including narcolepsy and ADHD. It is also used recreationally and for performance enhancement. These uses are illegal in most countries. It is a commonly abused drug. Amphetamine can be snorted, taken orally, smoked, or injected.

    When the drug is snorted, smoked or injected, the effects can be felt within a few minutes, but the duration is usually lessened compared to oral administration. When taken orally, the effects of the drug tend to feel "smoother" and are generally longer-lasting.

    First synthesized in 1887 Germany, amphetamine was for a long time, a drug in search of a disease. Nothing was done with the drug, from its discovery (synthesis) until the late 1920's, when it was seriously investigated as a cure or treatment against a variety of illnesses and maladies.

    These included epilepsy, schizophrenia, alcoholism, opiate addiction, migraine, head injuries, and irradiation sickness, among many others.

    In 1927 it was found to raise blood pressure, enlarge nasal and bronchial passages, and stimulate the central nervous system.

    In 1932, amphetamine was marketed as Benzedrine in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion (for asthmatics, hay fever sufferers, and people with colds).

    In 1935 physicians successfully used it to treat narcolepsy (a condition characterized by brief attacks of deep sleep that can occur at anytime of the day).

    In 1937 amphetamine was found to have a positive effect on some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). People with ADHD have difficulty concentrating.

    When given amphetamine, some people with ADHD notably improve their concentration and performance. Instead of making ADHD sufferers more jumpy, as might be expected, amphetamine calms them down.

    By 1937 amphetamine was available by prescription in tablet form.

    In 1971, there were 31 amphetamine preparations being distributed by 15 pharmaceutical companies. Legal production was over 12 billion pills a year.

    Chronic amphetamine use can cause severe psychological dependence. Long-term use can result in extreme exhaustion and malnutrition.

    Effects

    Amphetamines release stores of norepinephrine from nerve endings, thus promoting nerve impulse transmission. The behavioral effects of amphetamine itself comes from its action on the monoamine transporter DAT (dopamine transporter) which leads to an increase in the amount of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. Other amphetamines may have other modes of action.


    Physiological effects

    Short-term physiological effects include decreased hunger, increased stamina and physical energy, increased sexual drive/response, increased social responsiveness, involuntary bodily movements, increased perspiration, hyperactivity, nausea, itchy, blotchy or greasy skin, and headaches.

    Long-term or overdose effects can include tremor, restlessness, changed sleep patterns, poor skin condition, hyperreflexia, tachypnea, lowered immune system effectiveness. Fatigue and depression can follow the excitement stage. Erectile dysfunction, heart problems, stroke, and liver, kidney and lung damage can result from prolonged use. When snorted, amphetamine can lead to a deterioration of the lining of the nostrils.


    Psychological effects

    Short-term psychological effects can include euphoria, increased concentration, rapid talking, increased confidence, nystagmus (eye wiggles), hallucinations, and loss of REM sleep (dreaming) the night after use.

    Long term psychological effects can include insomnia, mental states resembling schizophrenia, aggressiveness, addiction with accompanying withdrawal symptoms, irritability, confusion, and panic. Chronic use can lead to amphetamine psychosis which causes delusions and paranoia. But this is very uncommon when taken as prescribed.


    Medical use

    Like Ritalin, amphetamine is one of the standard treatments of ADHD. Its effects on ADHD is improved impulse control, improved concentration, decreased sensory overstimulation and decreased irritability. This results in an overall calming effect.

    When used within the recommended doses, side effects like loss of appetite appear only initially.

    Amphetamines are also a standard treatment for narcolepsy.

    Amphetamines are sometimes used to augment anti-depressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression.

    Medical use for weight loss is still approved in some countries, but is regarded as obsolete in the United States.


    Performance enhancing use

    Amphetamine is usually not used by athletes whose sport involves extreme cardiovascular workout, as methamphetamine and amphetamine put a great deal of stress on the heart.

    The United States Air Force uses amphetamines (Adderall) as stimulants for pilots, calling them "go pills".

    Amphetamines have recently become popular among factory workers whose jobs require automatic, repetitive tasks. It is for this reason that they are sometimes labeled a "redneck drug". They are also abused by white collar workers trying to stay alert during long hours of multitasking.


    Legal issues

    In the United Kingdom, amphetamines are regarded as Class B drugs. The maximum penalty for unauthorised possession is three months imprisonment and a £2,500 fine.

    In the United States, amphetamine and methamphetamine are Schedule II controlled drugs, classified as a CNS (Central Nervous System) Stimulant. A Schedule II drug is classified as one that: has a high potential for abuse, has a currently accepted medical use and is used under severe restrictions, and has a high possibility of severe psychological and physiological dependence.

    Methamphetamine, more potent and easier to make than amphetamine, was discovered in Japan in 1919. The crystalline powder was soluble in water, making it a perfect candidate for injection. It is still legally produced in the U.S., sold under the trade name Desoxyn.

    During World War II, amphetamines were widely used to keep the fighting men going (during the Viet Nam war, American soldiers used more amphetamines than the rest of the world did during WWII).

    In Japan, intravenous methamphetamine abuse reached epidemic proportions immediately after World War II, when supplies stored for military use became available to the public.

    In the United States in the 1950s, legally manufactured tablets of both dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) and methamphetamine (Methedrine) became readily available and were used non medically by college students, truck drivers, and athletes.

    As use of amphetamines spread, so did their abuse. Amphetamines became a cure-all for such things as weight control to treating mild depression.


    Popular Personalities who were speed users include:

    Adolph Hitler (took daily injections and tablets)
    John F. Kennedy (shot amphetamine occasionally)
    Charlie Parker (benzedrine in his coffee)
    Lenny Bruce
    Judy Garland
    Johnny Cash
    Elvis Presley


    Amphetamines And Cocaine

    In 1914 the U.S. federal government classified cocaine as a narcotic (which it is not) and outlawed it. The only way a person could get it after that was with a prescription, or illegally.

    In the 1920s cocaine use declined, and that decline was to become more so in the 1930s, when amphetamine (speed) became popular among drug users.

    Amphetamine was appealing to cocaine users because the high it produced was much like that of cocaine. It did not deliver quite the same peak, but its effects lasted longer. More significantly, it was cheap, readily available and legal. The cost of the amphetamines was as low as 75 cents per thousand tablets at wholesale as recently as the 1960s.

    With the appearance of legally obtainable amphetamine, cocaine use declined considerably. Cocaine use remained low until all amphetamines, including meth became illegal (without a prescription) in 1965 when amendments to the federal food and drug laws were passed.

    These laws were passed to stop the trade in black market amphetamines, barbiturates and other psychoactive drugs. It became hard for users to get legally manufactured amphetamines.

    Because amphetamines were made illegal people started, and continue, to manufacture amphetamines in home labs. It was also the beginning of a new wave of cocaine popularity that also continues to this day (the first wave of cocaine popularity began in the 1880s and pretty much died by the mid 1930s).


    Books

    Advanced Techniques of Clandestine Psychedelic & Amphetamine Manufacture

    Covers a variety of topics in the field of clandestine chemistry. Making amphetamines, MDMA (ecstasy), and other similar chemicals is what you will learn. If you have a good grasp of chemistry and know your way around a chemistry lab, you could be producing your own medicine in no time.

    Includes lessons on obtaining the chemicals needed to produce your chosen chemical, hydrogenation methods using electrically generated hydrogen, phenylacetone syntheses, methylamine synthesis, making bromosafrole or related substances, and more.
    Advanced Techniques of Clandestine...



    Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture:
    Including Recipes for MDA, Ecstasy, And Other Psychedelic Amphetamines

    It's filled with some great info, and after talking with people who actually manufacture drugs, this book is very accurate.

    If you want to make psychedelic amphetamines yourself and are already familiar with chemistry you should have no problem producing your own with the aid of this book.

    The manufacturing process is complex and dangerous, so if you have no prior chemistry or meth experience, producing meth is not recommended.
    Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture



    Speed Culture:
    Amphetamine Use and Abuse in America

    The only non biased, factual book about the history of speed I have found in print. Written in 1975, it doesn't cover recent history, but does give a good history up to the time of publication.

    It was written by the author of Marihuana Reconsidered and describes how amphetamines have been used both medically and recreationally in the United States.
    Speed Culture



    Total Synthesis II

    Comprehensive and detailed book on the underground production of ecstasy and amphetamines. Step by step synthesis recipes are given in extensive detail.

    Chemists from around the world have contributed their favorite recipes and comments to provide the reader with massive insight and options. Lots of explanatory notes that seem to get omitted from a lot of journals.

    A couple of semesters of organic chemistry lab are required. You will need some real chemistry knowledge if you want to even think about attempting a lot of stuff in this book.
    Total Synthesis II
     
  2. Sitbcknchill

    Sitbcknchill Retired Platinum Member & Advisor Donating Member

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    worried mother-

    I have moved your posts and responses from here into your own topic in the Recovery and addiction forum....
     
    Last edited: Dec 16, 2005
  3. HandyMan81

    HandyMan81 Titanium Member

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    Amphetamine Sulfate

    Hi,

    10 years of Amphetamine use (and lots of other drugs) made me a streetwise expert of Amphetamine.:cool:
    When living in the Netherlands it would be hard to get MethAmphetamine but expectations are a growing number of Meth users in the next 2 years.
    A brief explanation about Amphetamine (In the Netherlands, when talked about "speed" most people mean Amphetamine sulfate).

    Medicinal use:

    The experimental medical use of Amphetamines began in the 1920s. It was introduced in most of the world in the form of the pharmaceutical Benzedrine in the late 1920s. The drug was used by the militaries of several nations, especially the air forces, to fight fatigue and increase alertness among servicemen. After decades of reports of abuse, the FDA banned Benzedrine inhalers and limited Amphetamines to prescription use in 1959, but illegal use became common.

    Along with methylphenidate (Ritalin), Amphetamine is one of the standard treatments for ADHD. Beneficial effects for ADHD can include improved impulse control, improved concentration, decreased sensory overstimulation and decreased irritability. These effects can be dramatic, particularly in young children. The ADHD medication Adderall is composed of a timed-release combination of four different Amphetamine salts.

    When used within the recommended doses, side effects like loss of appetite tend to decrease over time. However, Amphetamines last longer in the body than methylphenidate (Ritalin Concerta), and tend to have stronger side effects on appetite and sleep.

    Amphetamines are also a standard treatment for narcolepsy as well as other sleeping disorders. They are generally effective over long periods of time without producing addiction or physical dependence.:eek:

    Amphetamines are sometimes used to augment anti-depressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression.

    Medical use for weight loss is still approved in some countries, but is regarded as obsolete and dangerous in, for example, the United States.

    Next:

    Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine are collectively referred to as amphetamines. Their chemical properties and actions are very similar. These drugs stimulate the central nervous system - that is, they increase activity in the brain.

    As you can see Amphetamine is a close brother to Dexedrine and Methedrine.
    Amphetamine is cheaper and will keep you awake and make sure that you dont eat too. Amphetamine isnt as much addictive as Meth but using on a daily basis will make you need the extra kick everytime.
    Many people disagree on this but in fact it IS possible to smoke Amphetamine sulfate. Here a explanation about the ways to use Amphetamine sulfate:

    Ways of using:

    Amphetamine sulfate is a fine white powder that usually contains only 6 to 10% Amphetamine(the rest could be anything from baking soda to Laxative).
    Amphetamine sulfate is taken through snorting, by licking it (do this and you will not have any teeths in a week), mix it in a drink, put it in a tabbaco rolling paper and swallow like a pill (Bomb), shoot it up the vains or even smoke it in a cigarette.
    When shot through needle effects take on immediatly.Powder Amphetamine swallowing or snorting take effect between 10 and 40 minutes. One dosis keeps you doped for 3-6 hours.

    More info about Amphetamine:

    The term amphetamine causes a certain amount of confusion because it is often used incorrectly. Loosely, amphetamine can describe other drugs with similar, stimulant effects, namely methamphetamine and methylphenidate. Chemists often use the term "amphetamine class" to describe chemicals that are structurally similar (and often similar in effect as well) to amphetamine--namely, chemicals with an ethyl backbone, terminal phenyl and amine groups, and a methyl group adjacent to the phenyl. A large number of chemicals fall into this category, including the club drug MDMA (Ecstasy) and methamphetamine. It is important to note that such an "amphetamine class" does not technically exist. Phamacodynamically, these drugs all fall under the umbrella of central nervous system stimulants; chemically, they are phenylethylamines. Amphetamine, for example, is methylated phenylethylamine, and methamphetamine is double methylated phenylethylamine.

    Amphetamine traditionally comes in the salt-form Amphetamine sulphate and is comprised of 50% l- and 50% d-Amphetamine (where l- and d- refer to levo and dextro, the two optical orientations the Amphetamine structure can have). In the United States, pharmaceutical products containing solely Amphetamine (for example, Biphetamine) are no longer manufactured. Today, dextroamphetamine (d-Amphetamine) sulphate the predominant form of the drug used; it consists entirely of d-isomer Amphetamine, which is acts in a slightly different way on the brain than does l-Amphetamine. Attention disorders are often treated using Adderall or generic equivalent formulations of mixed Amphetamine salts that contain both d/l-Amphetamine and d-Amphetamine in the sulfate and saccharate forms mixed to a final ratio of 3 parts d-Amphetamine to 1 part l-Amphetamine.

    It was first synthesized in 1887 by the German Chemist L. Edeleano, who called it "phenylisopropylamine".

    Effects of use:

    Amphetamines release stores of norepinephrine and dopamine from nerve endings by converting the respective molecular transporters into open channels. Amphetamine also releases stores of serotonin from synaptic vesicles. Like methylphenidate (Ritalin) Amphetamines also prevent the monoamine transporters for dopamine and norepinephrine from recycling them (called reuptake inhibition) which leads to increased amounts of dopamine and norepinephrine in synaptic clefts.

    These combined effects rapidly increases the concentrations of the respective neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, which promotes nerve impulse transmission in neurons that have those receptors.

    Physiological effects:

    Short-term physiological effects include decreased appetite, increased stamina and physical energy, increased sexual drive/response, involuntary bodily movements, increased perspiration, hyperactivity, jitteriness, nausea, itchy, blotchy or greasy skin, increased heart rate, irregular heart rate, and headaches. Fatigue can often follow the dose's period of effectiveness. Overdose can be treated with chlorpromazine.

    Long-term abuse or overdose effects can include tremor, restlessness, changed sleep patterns, poor skin condition, hyperreflexia, tachypnea, gastrointestinal narrowing, and weakened immune system. Fatigue and depression can follow the excitement stage. Erectile dysfunction, heart problems, stroke, and liver, kidney and lung damage can result from prolonged use. When snorted, Amphetamine can lead to a deterioration of the lining of the nostrils. Short-term psychlogical effects can include alertness, euphoria, increased concentration, rapid talking, increased confidence, increased social responsiveness, nystagmus (eye wiggles), hallucinations, and loss of REM sleep the night after use.

    Long term psychological effects can include insomnia, mental states resembling schizophrenia, aggressiveness, addiction or dependence with accompanying withdrawal symptoms, irritability, confusion, and panic. Chronic and/or extensively continuous use can lead to Amphetamine psychosis which causes delusions and paranoia, but this is uncommon when taken as prescribed. Amphetamine is highly psychologically addictive, and with chronic use tolerance develops very quickly. Withdrawal is, although not physiologically threatening, an unpleasant experience (including paranoia, depression, difficulty breathing, dysphoria, gastric fluctuations and/or pain, and lethargia. This commonly leads chronic users to re-dose Amphetamine frequently, explaining tolerance and increasing the possibility of addiction.

    I hope people will find something usefull in the above info.
    Later on i hope i can post some experiences from using Amphetamine, and maybe even use Amphetamine while posting.
    Here is a little fun info about my little underestimated home country the Netherlands: :smoker:

    US drugs czar Barry McCaffrey has clashed with his Dutch hosts after criticising Holland's liberal narcotics policy.
    Mr McCaffrey, in the Netherlands on a fact-finding mission, criticised the high level of amphetamine and ecstasy production, much of which goes to the United States and Britain.
    Holland's health minister, Els Borst, in turn said he refused to accept facts on the results of Dutch drugs policy.

    She said the US's oppressive policy on drugs did not stop young people from experimenting.

    Ms Borst, who had dinner with Mr McCaffrey on Thursday night, said: "When I say we prefer they only experiment with cannabis, he just falls silent and gazes ahead."

    Mr McCaffrey, a former US Army General and Vietnam veteran, tried to play down his differences with the Dutch authorities, saying he was satisfied with his "very intensive and useful visit."

    He said he had an "open and courteous exchange of views" with his hosts.

    His views were made clear at a press conference when he pointed out that the Netherlands produces half of Europe's amphetamines and much of its MDMA (ecstasy).

    Earlier he visited a methadone treatment project in Amsterdam.

    Washington and The Hague do not see eye-to-eye on the latter's controversial new heroin maintenance programme, which provides registered addicts with good quality heroin.

    The idea is to hit the pushers in the pocket and reduce the health risks from impurities.

    Mr McCaffrey said: "It is our own view that this does not constitute good treatment, but instead ends up in essence leaving and marginalising an element of the population."

    He also criticised Holland's coffee shop culture, whereby cannabis and marijuana are freely on sale in major cities such as Amsterdam. (All cities and even villages)
    Dutch law permits possession of up to five grams (0.175oz) of soft drugs for personal consumption.

    The US Government view cannabis as a "significant threat to drug dependency particularly among young people."

    Mr McCaffrey admitted: "We do not have a common agreement on drug policy."

    But he added: "It is not my purpose to persuade the Dutch authorities."

    On Tuesday, even before he arrived, there was a row when US officials said Mr McCaffrey would warn Dutch authorities they were "putting American children at risk" with their relaxed laws on marijuana.

    The Dutch health ministry reacted angrily and doubted whether his visit would "have any purpose".

    A spokesman said he should "get his ideas more in tune with reality".

    Mr McCaffrey's office later retracted the comments but many felt the damage was done.

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/134417.stm
     
  4. Yankeedoodle

    Yankeedoodle Newbie

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    Great post!

    What a trip on the information highway:) you seem to know what you talk about! Can we expect more info post from you? i would like to see a post of xtc and coke based on the Netherlands:)
     
  5. Blake

    Blake Newbie

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    If one cares more about how long it lasts than the intensity of the high, how much would one consume orally to maintain a longer lasting effect? The same amount as if snorting a line? Also, would one consume with food? Without?

    Am I allowed to ask how much it sells for these days?
     
  6. Sitbcknchill

    Sitbcknchill Retired Platinum Member & Advisor Donating Member

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    No you cannot ask for prices...
     
  7. Blake

    Blake Newbie

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    If one cares more about how long it lasts than the intensity of the high, how much would one consume orally to maintain a longer lasting effect? The same amount as if snorting a line? Also, would one consume with food? Without?
     
  8. Beeker

    Beeker Iridium Member

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    What I know about ADD and stimulants.

    Having ADD was not something parents wanted to hear about their kids in the 80's. I was the kid who got in trouble every few hours for looking out the window, daydreaming.

    Anyway, I was put on Ritalin my freshman year in High School and it changed my life. My grades went into the A's I was able to be more open with people, talkative. Ritalin became 60mg a day after two years so I got moved to Adderall (generic 4 salts) doc started me on 10mg and I felt cheated, 10mg generic adderall is a joke for ADD and probably most everyone. I called my doc and told him what was happening, the fact that 40mg was needed but it left me shaky and raised my anxiety.

    I was put on 10mg Dextro-Amphetamine. works well beyond adderall and ritalin.

    10mg Dexedrine 6-8 hours of focus and a little smile on your face. I've tried 20mg and I got a nice, though short, euphoric buzz lasting at least an hour and a half to maybe two hours.

    I usually only take 1 pill on monday (busy day!) and maybe a few more times if needed. I do not use Amphetamines everyday and usually just leave them alone on the weekend.

    I could see people getting addicted to the prescription amphetamines, because they make you feel super focused and alert and if you did binge that daily getting up could be a pill fest I'll bet. :eek:

    Also as one of the most interesting things you learn is generic Adderall has a candy like sugary taste when chewed. Now that is marketing! No wonder ADD went from 3000-5000 cases when I was young to, what is it now? two million?
     
  9. ~lostgurl~

    ~lostgurl~ Platinum Member & Advisor Donating Member

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    Stimulant Medications: How to Minimize Their Reinforcing Effects

    I found this article very interesting... Results of a study led by The American Psychiatric Association show that a faster rate of delivery to the brain: (smoking, followed by injection, then snorting, then oral ingestion) the greater the chance of drug addiction and craving. Higher doses also increase the liklihood of drug addiction and craving but what the article is saying (I think, correct me if I am wrong) is that the method chosen to administer amphetamine affects it's addiction potentianal more, or at least to the same degree, as dosage.

    Oral ingestion and smaller doses can't prevent addiction from occuring but it seems that these choices can dramatically lower the addiction potential that is commonly associated with regular amphetamine use.


    Journal of Psychiatry 163:359-361,
    March 2006
    doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.359
    © 2006 American Psychiatric Association


    Editorials

    Stimulant Medications: How to Minimize Their Reinforcing Effects?

    NORA D. VOLKOW, M.D.
    Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse


    It is believed that methylphenidate and amphetamine, the most frequently used pharmacological treatments for ADHD, exert their therapeutic effects in part by their ability to increase extracellular dopamine in the striatum and cortical brain regions.

    Both increase dopamine by their actions on dopamine transporters: methylphenidate by blocking them
    and amphetamine by releasing dopamine from the terminal using the dopamine transporter as the carrier.

    The ability of methylphenidate and amphetamine to increase dopamine is also associated with their reinforcing effects, and this is likely to be one of the main mechanisms underlying their abuse; other reasons for abuse are to improve performance or to lose weight. Note that the ability to increase dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (ventral part of the striatum involved with reward circuitry) is believed to be a common pharmacological effect underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse.

    However, the patterns of stimulant-induced increases in dopamine that are associated with therapeutic effects differ from those accounting for reinforcing effects. Whereas steady state and stable dopamine increases are associated with the therapeutic effects of stimulant medications, abrupt and fast dopamine increases are associated with their reinforcing effects. This is likely to reflect the two processes that regulate dopamine extracellular levels and signaling in the brain: tonic dopamine cell firing (which maintains baseline steady state dopamine levels and sets the overall responsiveness of the dopamine system) and phasic dopamine cell firing (which leads to fast dopamine changes that highlight the saliency of stimuli).

    Whether a stimulant drug induces a fast versus a slow increase in dopamine will be dependent on the rate at which the stimulant enters the brain and reaches the dopamine transporter. Because the rate of entry into the brain is affected by the dose (larger doses will lead to higher concentrations per unit of time) and the route of administration (fastest rate of brain delivery: smoking, followed by injection, then snorting, then oral ingestion), these are variables that modify the reinforcing effects of stimulant medications. Thus, higher doses are more reinforcing than lower doses and the faster the rate of delivery, the greater the reinforcing effects of stimulant medications.

    Indeed, when stimulant medications are abused for their reinforcing effects they are frequently snorted or injected, and when given orally at therapeutically recommended doses they have minimal or no reinforcing effects.

    On the basis of these findings from basic research over the past decade, preparations of methylphenidate or amphetamine that lead to slow rates of brain uptake as well as those that cannot be snorted or injected are predicted to have less abuse liability.

    The paper by Spencer and colleagues in this issue of the Journal provides evidence that even for oral formulations of stimulant medications, delivery by systems that lead to slower rates of release will be less reinforcing than delivery that leads to faster rates of release. In their study, they compared the brain pharmacokinetics and the reinforcing effects of methylphenidate when delivered by an immediate-release oral formulation to the effects when delivered by a controlled osmotic-release formulation. They used positron emission tomography (PET) and the dopamine transporter radioligand [11C]altropane to measure dopamine transporter blockade by methylphenidate at different times after its administration when delivered as immediate-release versus when delivered as osmotic-release methylphenidate.

    They found that doses of immediate-release methylphenidate (40 mg) and osmotic-release methylphenidate (90 mg) led to equivalent peak levels of dopamine transporter blockade (immediate release: 72%; osmotic release: 68%) but at different times after administration of the doses. The peak dopamine transporter blockade was achieved significantly faster (after 1.7 hours) with the immediate-release formulation than with osmotic-release methylphenidate (5 hours). Also, the levels of dopamine transporter blockade during the first 2 hours were significantly higher and thus achieved faster for immediate-release methylphenidate than for the osmotic-release formulation.

    The peak level of dopamine transporter blockade achieved with 40 mg of immediate-release methylphenidate was associated with mild but still significant reinforcing effects (according to subjects’ self-reports of drug liking), but the same peak level achieved with 90 mg of osmotic-release methylphenidate was devoid of any reinforcing effects.

    These findings corroborate that the relevant variable for the reinforcing effects of stimulant drugs is the rate at which dopamine increases (change in dopamine concentration per time unit) rather than dopamine level per se.

    Thus, delivery systems that lead to very slow rates of dopamine transporter blockade and slow rates of dopamine increases are likely to have less abuse liability than delivery systems that lead to faster dopamine changes.

    Dr. Spencer and colleagues also found that the duration of dopamine transporter blockade was longer with the 90-mg dose of osmotic-release methylphenidate than with the 40-mg dose of immediate-release methylphenidate, so that at a constant time after dosing (e.g., 7 hours) the level of dopamine transporter blockade for osmotic-release methylphenidate was considerably higher (65% versus 40% for immediate-release methylphenidate).

    If the rate of dopamine change is positively associated with the reinforcing effects of methylphenidate, its slow clearance from and its long occupancy of dopamine transporter will limit the rate at which it can be administered before producing dopamine transporter saturation. Also, because the rate at which rodents self-administer stimulant drugs is associated with the downward slope of dopamine after prior increases in the nucleus accumbens, this predicts that delivery systems that maintain steady state plasma levels for longer time periods are less likely to be abused than delivery systems that lead to more abrupt changes.
    The relatively high rates of stimulant abuse highlight the urgent need to develop strategies that minimize stimulants’ potential reinforcing effects and prevent their abuse. Prevalence rates for the abuse of stimulant medications in the general population are not negligible. In 2005, the prevalence rates among 12th graders for amphetamine and methylphenidate abuse in the past year were 8.6% and 4.4%, respectively.

    The data from Spencer and collaborators provide an example of how imaging technologies can now be utilized to predict the likelihood for a drug to have reinforcing effects by being able to directly monitor the temporal course of their effects in dopamine targets in the human brain.

    Since most prescriptions for methylphenidate are now for controlled-release formulations, and much less immediate-release methylphenidate is produced and thus available, monitoring over time should reveal a decrease in methylphenidate abuse.

    http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/163/3/359?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=addiction&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=30&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
     
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  10. speedman

    speedman Newbie

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    Mine isnt THAT good, but it took 2 days.




    Amphetamines and related compounds are much more than just "addictive narcotics", as many media stories have led us to believe. They are in fact, addictive and they are classified as a narcotic. But, they are also anti-depressants, aids in weight loss, great sources of concentration, and restore energy and alertness better than any psychoactive stimulant in the world. Coffee and energy drinks are actually extremely weak and ineffective compared to amphetamine. They are widely abused and can potentially be of great harm to a person. But, with moderate use, amphetamine can actually improve the quality of one's life.

    What is amphetamine?
    Amphetamine affects the central nervous system, by stimulating and speeding it up. Naturally, this causes a feeling of excitement, energy, and increased activity in the brain. All amphetamines produce and increased heart rate, and an extreme decrease in the need to sleep and eat. Sweating is also common under any amphetamine use. Some people get irritable, and aggressive while on amphetamine, but this is usually a symptom of the rebound effect, which is what happens when the effects of the drug start to wear off. Higher doses cause paranoia, extreme nervousness, and panic. Although it is easy to get hooked and take a high dose of the drug, a person can benefit greatly if they can learn to control themself and their habit. Not all amphetamine users are homeless, and living a horrid life of addiction and aimlessness. Some feel motivated under the influence of amphetamine, and achieve goals and accomplish tasks with ease.

    History
    Amphetamine was originally synthesized in 1837 by a German chemist L. Edeleano, as the name phenylisoproplyamine. In the 1930s, amphetamines were marketed as benzedrine, and were sold over the counter at drug stores. They were used to help treat Attention Defecit Disorder (ADD) and narcolepsy. Adolf Hitler used a similar compound to amphetamine called methamphetamine to give the Nazi troops energy and alertness. Methamphetamine is an amphetamine substance with an additional methyl molecule. The methyl molecule is harder for the body to break down and metabolize, therefor giving a prolonged and much more potent affect. For a very short period, the United States issued pharmaceutical amphetamine to soldiers during the Vietnam War in the early 1950s. It began to be a habit for troops, so it was discontinued. Many famous celebrities of the 1950s and 1960s had a history of amphetamine use. Johnny Cash struggled with an addiction for years, while he was touring the country and making legendary songs.

    Uses
    Amphetamine is used by people for many types of tasks. The most common of these is for attention defecit hyper active disorder or attention defecit disorder (ADHD or ADD). More people than ever are being perscribed Ritalin and other types of amphetamine treatments to calm down an over hyper-active person, and help a person think more clearly without getting lost or losing focus and helps them stay on task. Truck drivers use them to drive all night long and get paid more for working more hours. Athletes use them for enhanced energy and heightened physical performance. Students in school without ADD/ADHD also use them to stay awake and alert and study for tests and exams. Construction workers who work graveyard shifts doing back breaking work are known to use amphetamine to help them get their job done, as well as construction workers who work regular hours. The U.S. Air Force uses Dextroamphetamine, a stereoisomer of the amphetamine molecule, to stay focused and concentrated on late night missions where extreme caution is needed. Since amphetamine greatly reduces the appetite, people use them to lose weight. Narcolepsy, is a disorder treated with amphetamines, by diminishing symptoms of fatigue that narcolepsy gives a person. Recreational use is common with amphetamine, however, if a person isn't careful, the consequences can be fatal. Some artists use amphetamine to give them an enhanced creative ability. Some believe amphetamine allows an artist to think more clearly and creatively, to create better work. Many famous musicians have created a peice of work while on amphetamine, or sometimes mention it in a peice of work.

    Types of amphetamines
    There are several different types of amphetamines. Amphetamine is the basic, main chemical in the family of compounds. Other amphetamine stimulants are very similar, and all have the main energetic-feel good effect on people, but they differ in potency and strength. Something all amphetamines have in common is that each one of them is on the Schedule II classification of restricted substances, with the exeption of injectable methamphetamine, which stays at Schedule III. Major legal action is taken when anyone is caught involved with the manufacturing and distributing of any such substance. All amphetamine stimulants require a perscription written by a doctor to obtain the brand name legal types.

    Dextroamphetamine
    Dextroamphetamine, is another popular stimulant. D-amphetamine is the abbreviated term for it. It is sold under the brand name Dexedrine, and is contained in the drug "Adderall", a very widely used, common (and very powerful) treatment of ADD/ADHD. Dextroamphetamine was first used in benzedrine inhalers in the 1930s, and was an over the counter medicine. Dextroamphetamine is sold under many more brand names besides Dexedrine, such as "Dextrostat", "Dexampex" and "Adderall", which is an amphetamine-dextroamphetamine hybrid type of medication. Each brand name of dextroamphetamine is about the exact same (exept Adderall). There is no great difference in various dextroamphetamine medicines. About every brand name of dextroamphetamine sells the drug in its salt (purest form of the drug) form. Dexedrine like all other amphetamines has a potential for addiction and abuse. Most dextroamphetamine in the world is pharmaceuticual and factory made. Drug cooks don't usually make this form of amphetamine, because they know that methamphetamine is much stronger and makes alot of money on the streets. However, dextroamphetamine can be sold illicitly to someone without a perscription, although it's highly doubtful it wasn't made legally in a factory.

    Methylphenidate
    Another type of amphetamine drug is "Methylphenidate". It is the most commonly used treatment for ADD/ADHD. It is more commonly known as "Ritalin". Ritalin was synthesized in 1954 and was designed specially to treat ADD/ADHD. It is significantly much less potent and powerful than other amphetamines, as its potency and strength were all determined at the time of design. It's main effects differ somewhat from that of other types of amphetamines. It creates a calming effect on hyperactive children and definetly does not give a person the sense of well being unless a large dose is taken. It has the amphetamine backbone but has additional molecules to alter its interaction with the body and nuerons in the brain. There are many brand names of Methylphenidate such as "Concerta", "Focalin", "Meditate", "Daytrana" and many more. All have almost identical effects on the body and brain, but slightly differ. Methylphenidate has the same danger of abuse as any other ADD/ADHD medicine, and is only synthesized legally in special, certified labratories since the drug is very complex and difficult for someone to create. Daytrana, is a unique type of methylphenidate medication because it is the only one available in a patch. It is said to be just as effective as an orally taken pill of Daytrana, and includes a long lasting feature.

    Adderall (amphetamine-dextroamphetamine combination)

    Adderall, is a hybrid of pure amphetamine salts and dextroamphetamine salts. It is the second most common used treatment for ADD/ADHD (most common being Ritalin). The different types of salts are metabolized by the body at different rates, giving a more smooth feeling of concentration. Adderall commonly gives a person a sense of euphoria, because it is fairly powerful and potent. Although it is not the most popular used medication, it is reportedly the most effective and more superior than Dexedrine and Ritalin. Adderall is also sometimes used to treat depression, although it is a less common use of the drug. It gives a person a much longer period of ability to focus and concentrate. It also greatly improves a persons intrest in performing mental tasks. Adderall is highly addictive and can cause dependency, much more serious and severe than any other ADD/ADHD treatment. It is sold illicitly on the streets and is much more expensive than an illicit purchase of Ritalin. The number of college students using Adderall illicitly and those with a perscription has gone up drastically. Students report it helps much more effective than anything they've ever tried to help with studying and exams. Adderall is not produced illegally in any clandestine labratory, because it is extremely difficult to produce for a single person, and also because it is not just one drug - in all, their are 4 different compounds of salts that make up Adderall, making it too complex and too much trouble for anyone not making it legally. Unlike methamphetamine, which can never guarantee pureness and qaulity (since its not inspected or examined by the government), you can almost be sure that any Adderall you were to purchase illicitly is pure and effective, because Adderall is distingushable by the color or symbols on the pill, it would be very difficult for someone to tamper with or pass off any other pill as Adderall.

    Methamphetamine
    The most popular, most restricted, most rarely medically used, most potent and addictive type of amphetamine is Methamphetamine. It is much more common and easier to find on the street than any other type of stimulant, and is the most powerful type of amphetamine ever synthesized. It is sold under only one brand name, "Desoxyn". (also known as "desoxyephedrine") Desoxyn is the most rarely used treatment of any condition where stimulants would help. Many doctors don't think twice about not perscribing it, because it's the most addictive and powerful stimulant of all the treatments. It is used only as a last resort for extreme obesity, narcolepsy, ADD/ADHD, and parkinsons disease. Desoxyn is sold only in its hydrochloride form, although most methamphetamine that is manufactured is sold in the crystal form. The crystal form of the drug is more pure and able to be dissolved in water with no problem, as well as being simple to crush and snort. Most methamphetamine is manufactured in small labs in a garage, or the trunk of someones car, because it is of great secrecy. It is crushed up and either snorted, smoked, or injected into the vein with a syringe. Unlike other amphetamines, methamphetamine is rarely taken orally, because orally taking it doesn't provide a "rush" users get when they snort, smoke, or inject it. The feeling of the drug is there, but the rush is said to be intense and extremely pleasurable. It is unusually easy to make, which is one reason it's becoming an increasing problem. Psuedoephedrine being reduced with hydroiodic acid and red phosphorus and then adding a few additional chemicals is basically all it takes. Meth gives a person a sensation of extreme euphoria and well being, and lasts much longer than any other type of amphetamine stimulant. The added methyl molecule makes it harder for the body to metabolize and break down, so the effects are long lasting and more strong. One thing that makes meth sold on the street even more dangerous is that it is very often sold impure. With street meth, you never know the quality of what your getting. It could have other dangerous drugs added to it, or it could be low qaulity and potent. Many times, a single, small bag of crystal meth contains only 10% amphetamines, and 90% other chemicals. Withdrawl symptoms of a person addicted and dependent on methamphetamine are extremely severe and miserable. In some cases, the user commits suicide to escape the horrible feelings brought on by withdrawl. Meth can also give a person extreme paranoia and schizophrenic symptoms.

    History of Methamphetamine

    Methamphetamine was first synthesized in Japan in 1919 by Akira Ogata, with the same method of synthesis many meth cooks use to this day - the psuedoephedrine, red phosphorus, and iodine sythesis. The earliest use of methamphetamine was in World War II, by the Germans. It was used under the name "Pervitin" to help troops stay energized and awake, being able to fight for days and days without rest or sleep. In the 1950s the first pharmacuetical methamphetamine became available with a perscription, and was meant to treat parkinsons disease, obesity, narcolepsy, and certain depressive states. By the 1960s, the illicit manufacturing and use of methamphetamine was growing more and more popular. Biker gangs, such as the "Hell's Angels" were the main distributors of methamphetamine during the 1960s. They supplied most of the West Coast with illicit methamphetamine they made in small, difficult to notice clandestine labs that were set up in the Mojave Desert and other areas of vast wilderness. They were known to use meth themselves, to stay awake and alert on all night trips. They would put the crystalline substance in their coffee, and called it "biker's coffee". As the use of methamphetamine became increasingly more and more of a problem, it was put into the Schedule III Controlled Substance in 1970 and became restricted to possess, use, or sell. Then later it became moved down to a Schedule II, which is less serious but very punishable nontheless. (Note:Injectable methamphetamine is still classified as a Schedule III) The use of the drug seemed to slowly decline, but remained a problem. In 1986, the government made it more difficult to obtain the precursors of methamphetamine production by making Sudafed, and other cough medicines containing psuedoephedrine only available to people over the age of 18, and would not sell more than 3 packs of the medicine to any one person in less than a 24 hour period. Today, methamphetamine remains a very popular street drug and increasing problem. Asia is a known user of the drug, and allegedly, the Korean government has no laws against such substances. Meth was very popular in Japan for a short period but was quickly brought under control by the Japanese government.

    Common, negative results of heavy meth abuse

    Very often, a user of amphetamine will stay high for days, not realizing they havn't slept or eaten anything. Eventually, the symptoms of sleep deprivation begin. Although amphetamines ward off feelings of drowsyness and fatigue, they cannot make the brain regenerate and rest, something only sleep can do. Paranoia, hallucinations, and panic are some effects of a person being sleep deprived, and even on powerful stimulants the symptoms are noticable and become a problem for a sleep deprived meth user. The brain funtions more and more erratic and abnormal, until it shuts down and forces the user to sleep and recover.
    Amphetamine psychosis is a condition caused by a toxic amount of amphetamine in the system. It causes extreme anxiety and nervousness, panic, hallucinations, paranoia, schizophrenia-like behavior, and delusions. This can very easily lead a person to do something out of panic and possibly hurt someone. Amphetamine psychosis is an overdose reaction.
    Eventually, when larger and larger doses are taken for long periods of time, more serious issues take place. Brain damage, liver damage, stroke, permanent psychological damage, lowered immune system strength, fatal lung and kidney damage, and other problems begin to take place. As tolerance is built up, the user has to use more and more of the substance to get the desired effect. This doesn't mean the body or brain is immune to large doses because the person cannot feel the effects of anything but a large dose. The increased dosage of methamphetamine continue to cause more and more damage upon the persons body and mind. A chronic, addicted user of meth rarely eats, and the stomach becomes filled with toxins after awhile, spreading throughout the body. Another result of not eating is the lack of nutrients and vitamins in the body. Teeth begin to rot and decay, since the user is often too high to realize they havn't brushed their teeth for weeks. Also, the smoke from the meth when it is smoked coats the teeth in a plaq-like substance. Meth usually causes a decrease in calcium in the body, and if the user doesn't eat or drink for days it gets worse, however a glass of milk everyday will counteract the lack of calcium and it's possible outcome.

    The time release mechanism
    Most brand name pharmaceutical amphetamines have a special version of the medicine, called "time-release". The medicine was synthesized to last for a longer period of time by creating an extra molecule in the drug that the stomach would take hours to absorb and metabolize to get throughout the body. Half of the contents of the medication dissolve and take effect immediately, while the other half dissolves at a much slower rate so that when the first half of the medications effects begin to wear off, the other half will take effect. It assures that a person is at their upmost performance all day long, rather than feeling the effects of the medication for a few hours and have to take another dose during the day. Methylphenidate is sold with the time-release feature, and so is Adderall, known as "Adderall XR", for eXtended Release. Illicit drugs produced illegally in clandestine labs don't make this feature for any substance, as its much more time and effort they want to spend. The time release edition of the drug (whatever drug it is) will always be in a capsule, as opposed to a pill. The capsule is there because the time release mechanism forces the drug to be composed of beads, rather than just one big pill.

    Slang Terms
    There are many, many slang terms for amphetamine. Some more popular than others, some more well known, these are terms used by people (usually illicitly) dealing with amphetamine substances -
    Speed
    Crystal
    Tweak
    Zing
    Go-fast
    Uppers
    Meth
    Amps
    A-bombs
    Crank
    Smack
    Dex
    Black Beauties
    Ice
    Glass
    Chalk

    Positive effects
    Although there are several risks a person using speed takes, they can actually learn to control themself and their habit with discipline. A wise user knows how much is enough, when enough is enough, and knows what precautions to take and how to handle possible problems. The results of speed talked about above are pretty bad, but if the person can control themself and not let their habit get nearly that bad, speed can actually do good for a person more than it ever did bad. It's all a matter of limiting yourself and setting rules for yourself. You have to commit to those rules and limits if you want to be able to stay pro-speed. Know when it's time to crash, don't take more and more and stay up for days and circum to sleep deprivation. It's smart not to use any type of drug with a needle, and if you choose to administer the drug without a needle, you're greatly decreasing your risk of getting infected with AIDS/HIV virus by not taking a chance using a needle you aren't sure who used or if it's clean. Become advocate about the substance. Learn about the chemistry and it's effects on you. Try to be sure that whatever speed your taking is pure, and doesn't contain any other drugs that you didn't want. Plan projects and tasks for yourself to do, and make yourself useful while your high so you know it's not interfering with your daily activities. Another important thing to remember is look up any disorders that could worsen with the effect of amphetamines, such as cardiovascular problems, tourettes syndrome, tics, ect. Make sure you have no disorders or conditions that could possibly react with the drug.


    Drug Testing

    Amphetamines are detectable in drug tests, but fortunately are only able to be traced for very short periods of time. Amphetamines will show up in a urine test 1-3 days after it was taken, even though it stays in the system for 3-5 days. It is also able to be traced in a hair test. For every 1.5 inches long your hair is, that's about 90 days it's able to trace back. It is tracable in the blood for 1-3 days, but as long as you don't exceed 100 ng/ml you aren't considered a constant abuser. Some other substances can be detected by a drug test and mistaken for the amphetamine because of the similar chemical structure. Some of these substances are ephedrine, psuedoephedrine, some over-the-counter nasal sprays, and some diet pills containing phenylpropanolamine. Drink lots of water if you are in doubt of passing a drug test.


    Substances that can interact with amphetamine
    Some chemicals can interact with amphetamine when it is inside your system, and possibly effect the way the drug is working or makes you feel. Zantac, a stomach acid reliever, can drastically change the effects of the drug. It does something to the stomach, making the drug just dissolve and lose its potency, while your stomach is inhibited to digest it because of the anti-acid pill. Coffee and other drinks with caffiene in them actually enhance the feeling, because it contributes to something to amphetamine does and makes that particular part work with more strength, and sometimes prolonging the effect. Cigarettes mildly effect the body while it's on speed, but for some people, it creates a "rush" feeling and surge of energy they feel was activated somehow with the reaction of nicotine and amphetamine. Alcohol, will stop any feelings you had from the speed. Alcohol reverses the speed and cancels it out, making you feel as if you never took it at all. Avoid alcohol while under the influence of speed, it won't do anything but kill your buzz and nuetralize the speed in your system.

    The comedown off of speed
    Depending on how much you took, and what you did while you were high, the feeling of coming down from the drug varies. If you were not physically active, then you would likely not feel exhausted at the comedown, but slightly fatigue. If you took alot, the comedown is likely to be worse and very unpleasant. Moderate doses usually don't have a comedown, just a gradual, disappearing of the effect. The more you take, the worse it's going to be. The more physically active you are, the more tired you'll be. If you've been up for several days, chances are you'll be extremely fatigue and would want to take it easy for a day or 2. Some anti-depressants react to the brains activity when the speed wears off, and supplies chemicals that the brain needs, making the comedown much less intense and not so much of an ordeal. A person can behave agitated and irritable when the drug loses it's effect, and the person can act in a violent way. Aggressive, baligerant behavior is common for an intense crash.

    Explanation for increased mental challenge interest
    A person on speed finds things more appealing to them than they normally do, mainly mental tasks or tasks that require thinking and that exercise the brain. Anything that requires a person to use their brain and concentrate is a fun thing to do on speed. Activities like coloring, playing a musical instrument, writing, drawing, school work, and other tasks are thought of as enjoyable during your time on the speed. Learning, and reading are 2 more things I can think of. Things that involve counting, things that involve cleaning, are some more. Just do whatever feels good, as long as your not just lying around, that would ruin the whole point of taking speed in the first place.

    The media's effect on the drug
    The media is responsible for alot of the bad name that speed has. They demonized the negative results, and focused mainly on making the drug seem evil, and giving it a notorious reputation.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Sep 9, 2017
  11. Sitbcknchill

    Sitbcknchill Retired Platinum Member & Advisor Donating Member

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    I thank you for adding to the forum speedman but please do not crosspost the same information in different threads, you also must be 18 to be here.
     
  12. lorenzo

    lorenzo Newbie

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    The beginning.......

    I am so pleased to have discovered the forum. I am sure I will not be the same again.

    I can always dream and dream again.
     
  13. bitmonx

    bitmonx

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    thank you for the good information!! really nice!!
     
  14. mouthwater

    mouthwater Gold Member

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    Stroke a risk for cocaine, amphetamine users
    Reuters Health
    Monday, April 2, 2007
    SOURCE: Archives of General Psychiatry, April 2007.
    As found on MedlinePlus.
     
    Last edited: Oct 7, 2008
  15. ~lostgurl~

    ~lostgurl~ Platinum Member & Advisor Donating Member

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    What I find quite ironic is that new research shows that taking amphetamines directly after a stroke can stimulate parts of the brain affected by the stroke and prevent these brain cells from dying thus giving the stroke victim a better chance of recovery. SWIM read this on a post on this forum, which I will link here when she gets a chance to hunt it down.

    See this thread for more details: Methamphetamine protects brain cells
     
    Last edited: Jun 2, 2008
  16. izzy31

    izzy31 Newbie

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  17. Laudaphun

    Laudaphun Gold Member

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    Wow! Really? I am going to have to dig up some info to try and find out more about this. Some things seem so unlikely at first thought, no one bothers to even consider things like this... but fortunately a few people do. This sounds really interesting and I would like to dig up some research.
     
  18. Blueprint Soul

    Blueprint Soul Newbie

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    I accidentally posted this in the Comprehensive Adderall Information thread, not seeing the entire forum for amphetamines beneath the subforums. I used that thread's OP as a skeleton, and re-did most of it.

    Comprehensive Amphetamines Information



    General Information & Common Uses

    Amphetamine (“speed,” “dexies,” “bennies,” “black beauties,” “jollies”) is a synthetic sympathomimetic amine. It was first synthesized in 1887 in Berlin, Germany, the same year its plant derivatives, ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine, were first isolated from the Ma-Huang plant. It is an illegal drug is most western countries, falling into the second highest tier of controlled substances under United States law, as of 1971, and International law, as of 1976. It has a very high potential for abuse and addiction.

    Numerous amphetamine-containing pharmaceuticals have been sold in the past 80 years. It was first marketed in the 1930’s as “Benzedrine” in an over-the-counter inhaler for congestion. All of these have since been taken off the market, with the exception of three somewhat recent advents: Adderall, Dexedrine, and Vyvanse.

    Dextro-amphetamine has a long and colorful history of military use in multiple countries, especially for long-distance pilot missions; its use has even occasionally been attributed to near-sole credit for many victories in WW2. Its use in WW2 widely popularized it as a recreational drug. It is still routinely used by the United States Air-force as a “go-pill,” though replacement with newer stimulant medication with fewer side-effects, like Modafinil, is being considered.

    Medicinally, amphetamines have three currently approved indications, the treatment of ADHD, narcolepsy, and severe obesity. It is also used for the treatment of senile apathetic behavior, treatment resistant depression, fatigue syndromes, traumatic brain injury, drug-induce brain dysfunction, and d-methyl-amphetamine addiction. Illegally, it is widely used for its euphoric, socially disinheriting, and stimulating effects; such use is especially common among college students as a study aid.


    Adderall


    Adderall is a commonly-prescribed amphetamine pharmaceutical. Adderall was first introduced in 1996 by Shire Pharmaceuticals Group, a British pharmaceutical manufacturer. Originally only available as an instant release tablet, Adderall is also now available in an extended release formulation (Adderall XR). Both the instant and extended release are available in generic form as “mixed amphetamine salts.” Adderall and Adderall XR are both available in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg. The instant release formula has two additional doses, 7.5 and 12.5 mg, and the extended release formula has one, 25 mg.

    The instant release formula is widely approved for two indications, the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, whilst the extended release formula is approved only for ADHD. It is also used for fatigue syndromes, d-methyl-amphetamine addiction, senile apathetic behavior, traumatic brain injury, sometimes in the treatment of severe depression, and rarely in the treatment of severe obesity. Due to its extremely widespread use in the treatment of ADHD, Adderall is easily the most common pharmaceutical form of amphetamines used illicitly.


    Dexedrine

    Dexedrine is the oldest currently available pharmaceutical form of amphetamine. It was the first form of amphetamine marketed for its stimulant properties in 1937, by the pharmaceutical company Smith, Kline, and French (now GlaxoSmithKline). Both the instant release tablet and extended release capsule come in 5 and 10 mg doses, whilst only the extended release capsule also comes in a 15 mg dose.

    Dexedrine is used for the same indications as Adderall.


    Vyvanse

    Vyvanse is the most recent advent in amphetamine pharmaceuticals, first approved for marketing in January 2008, by Shire Pharmaceuticals Group. It is intended by the company to replace Adderall XR as their flagship treatment for ADHD. It is available in 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mg doses.

    Vyvanse is indicated for the treatment of ADHD in pediatric patients 6-12 years of age, and in adults.

    Chemistry & Pharmacology

    Amphetamines (alpha-methyl-phenethylamine, C9H12N) are powerful psychoactive drugs synthesized from ephedrine, a mild naturally-occurring stimulant with a similar mechanism of action, but much less capability to cross the brain-blood barrier. Both stereoisomers of amphetamine – dextro-amphetamine (d-amphetamine) and levo-amphetamine (l-amphetamine) – exhibit effects in the central nervous system as potent psychostimulants.

    The psychological effects of both isomers are exhibited by causing the monoamine transporters to release dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin into the post-synaptic cleft; then the amphetamine molecules bind to these transporters (mostly the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters) and inhibit their ability to clear the monoamines from the synaptic space. The principle stimulatory effects of amphetamine are linked to enhanced dopaminergic activity, primarily in the mesolimbic dopamine system.

    Out of the two isomers, d-amphetamine has the greatest effect on the dopamine system; l-amphetamine is comparatively norepinephrinergic. The preferred of the two for recreational use is usually d-amphetamine, which seems to be more pleasurable, whilst some who use amphetamines for treatment of ADHD have a better response to a mix of the two. The half-life of d-amphetamine is 10 hours, whilst the half-life of l-amphetamine is 13 hours.

    Amphetamines have also been found to bind to a newly discovered group of receptors, the trace amine receptors.


    Adderall


    The active ingredients of Adderall are four different salts of amphetamine, all in equal proportion. Two of the salts are racemic mixtures of d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine, or racemic d,l-amphetamine. The remaining two are non-racemic salts of d-amphetamine. These salts are:

    d-amphetamine saccharate
    d-amphetamine sulfate
    racemic d,l-amphetamine aspartate monohydrate
    racemic d,l-amphetamine sulfate

    The resulting mass ratio of d-amphetamine to l-amphetamine is 2.663:1, or 72.7% d-amphetamine to 27.3% l-amphetamine.

    It is important to note that the marked pharmaceutical strength of Adderall is not the actual mass of the base amphetamines in the product. The marked strength is the combined mass of the base amphetamines and that of the salts they're bonded with (saccharate, aspartate monohydrate, and sulfate). The actual mass of base d-amphetamine and d,l-amphetamine is 62.59% of the marked mg strength, or 45.51% d-amphetamine and 17.08% l-amphetamine. Here is a chart of the base amphetamine content – along with the content of the two stereoisomers – in milligrams, for all existing pharmaceutical strengths of Adderall:

    Salts/ Base/Dextro-/ Levo-
    .
    5mg/3.13mg/2.28mg / 0.85mg
    10mg / 6.26mg/4.55mg / 1.71mg
    15mg / 9.39mg /6.83mg / 2.56mg
    20mg / 12.52mg / 9.1mg / 3.42mg
    25mg / 15.64mg / 11.37mg / 4.37mg
    30mg / [COLOR=Purple]18.78mg / [COLOR=Red]13.65mg / [COLOR=Blue]5.13mg


    [U][B]Dexedrine[/B][/U]

    The active ingredient of Dexedrine is d-amphetamine sulfate. In contrast to Adderall, Dexedrine contains only the dextrorotory stereoisomer of amphetamine. Both the instant release tablet and extended release capsule come in 5mg and 10mg doses, whilst only the extended release capsule comes in a 15mg dose. The d-amphetamine base content is 72.83% of the marked pharmaceutical strength (the d-amphetamine sulfate mass in mg).

    Sulfate / [COLOR=DarkRed]Base
    .
    5mg / [COLOR=DarkRed]3.64mg
    10mg /[COLOR=DarkRed]7.28mg
    15mg /[COLOR=DarkRed]10.92mg


    [U][B]Vyvanse[/B][/U]

    The active ingredient of Vyvanse is L-lysine-d-amphetamine dimesylate, a prodrug of d-amphetamine dimesylate. It is composed of the dimesylate salt of d-amphetamine bonded with the essential amino acid L-lysine. Essentially, it is an extended release form of d-amphetamine with the prolonged drug release caused by the characteristics of the molecule itself, rather than the form of pill, as in Adderall XR and Dexedrine XR. The extended release occurs due to the base molecule not being psychoactive; the amino acid must first be removed, during its first pass through the liver and/or intestines. Due to this difference, the pharmacokinetic profile of Vyvanse is substantially different from the d-amphetamine sulfate extended release capsule: at doses of equivalent base d-amphetamine content, the peak exposure to d-amphetamine is about 50% higher for Vyvanse than for Dexedrine XR. The d-amphetamine base content of L-lysine-d-amphetamine dimesylate is about 29.48% of the marked mg dose.

    Prodrug / [COLOR=Purple]Base
    .
    20mg / [COLOR=Purple] 5.9mg
    30mg / [COLOR=Purple]8.84mg
    40mg / [COLOR=Purple]11.79mg
    50mg / [COLOR=Purple]14.74mg
    60mg / [COLOR=Purple]17.69mg
    70mg / [COLOR=Purple]20.64mg
    80mg / [COLOR=Purple]23.58mg


    [U][B]Effects[/B][/U]

    Amphetamines have a bell-curve course of effect, like most drugs, with an initial increase in mood, and stimulation of mental activity, and other positive and neutral effects, which come to a peak and plateau for a period, then are followed by the effects of
    come-down, characterized by anxiety, fatigue, inability to sleep, and other negative effects. The characteristics of both can be drastically affected by a huge variety of influences, such as attitude, state of mind, intake of nutrients, hydration, environment, physical activity, mental activity, pre-existing psychiatric conditions, et. c.

    [B]POSITIVE [/B]
    increased alertness
    increased motivation
    increased talkativeness
    flow of ideas
    increased insight
    positive mood shift, sense of well-being

    [B]NEUTRAL [/B]
    reduced appetite
    dilated pupils
    flushing
    loss of coordination
    restlessness
    visual hallucinations (rare)

    [B]NEGATIVE[/B]
    increased aggressiveness
    paranoia
    dry mouth
    headache
    increased heart rate (tachycardia)
    increased breathing rate
    increased blood pressure
    rise in body temperature
    fever and sweating
    diarrhea or constipation
    blurred vision
    impaired speech
    dizziness
    uncontrollable movements (twitching, jerking, tremors, etc...)
    insomnia
    numbness
    irregular heartbeat (palpitations, arrhythmia)
    impotence / inability to achieve erection in men (high dose or chronic use)
    convulsions (high dose)
    dry, itchy skin (chronic use)
    acne, sores (chronic use)
    pallor (high dose or chronic use)
    psychotic episodes (rare except in overdoses or after chronic use)


    [U][B]Routes of Administration, Dose, & Duration of Effect[/B][/U]

    [U][B]Oral Route[/B][/U]

    Oral administration is how all pharmaceutical amphetamines are intended to be taken. Though, the bioavailability of amphetamines through the oral route is comparatively limited, and varies drastically based on stomach and gastrointestinal content and pH, with a less acidic gastric system resulting in greater absorption and retention. All amphetamines should be taken only on a full stomach, and shouldn’t be taken with acidic beverages such as soda, or acidic foods such as oranges. Vyvanse may only be taken orally, as it is inactive until metabolized. Duration of effect for orally administered amphetamines is largely dependent on stomach and gastrointestinal content and pH, and drastically vary regardless by individual to individual. Averages for instant release formulas are something 1.5 to 2 hours to peak, 1 to 2 hours for plateau, and 2 to 4 hours for come-down. Averages for extended release formulas are something like 3 to 5 hours to peak, 2 to 4 hours for plateau, and 2 to 4 hours for come-down. Peak blood serum level is generally reached within 3 hours for instant release, and within 7 hours for extended release. Tablets and extended release beads may also be crushed and swallowed, or crushed and dissolved in water then drank.


    [U][B]Intranasal Route[/B][/U]

    Snorting amphetamine is likely to most common route of administration for recreational use. The bioavailability is substantially increased, with much of the drug being absorbed through the mucus membranes in the nasal passages, which is conveniently adjacent to the blood-brain barrier, and the rest dripping down the throat into the stomach to be digested as oral doses are digested. The intranasal route causes the effects to be stronger and peak in a very short period of time, usually 5 to 20 minutes, and lasts for 1.5 to 3 hours, with a 2 to 4 hour come-down.


    [U][B]Dose should depend on: [/B][/U]
    [B]Intention: [/B]Effective functional uses of amphetamines usually requires a lower dose, or you’ll end up doing wasteful inane things, like obsessively focusing on pointless details entirely convinced you‘re making grand progress. The use of amphetamines for pleasure usually requires a higher dose, as the euphoric effect is negligible in low doses, and you’ll just end up not able to sleep. Use of amphetamines to enhance physical performance, or mental alertness and motivation while performing exerting physical tasks, requires careful dose management and close monitoring of heart rate, as fatal cardiac symptoms can result from too much exertion with too high a dose.
    [B]Experience: [/B]Higher doses should only be taken after first experimenting with lower doses. Very heavy doses should only be taken by those who have used amphetamines many, many times, and know what they are doing, possibly requiring a sitter and an on-hand overdose antidote (such as clonazepam).
    [B]Physical Health: [/B]Amphetamines should only be used in low doses by obese individuals, or individuals with heart problems. Moderate doses should only be taken by those in good health, with no heart problems. Heavy doses should only be taken by individuals in very good health, especially cardiac health.
    [B]Mental State:[/B] Individuals with certain psychiatric conditions should consider the impact amphetamines may have on those conditions, and adjust dose according. Amphetamines can trigger panic attacks, manic episodes, anger, depression on come-down, among other symptoms.
    [B]Tolerance: [/B]Regular amphetamine users and addicts require higher doses for equivalent effects. Close monitoring of sensitivity should be a responsibility of anyone using amphetamines to an extent which may develop tolerance. Recommended doses are for low or no tolerance, as tolerant users should be experienced enough to know their doses.
    [B]Form of Amphetamine: [/B]Extended release formulas require greater intake for same intensity of effect, though those effects last longer. One and one half times normal dose is a good rule for those inexperienced with extended release formulas.
    [B]Last Dose Taken: [/B]Redosing can be risky. As a rule don’t take two heavy doses, or the equivalent in lower doses, within 3 hours. Individuals taking very heavy doses should be experienced enough to know when and if to redose.

    [U][B]Recommended oral doses[/B][/U][I]
    These mg amounts are for pure amphetamine base: Adderall 10mg = 6.3mg; Dexedrine 10mg = 7.3mg; Vyvanse 30mg = 8.8mg.[/I]
    [B]Threshold: [/B]3 mg
    [B]Mild: [/B]3 mg - 21 mg
    [B]Moderate: [/B]21 mg - 39 mg
    [B]Heavy: [/B]39 mg - 75 mg
    [B]Very Heavy: [/B]75 mg



    [U][B]Drug Interactions[/B][/U]

    Amphetamines have a number of interactions you should be aware of. They are:
    [B]Acidifying agents[/B] - Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCl, ascorbic acid, fruit juices, etc.) lower absorption of amphetamines.
    [B]Urinary acidifying agents[/B] - (ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) Increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby increasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines.
    [B]Adrenergic blocker[/B] - Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines.
    [B]Alkalinizing agents[/B] - Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines. Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines.
    [B]Antidepressants, tricyclic[/B] - Amphetamines may enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents; d-amphetamine with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated.
    [B]MAO inhibitors[/B] - MAOI antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow amphetamine metabolism. This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings; this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of neurological toxic effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results.
    [B]Antihistamines[/B] - Antihistamines and amphetamines may decrease or cancel each other’s effects.
    [B]Antihypertensives[/B] - Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives.
    [B]Chlorpromazine[/B] - Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning.
    [B]Ethosuximide[/B] - Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide.
    [B]Haloperidol[/B] - Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines.
    [B]Lithium carbonate[/B] - The anorectic and stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate.
    [B]Meperidine[/B] - Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine.
    [B]Methenamine therapy [/B]- Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy.
    [B]Norepinephrine[/B] - Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine.
    [B]Phenobarbital [/B]- Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; co-administration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.
    [B]Phenytoin[/B] - Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; co-administration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.
    [B]Propoxyphene[/B] - In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur.
    [B]Veratrum alkaloids[/B] - Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids.
    [B]Caffeine [/B]- By inhibiting adenosine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and inhibiting enzymes which play a part in the removal of amphetamines from the body, caffeine increases the duration and intensity of amphetamines. Though, caffeine also increases the release of gastric acid in the stomach, resulting in decreased amphetamine absorption if it is still in the stomach, as with gastrointestinal acidifying agents.
    [B]Benzodiazepines[/B] - Directly inhibit effects of amphetamines. Often used to sleep on come-down.[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR]
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Sep 9, 2017
  19. ~lostgurl~

    ~lostgurl~ Platinum Member & Advisor Donating Member

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    from Australia
    Did you write this yourself? If so nice job! If not can you please provide a link.... cheers :)
     
  20. Blueprint Soul

    Blueprint Soul Newbie

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    Yeah, I wrote most of it myself. Thanks. :) The effects list comes from Erowid, except for a couple additions. And most of the drug interactions I copied from GForce's Comprehensive Adderall Information to save time.