DEA and Kratom

Discussion in 'Kratom' started by enquirewithin, Apr 2, 2006.

  1. enquirewithin

    enquirewithin Gold Member

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    SPECIAL INTELLIGENCE BRIEF - [SIZE=-1]The DEA Special Testing and Research Laboratory (Dulles, Virginia) recently received a sample of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) from the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (Chicago, Illinois), for research purposes (see Photo 9).

    [SIZE=-1]Mitragyna speciosa is a member of the Rubiaceae (coffee) family, and is indigenous to southeast Asia, notably in Thailand and Malaysia. Kratom is the original, common name used in Thailand - which has since become the predominant name used worldwide - but Mitragyna speciosa has at least half a dozen other common names (e.g., it is known as "Biak-Biak" in Malaysia).[SIZE=-1]The Kratom tree can reach over 50 feet in height and over 15 feet in diameter (see Photo 10)[SIZE=-1].[SIZE=-1]The leaves (see Photo 11)have been traditionally used by Thai and Malaysian natives for brewing tea, smoking, or chewing, for medicinal purposes, and as a substitute for opium. More than 20 alkaloids have been identified in Kratom by various researchers; the most abundant is mitragynine, an indole alkaloid (see Figure 1,below).

    [SIZE=-1] [SIZE=-1] Takayama reported 66.2 percent mitragynine in the crude base extract of young Kratom leaves from Thailand [1]. Interestingly, mitragynine is not found in any other species of Mitragyna [2]. Several analogues of mitragynine, namely paynantheine, speciogynine, speciociliatine, and 7-alpha-hydroxy-7H-mitragynine, are also found in Kratom extracts [1]. Analysis of a methanol extract with GC/MSD identified both mitragynine and another alkaloid, rhynchophylline [3]. Although Kratom is relatively new in the forensic science arena, there are dozens of scientific papers describing the identification, isolation, and pharmacology of its alkaloids. It is interesting to note that the "low dose" effects from the chewing of whole Kratom leaves are described to be stimulating, while "high dose" effects of Kratom extracts are more akin to a narcotic analgesic (i.e., opium-like). In the study of the analgesic activity of Kratom and its constituents, Takayama concluded that the crude extract of the leaves has an opioid agonistic effect [1]. Mitragynine itself is documented to be a depressant [2]. The United Nations published a report in 1975 about the addictive nature of Kratom alkaloids; the researcher studied 30 Thai users for the article [4]. Jansen and Prast described mitragynine as a drug with a highly unusual but well documented history as both a depressant and a stimulant while possessing the chemical structure of a suspected psychedelic [5]. ​
    [SIZE=-1]As of March 2006, Kratom is not a controlled substance in the United States. However, it is controlled in Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar (Burma). In 2004, mitragynine and Kratom were both placed in Schedule 9 (the most restrictive level) of the Australian National Drugs and Poisons Schedule.
    [SIZE=-1]An Internet search confirmed a large number of Kratom vendors in the United States. Kratom is delivered to the U.S. both from Asia and from western European countries, and shipments commonly pass undetected through U.S. Customs. It is sold in various forms, including leaves, extracts, and powders. Vendors also promote the use of Kratom and provide detailed instructions on its preparation, use, and effects. A large and growing number of personal testimonials are also available on the Internet, describing the various effects of the different Kratom based products.

    [SIZE=-1]References
    [SIZE=-1] 1. Takayama H. Chemistry and pharmacology of analgesic indole alkaloids from the rubiaceous plant, Mitragyna speciosa. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2004;52(8):916-928.
    [SIZE=-1] 2. Shellard EJ. Ethnopharmacology of Kratom and the Mitragyna alkaloids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1989;25(1):123-124.
    [SIZE=-1] 3. Hendrickson, JB, Sims JJ. Mitragyna alkaloids - The structure of stipulatine. Tetrahedron Letters 1963;14:959-963.
    [SIZE=-1] 4. Suwanlert S. A study of Kratom users in Thailand. Bulletin on Narcotics 1975;27:21-27.
    [SIZE=-1] 5. Jansen KLR, Prast CJ. Psychoactive properties of mitragynine (Kratom). Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1988;20(4):455-457.
    * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *​
    usdoj.gov/dea/programs/forensicsci/microgram/mg0306/mg0306.html

    For graphics, see below (Photo 9, Photo 11, Photo 10, Figure 1)
     

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  2. kemistudent

    kemistudent Silver Member

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    Oh boy.. this blows. Before you know it catnip will be illegal.
     
  3. nera

    nera Silver Member

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    All I have to say is SHIT. I use kratom as a pain killer, I was in a car accident a long time ago, and hasn't fully recovered. PT doesn't work and Swim's doctor won't give Swim a perscription. But Swim guesses that all it takes is some dumb ass kid to ruin it for everyone.

    --Nera
     
  4. enquirewithin

    enquirewithin Gold Member

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    This has been around for a while now-- nothing further has happened....
     
  5. nera

    nera Silver Member

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    I know, I saw it a while ago, but it starts as one document, then becomes another, and another. Before you know it, it is illegal and I am in prision. Or maybe I am wrong and this is all end nicely, kinda like salvia.

    --Nera
     
  6. snapper

    snapper Gold Member

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    Salvia is not looking at a happy ending I think.
    With Kratom the DEA will wait for problems, and by the looks of things these will be related to addiction, not bodily harm (kratom is about as safe as cannabis so far). If there are no problems, they will likely create some, like that suicide recently which was 'linked' to salvia use. Add to this the inevitable finding of kratom in the proximity of already illegal drugs during raids to further bolster kratom's nefarious reputation. They'll probably link some crimes to it; a likely scenario would be a herion addict who tries to kick with kratom and then dies of an OD when he buys some smack and bangs it. After all, if it were not for the kratom, his tolerance would not have been lowered enough to OD on the heroin he subsequently shot up.... it'll have to be something retarded like that because kratom is pretty idiot proof, but as long as it is a published case report, no doubt with the added grace of being promoted by a distinguished organization like NIDA, the bulk of the population will eat it up. As everyone knows, kratom is a very real narcotic, which by itself is a concrete reason to schedule it. It's hard to argue with pinpoint pupils, analgesia and strong chemical binding to opiate receptors. Squirrel away your nuts for the winter now, because there will probably be none later.
    Of course, SWIM hopes to be wrong, but better to be prepared than be disappointed.
     
  7. Nagognog2

    Nagognog2 Iridium Member

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    This will depend heavily on the continued stranglehold the fundamentalist Kristians have on the US Government. They are the ones who are trying to outlaw any form of pleasure to make way for the "apocalypse." Come Novermber 7th - we will know where we stand in the Congress and Senate.

    Vote Early. Vote Often.
     
  8. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    I think the commercialisation of pure alkaloids pose a far greater risk to kratoms legality.
     
  9. snapper

    snapper Gold Member

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    I would agree with you Alfa except that the pure extracts have been less than potent. I have taken relatively high doses and has not had any problem yet. In fact, leaf still consistently is stronger no matter how much extract or alkaloid taken.
    The fundamentalists Kristians sadly seem to have the US by its proverbial gonads. Hopefully I am wrong about this as well, but SWIM expects to be crucified at some point for my sins by a crowd of bible belting pederasts...
     
  10. nera

    nera Silver Member

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    I agree with Alfa. From what I hear, the pure alkaloids are getting better made, and there by stronger, and less diluded. 7-ho-Mitragynine is more potent than morphine, so it is only a matter of time before someone boots it or makes a ****** (self-censored to keep people from doing it) version and dies off of it.

    --Nera
     
  11. snapper

    snapper Gold Member

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    I have tried 7aco, 7ho and mitragynine pure alkaloids several times at varied doses and they are not stronger than morphine. In fact, they are disappointingly not strong. There does not seem to be any overdose potential unless someone wants to go to the trouble and expense of ordering a whole lot of alkaloids.
     
    Last edited: Oct 20, 2006
  12. nera

    nera Silver Member

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    Snapper, SWIM heard that the extracts aren't really all that strong, I think they are diluded. After reads quite a bit about kratom, 7ho is supposed to be stronger than morphine.

    --Nera
     
  13. snapper

    snapper Gold Member

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    Has your lab monkey, who is well versed in kratom and other species in the Mitragynine family, sampled all of them? SWIM's have sampled all three several times since they were first released. They are effective, and granted SWIM's lab monkey will not inject any, but insufflated, they are dissapointing. There are several threads around which support SWIM's lab monkey's opinion.
     
    Last edited: Oct 24, 2006
  14. Nicaine

    Nicaine Titanium Member

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    That could just mean they're not water soluble enough to be effective when insufflated, eh?
     
  15. snapper

    snapper Gold Member

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    SWIM's monkeys have tried sublingual, vaporization (works a bit with 7HO), oral, insufflation. Have not and will not try injection, but may try rectal. I do get a good effect, but no more intense than leaf. SWIM's primates will often use it to top off a dose of leaf, and even then it does not cause nausea, depress respiration, trigger intense euphoria or cause excessive sedation. Rapid heart rate, itchiness, pinned pupils will occur (though less so over time with the same degree of high) and feeling sick seems to be the consequence of an overdose. Withdrawals have so far been reported as mild. If kratom was like heroin, it would have been reported by now. The beauty of this plant is, like cannabis, it is really hard to get into trouble with this drug. It is also not possible to acheive the intense euphoria of a hit of heroin, but it will help the addict to come off of methadone and heroin much milder withdrawals, and the withdrawals are what prevent most from stopping; it also gives thema a safer replacement which is not going to kill them and is actually motivating. The DEA will be hard pressed to find cases of damage with this one, even extracted.
     
  16. Nicaine

    Nicaine Titanium Member

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    It's truly a shame that kratom is on the DEA's watch list. To SWIM it's an indispensable, almost magically versatile substance that fixes a whole lot of problems (both physical and psychological). From the beginning, it's reminded him of the spice melange from Frank Herbert's Dune books. When I am feeling down, it picks him up. If he's feeling physically ill, it makes him feel better. If he's tired but can't sleep, it keeps him awake and energized for 4-6 hours. If he's coming off the use of a stimulant, it practically erases the unpleasant sensations associated with burnout and makes him feel 10 times better. The various alkaloids in kratom do a number of healthy things for the body, while mitragynine and 7-HO take care of the mind :).

    Kratom "addiction" is almost not even worthy of the term, at its worst it's four days of uncomfortable sensations and then it's over with. In fact, it's possible for SWIM to go back to using it occasionally after a year-long heavy habit, something he's never been able to do with any other substance.

    Come on DEA, leave kratom alone. Smoke shops aren't selling it, teenagers aren't using it to get high, people aren't checking into emergency rooms because of it. It's just not causing society any problems. Find a purified drug to pick on, leave herbs alone.
     
    Last edited: Oct 25, 2006
  17. snapper

    snapper Gold Member

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    Amen !
    Kratom is a panacea for SWIM too and I am happily dependent on it !