Opinions - Drug Policy Debate: Helpful Links / Sources of Information

Discussion in 'Drug Policy Reform & Narco Politics' started by Bajeda, Mar 26, 2007.

  1. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    There is plenty of debate on the topic of drug prohibition versus legalization, though unfortunately it isn't taking place among people with the ability to directly do something about it.

    To make it easier to formulate a persuasive argument in regards to drug legalization it would be nice to have an index of articles, links, studies, videos, etc. on this topic so research time can be cut down. Anything relevant to the topic should be good, from direct policy proposals to studies on the sociology of drug use. It would be preferable to try and keep only the most pertinent information for this topic though.

    Please post any good sources of information or commentary on this topic in this thread so it is easily accessible. Try to be specific with your citations rather than just giving a broad reference for people to dig through. When feasible, it would be a good idea to upload any pdfs to the archive, especially if they are not accessible to all members such as articles in many peer-reviewed journals.


    I'll start it off with a basic list, to be added to in the future:




    Cato Institute Policy Reports

    A Society of Suspects: The War on Drugs and Civil Liberties (In Archive: A Society of Suspects: The War on Drugs and Civil Liberties )

    Thinking About Drug Legalization (In Archive: Thinking About Drug Legalization)

    Alcohol Prohibition Was A Failure

    The Drug War vs. Land Reform In Peru

    Perilous Panacea: The Military In The Drug War



    Institute For Policy Studies

    A 93 page report split into several pdfs. Can be found here.



    The Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition

    http://www.prohibitioncosts.org/



    Whats Wrong With The Drug War?

    A basic overview of the problems related to drug prohibition and a look at the alternative of legalization. From the Drug Policy Alliance. Found here.



    Cognitive Liberty

    Threats to Cognitive Liberty: Pharmacotherapy and the Future of the Drug War. - Looks at future potential use of new drugs that limit capacity to experience effects of current illicit substances in the drug war.



    Transform

    After the War on Drugs - Options for Control - "A major new report examining the key themes in the drug policy reform debate, detailing how legal regulation of drug markets will operate, and providing a roadmap and time line for reform."

    Attitudes to Drug Policy and Drug Laws: A Review of the International Evidence - This paper reviews the available evidence about people’s attitudes and views toward national and international drug policy. The first section assesses the main conceptual and methodological problems exhibited by surveys and studies in this domain, including definitions and terminology, sampling issues, and methods of data collection and analysis. A conceptual model of drug policy is described, based on five general approaches which vary along the repressive-liberal dimension, with further distinctions within each approach.



    The International Journal of Drug Policy

    Critiques of harm reduction, morality and the promise of human rights - This commentary critically reviews recent criticisms of harm reduction which argue that ideological limitations and a reluctance to express moral commitments are major factors preventing it from developing its full potential. It argues that, rather than a paradigm which is failing to live up to underlying ideals of freedom and human rights, harm reduction is better viewed as an assemblage of practices and goals with varied outcomes.

    Distorted? A Quantitative Exploration of Drug Fatality Reports - It has long been accepted that newspaper reporting of drug issues may be prone to amplification. However, to date there has been little empirical confirmation of this view. This paper aims to examine the representativeness of newspaper reports of deaths attributed to illegal drug use.

    It is concluded from these findings that the news media can present an unrepresentative and somewhat distorted view of illegal drug deaths. These biases may have serious implications for public opinion, social policy and drug education.

    Drug use as a ‘practice of the self’: is there any place for an ‘ethics of moderation’ in contemporary drug policy? - This paper offers a series of critical interrogations of the principles and practice of harm minimisation. This critique draws from Michel Foucault’s account of ethics, pleasure and moderation in pointing to some significant gaps and conceptual problems within Australia’s National Drug Strategy.

    Drugs as a Human Right - This article proposes a new Article 31 to the Universal declaration of Human Rights: ‘‘Everyone has the right to use psychotropic substances of one’s own choice’’. To declare the freedom to use drugs a new human right is not self-evident from the point of view of liberal thinking, which provides space for individual freedom as well as for established custom and tradition.

    Drugs in the UN system: The Unwritten History of the 1998 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Drugs - The ‘‘international community’’ presented an apparent unanimity in its endorsement of prohibitive drug control at the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs in 1998. The reality is that there is a longstanding conflict within the UN system between nations wanting to maintain the prohibition regime and those hoping for a more pragmatic approach. The depth and course of this conflict can be traced through a myriad of documents and records of meetings published by the UN, revealing a previously unwritten history of events leading to the 1998 UNGASS meeting. These show the extent to which the hardliners have gone to maintain the status quo through rhetoric, denial, manipulation, selective presentation, misrepresentation and suppression of evidence, selective use of experts, threats to funding, and purging ‘‘defeatists’’ from the UN system. The UN has committed itself to a drug free world by 2008, even though the problem is worsening faster than its favoured remedy can be applied to solve it. However, some reformers and pragmatists have been challenging the system in their domestic policies. This may encourage a more realistic approach to illicit drugs and help to introduce more rational functioning to the UN system’s drug control organisations.

    Emerging policy contradictions between the United Nations drug control system and the core values of the United Nations - This paper argues that the image of the UN as a benevolent organization is a crucial factor in the functioning of the global drug prohibition regime. It contends, however, that from certain normative perspectives, particularly that of harm reduction, it is possible to identify the emergence of policy contradictions between what can be broadly defined as the United Nations drug control system and the core values of the UN as laid out in the Charter and other key instruments from which the UN derives its image of benevolence.

    Getting What You Pay For? The Ethics of Selective Publication - Examines the problem of research funding and its limiting impact on academic freedom and creative inquiry.

    Global Drug Prohibition: Its Uses and Crises - In the 20th century, political leaders and governments throughout the world supported drug prohibition and constructed a global drug prohibition system. They did so because of the influence of the USA and its allies and the UN. This article suggests they also did so because drug prohibition, drug demonisation and anti-drug campaigns were very useful*/especially to politicians, the police, the military, and the media. Now in the 21st century, global drug prohibition is facing several overlapping crises. The growth of the harm reduction movement has increasingly pushed drug policies in many countries from the more criminalized end of the drug prohibition continuum to the more regulated and tolerant end. Further, a serious, reputable and ever growing opposition to punitive drug policies has begun to challenge global drug prohibition itself. Finally, drug prohibition appears to be unable to prevent the increasing cultivation, use, and normalization of cannabis throughout the world. Because of these currently unstoppable developments, global drug prohibition is losing some of its invisibility and political invulnerability.

    Librarians And Other Subversives: Truth Can Be A Casualty Of Drug Wars, Too - Editorial examining freedom of information and the ability of existing social institutions to disseminate that information within the context of the drug war.

    Media constructions of illegal drugs, users, and sellers: a closer look at Traffic - This essay examines how the entertainment media constructs illegal drugs, users, and sellers. As well, it explores how television and movie producers are awarded for depicting ‘correct’ images of illegal drugs, users and sellers. The second half of the paper discusses the British made for television mini-series ‘Traffik’, and the later U.S. production ‘Traffic’. Six ‘war on drugs’ myths depicted in the U.S. film ‘Traffic’ are examined with a focus on race, class, and gender issues.

    Minimising research censorship by government funders - Response to Milton paper, one of several here. Topic is evident in title.

    Nationalism, immigrants and attitudes towards drugs - A number of writers on drug issues have commented upon the link between attitudes towards drugs and attitudes towards immigrants and ‘the foreign’. This paper summarises some of this literature and goes on to provide recent survey evidence of this link. In a discussion section, it is suggested that the ‘banal’ but deep-rooted nationalistic fears which underpin international and national drug policies need to be challenged. While researchers and policy-makers can try to ‘normalise’ attitudes towards drug-taking, ultimately it is drug-takers themselves who must take a political stance.

    Over-regulation or legitimate control? - Deals with issue of research limitations and censorship in academic community.

    Public health or human rights: what comes first? - Respect for human rights is a defining feature of harm reduction, which is commonly characterised as a public health-based movement. The importance it attaches to ‘user-friendliness’ and the view that drug users have a right to the same respect and dignity that other users of health and social care services receive is largely undisputed among harm reductionists. Within harm reduction there is also a developing discourse identifying drug use itself as a human right; nudging harm reduction towards being a rights based movement. This allows us to describe two philosophies of harm reduction: a ‘weak rights’ version, in which people are entitled to good treatment and a ‘strong rights’ version that additionally recognises a basic right to use drugs.

    Shifting the main purposes of drug control: from suppression to regulation of use: Reduction of risks as the new focus for drug policy - I believe that the original aims of (almost full) prohibition of substance use, as it is applied according to the NY Single Convention of 1961, are unattainable. Instead, I want to present some arguments and ways of looking at drug use that support a far reaching revision of the current aims of drug control. Drug policy goals should shift, from suppression of use to regulation of use. In this article I will present drug use data collected in Amsterdam that in my view support such a shift.

    Sociopharmacology of Drug Use: Initial Thoughts - Psychopharmacological approaches to drug use focus on psychological traits of drug users and chemical traits of drugs. Whether through medicalisation or demonisation, this defines users as the problem, which ignores socioeconomic and other issues that make individuals, neighbourhoods, and population groups vulnerable to harmful drug use. We discuss a concept of ‘sociopharmacology of drug use’ that locates drug use in broader contexts.

    The public health and social impacts of drug market enforcement: A review of the evidence
    - The primary response to the harms associated with illicit injection drug use in most settings has involved intensifying law enforcement in an effort to limit the supply and use of drugs. Policing approaches have been increasingly applied within illicit drug markets since the 1980s despite limited scientific confirmation of their efficacy. On the contrary, a growing body of research indicates that these approaches have substantial potential to produce harmful health and social impacts, including disrupting the provision of health care to injection drug users (IDU), increasing risk behaviour associated with infectious disease transmission and overdose, and exposing previously unaffected communities to the harms associated illicit with drug use. There are, however, alternatives to traditional targeted enforcement approaches that may have substantially less potential for negative health and social consequences and greater potential for net community benefit.

    Users, using, used: A beginner’s guide to deconstructing drugs discourse - Using deconstructive tools from contemporary social-political theory, we show how competing understandings of heroin use may mask a different kind of political contest. Exploring the discursive intertwining of people, practices and substances, we challenge the appropriateness of figuring different proposals to govern heroin use as a contest between science and politics, or of health-centred versus crime-centred strategies. We ask after the consequences of figuring criminal and medical arenas as rival frameworks for governing heroin use, and point to the perils associated with the apportionment of blame and victimhood therein. The broader aim underpinning our work is to locate and unpick political resistance to progressive harm minimisation strategies.


    Journal of Drug Issues

    An alternative to contemporary forms of drugs control - This article analyzes the main concepts utilized in non-repressive drug control models. After discussing three models of cannabis control used in the Netherlands, Switzerland and the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, the authors present an alternative model that is based on the German foodstuffs law.

    The impact of drug enforcement on crime: An investigation of the opportunity cost of police resources - The conventional wisdom among the law enforcement community is that drug use causes crime and that stringent enforcement of drug laws is an effective tool to combat property and violent crime. Previous research by some of these authors found that a sharp increase in drug enforcement in Florida during 1984-1989 resulted in a reallocation of police resources which reduced the effectiveness of property crime enforcement and increased the property crime rate.

    The Orgins and Future of the Dutch Approach Towards Drugs - This paper considers the roots of the Dutch approach towards drugs. It argues that the idiosyncratic nature of Dutch drug policies can be explained by taking into account the peculiar evolution of the Netherlands' political institutions. The distinctive character of Dutch policies is explained through the concept ofgedogen. Gedogen refers to the practice of discriminatory enforcement. Gedogen can be defined as a regulatory system of organized toleration and targeted repression. Only those illegalities that are actually considered to cause social problems are targeted for repression. As such, the policy differs markedly from orthodox prohibitionist policy approaches. Policies towards ecstasy and cannabis are discussed to illustrate how gedogen works in practice. While it is argued that gedogen has functioned well for a number of years, doubts are expressed about the extent to which the Netherlands can be expected to continue to play the role of pioneer with respect to drug policies. After a revival of conservative politics, the country now seems ill equipped to develop alternative drug policies.

    The Drugs/Violence Nexus: A Tripartite Conceptual Framework - Drugs and violence are seen as being related in three possible ways: the psychopharmacological, the economically compulsive, and the systemic. Each of these models must be viewed, in a theoretical sense, as "ideal types," i.e., as hypothetically concrete ". . . devices intended to institute comparisons as precise as the stage of one's theory and the precision of one's instruments allow." (Martindale, 1959:58- 59). In fact, it will be shown below that there can be overlap between the three models. However, this overlap does not detract from the heuristic value of the tripartite conceptual framework.

    The context of drug policy: An economic interpretation - Economics can be used to analyze public sector decision making because individuals make these decisions within a framework of incentives and constraints that are a product of individual preferences and institutional structure. Considering the emphasis on law enforcement in U.S. drug policy in this context, this paper presents an analysis of the incentives and constraints affecting drug policy that explains a reluctance to change the policy even in the face of considerable evidence that some reforms could be cost effective.

    The Great American War on Drugs: Another Failure of Tough-Guy Management - The increasingly obvious failure of the "tough-guy" approach that the US has adopted to cope with the national drug problem is discussed. Alternative policy is discussed.

    Essential Factors of a Rational Policy on Intoxicant Use - We have outlined the elements of a social policy that could deal effectively with the drug problem. These elements include (1) treating drug abusers in areas other than just their drug abuse; (2) providing more accurate information in drug education programs; (3) providing a series of symbolic but genuine gestures that indicate our society is willing to make real changes; and (4) coordinating these measures with more pragmatic and swift law enforcement. This policy would not end drug use. Nothing can do that. Neither would it be a surrender nor just a repetition of an old policy that has not worked.





    Thats it for now. If anyone knows of pertinent articles they would like to see in the file archive please let me know.
     
    Last edited: Feb 13, 2016
  2. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP) - Ghent University - Drug Research Page
     
  3. IntrepidTraveler

    IntrepidTraveler Silver Member

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    All good stuff--at least the stuff I'm able to access! Most people rely on their own common sense and the heresay of their smoking buddies to construct their arguments against the WOD; I think anyone interested in the WOD or drug law in general should go beyond what they've always known and concentrate on building up their factual knowledge. Maybe then us SWImers will have a fighting chance.
     
  4. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    What were you having trouble accessing?
     
  5. IntrepidTraveler

    IntrepidTraveler Silver Member

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    Some of the links gave me "Unfortunately, you do not currently have permission to access this entry. Please contact us for more information if necessary." I assumed they were parts of the site that I don't (yet) have access to.
     
  6. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    I think that may be a temporary problem with the File Archive. You should be able to access all the files in the near future.
     
  7. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    The Impact of Heroin Prescription on Heroin Markets in Switzerland

    Abstract: A program of heroin prescription was introduced in Switzerland in 1994. This initially targeted 1,000 heavily dependent heroin users, most of whom were also involved in drug dealing and other forms of crime. It has recently been extended to cover 3,000 users. Evaluation of its impact on users shows large reductions in use of illicit drugs and in drug-related crime. The evaluations were not designed to assess the program's impact on drug markets, but some data can shed light on this. It seems likely that users who were admitted to the program accounted for a substantial proportion of consumption of illicit heroin, and that removing them from the illicit market has damaged the market's viability. Before involvement in the program, a large proportion of users sold drugs to finance their own use, since the illicit drug market in Switzerland relies heavily on users for retail drug selling. It is likely, therefore, that the program additionally disrupted the function of the market by removing retail workers. The workers no longer sold drugs to existing users, and equally important, no longer recruited new users into the market. The heroin prescription market may thus have had a significant impact on heroin markets in Switzerland.
     
  8. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Anyone have anything to add? This could be a good base of information for writing wiki articles if we can build it up.
     
  9. manda

    manda Palladium Member

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    If drugs become legalized, I am sure the potency of meth would become "regulated" to a level "safe for human consumption" and although much would change in the world, one thing wouldn't--
    The people with the potent meth made it themselves and are currently making themselves scarce...

    My opinion on legalization in the US is that the minute the government became responsible for the production and quality of dope, that the potency would suffer greatly.
    It would be legal, great, easy-to-get, fine, but most likely it would be crap, yuck.

    The goverenment isn't going to put racy speed on the streets legally---

    Fortuneately or (un) even if drugs were legalized, there will always be certain folks out there that just like to go their own way and do their own thing- Legalization wouldn't stop people from manufacturing- it might even increase manufacturing once this new legal "nope" was tried and rejected by the dopers.

    I really believe, unless we're talking green weed, that the government ain't going give us the pure- now, tommororow, or ever...
    Am I a nutbag or does anyone else have similiar thoughts?
     
    Last edited: Jan 27, 2008
  10. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Drug Policy and Families: Casualties of the War - [Abstract]: This paper explores the consequences of drug policies, especially punitive criminal sanctions, for the families of offenders. Mandatory minimum sentences and certain legal developments have created substantial growth in the prison industry with a likely increase in the number and intensity of harms to drug offenders and their families. Neg-ative outcomes include at-risk developmental pathways for children, un-certain quality of care and parenting, family dissolution, and weakened communities. The evidence suggests that punitive drug policies come at great social and economic cost with minimal benefits. Harm-reduction is offered as a framework for change in relation to drug offenders and their families. Recommendations for family preservation and sentencing re-form are discussed.


    Shortcomings of harm reduction: toward a morally invested drug reform strategy - [Abstract]: After a decade of steady diffusion in the drugs field, the harm reduction movement, posing pragmatic public health solutions based on empirical analysis, is still hindered by dissension and general confusion as to its underlying ideals. Despite having short-term political advantages, its ‘value-neutral’ style of discourse undercuts deeper moral foundations by attempts to forge the common ground in drug debates. Drawing on key statements in the literature and insights from interviews with leading Canadian drug policy observers, this commentary looks at rhetorical shortcomings that may act to encumber longer term harm reduction adoption and promotion.


    US Foreign Policy and the War on Drugs: Analysis of a Policy Failure - Insightful analysis that explores drug policy - mostly centering around the shift in trends from 1988 - and its implications, from an international relations perspective. Writing is clear and accessible, and the author explains necessary concepts and terminology so lack of familiarity with the lexicon isn't preclusive.

    Legalize drugs now! An analysis of the benefits of legalized drugs. - Optimistic and opinionated, but still a good read. [Abstract]: The legalization of drugs would prevent our civil liberties from being threatened any further, it would reduce crime rates, reverse the potency effect, improve the quality of life in the inner cities, prevent the spread of disease, save the taxpayer money, and generally benefit both individuals and the community as a whole. Our arguments are based on a basic appreciation of the benefits provided by voluntary exchange and the role markets play in coordinating human activities. Legalizing drugs would eliminate many inconsistencies, guarantee freedoms, and increase the effectiveness of the government’s anti-drug beliefs. The present war on drugs has not and will not produce
    a decisive victory. We advocate a new approach to this important social problem. Drug dealers are a thing of the past. Violent crimes and theft are greatly reduced. Drug-related shoot-outs are unheard of. The streets of America begin to “clean up.” Communities pull themselves together. Youths and adults once involved in crime rings
    are forced to seek legitimate work. Deaths due to infected intravenous needles and
    poisonous street drugs are eliminated. Taxpayers are no longer forced to pay $10,000,000,000 to fund drug-related law enforcement. The $80,000,000,000 claimed by organized crime and drug rings will now go to honest workers (Ostrowski 1993, pp.
    203-205). What policy change will bring about such good news? The legalization of drugs! Both practically and philosophically speaking, addictive drugs should be legalized.



    Normalizing the Drug Economies: Colombia's Legalization Debate. - A more journalistic article from 2002.


    Free Trade and Illegal Drugs: Will NAFTA Transform the United States Into the Netherlands? - [Abstract]: In the postwar era, the United States typically has taken an approach to dealing with illegal drugs different from Europe. Americans have favored prohibitionist measures to combat drug use, while Europeans have gradually relaxed many of their illicit substance laws. Recently, however, there has been a growing movement within,the United States to decriminalize and legalize marijuana. Numerous states have already reformed their laws to allow doctors to prescribe marijuana to patients. Moreover, many states are dramatically decriminalizing personal use of cannabis.

    A review of postwar Europe's experience with drugs provides a useful paradigm to explain the U.S.'s shifting attitude. It also suggests that free trade may play a role in drug legalization. Following World War II, European nations began removing barriers to trade and ultimately joined to form a supranational organization, the European Union, largely erasing national borders. As free trade spread across Europe, so too did drug legalization, beginning in the Netherlands and eventually following on most of the continent. More recently, the United States formed a free trade zone with Canada, which has recently decriminalized marijuana, and with Mexico, which has been the main conduit for illegal drugs. As the model presented in this Note predicts, the United States has gradually loosened its drug laws as illicit substances stream across its open borders. Free trade makes it easier to move goods of any kind, legal or illegal, across borders, which increases the prevalence of drugs while reducing their cost. Once one member of a free trade association legalizes drugs, it may only be a matter of time before all others adopt similar policies as cheap drugs flow across borders. As drugs become more prevalent in society, a nation's ability to incarcerate users is strained, and drugs become quasi-normalized-leading to decriminalization and legalization. Thus, the European experience with drugs suggests free trade may be one of the causes of recent drug legalization and decriminalization movements in the United States.

    Public health and human rights: the virtues of ambiguity - Argues for the necessity of both harm reduction and legislative reform in effective drug policy reform; author views the two as integral components.


    Drug enforcement's doubleedged sword: An assessment of asset forfeiture programs (JM Miller & LH Selva 1994) - This paper presents the first ethnographic examination of asset forfeiture during the drug war era. The study is based on 12 months of covert participant observation, in which one of the authors assumed the role of confidential informant in undercover narcotics operations in a southern state. Contemporary methods of narcotics policing are assessed at two vital points: case selection and police conduct. Findings suggest that asset forfeiture is a dysfunctional policy which, in implementation, has strayed from its original intent and has incurred unintended consequences. Although forfeiture programs generate income, they also cause drug enforcement to serve functions that are inherently contradictory and often at odds with the demands of justice.





    My browser is getting screwy so I'm going to stop providing abstracts, but here are some more useful articles relevant to the drug policy discourse.
    Rapid scale up of harm reduction in China (SG Sullivan & Z Wu)
    Malaysia and harm reduction: The challenges and responses (G Reid et al 2007)

    Implementation of harm reduction in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (A Sarang et al 2007)

    How the harm reduction movement contrasts itself against punitive prohibition (T Tammia & T Hurme 2007)

    “Harm Reduction—Coming of Age”: A local movement with global impact (GV Stimson 2007)

    Global estimates of prevalence of HCV infection among injecting drug users (C Aceijas & T Rhodes 2007)

    Multi-level governance: The way forward for European illicit drug policy? (C Chatwin 2007)

    Universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment for injecting (AL Ball 2007)

    Notes Towards A Politics Of Fear (DL Altheide 2003)

    Looking the Other Way: The Impact of Reclassifying Cannabis on Police Warnings, Arrests and Informal Action in England and Wales (Warburton et al, 2005)

    The Impact of Marijuana Law Enforcement in an Economic Model of Crime (Shepherd and Blackley, 2007)

    A 25 Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and Its Impact on American Society


    Sorry for the lack of organization.
     
  11. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Federal Drug Data Sources

    The government produces loads and loads of statistics on drug use, trafficking, manufacture, price, prevalence, fatalities, etc. Some of this data has the potential to be very useful.

    You can find a nice list of all the main drug data sources at whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/drugfact/sources.html


    If anyone knows any other good sources of statistical data (such as for other countries / regions) please do share.



    The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has a legal library with useful resources.
     
    Last edited: Apr 19, 2008
  12. Bajeda

    Bajeda Super Moderator Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Following up from the above post, here are some good statistical references and general information resources useful for obtaining data about crime or drug use rates, current trends in law enforcement and the judicial system, changes in drug laws, etc.



    National Criminal Justice Reference System (ncjrs.gov) - Lists publications and links on corrections, courts, crime, drugs, international crime, juvenile justice, law enforcement, research, statistics, crime victims, etc. An excellent comprehensive reference that is constantly updated.


    The Sentencing Project (sentencingproject.org/) - A highly regarded criminal justice think tank. Information about crime, courts, sentencing, criminal justice policy analysis, punishment, alternatives to incarceration and reform.


    RAND Drug Policy Research Center (rand.org/multi/dprc/) - Up to date drug policy research from this long-standing American think tank.


    US Dept. of Justice: Assest Forefeiture Program (usdoj.gov/jmd/afp/) - Information on Asset Forfeiture laws and practices, reports to congress, and financial statistics.


    Law Library Resource Exchange (llrx.com/courtrules) - Includes links to over 1,400 sources for state and federal court rules, forms and dockets.


    Washburn University School of Law(washlaw.edu/) - Links to a plethora of Federal Government internet resources and other government related material (includes international resources).


    Government Printing Office: US Code (gpoaccess.gov/uscode/browse.html) - The Government Printing Office offers the laws of the United States online as text, browsable by title, chapter, sub-chapter, and section. Title 18 covers criminal law.


    United States Sentencing Commission (ussc.gov/) - The agency that establishes sentencing policies and practices for the Federal courts. Contains reports to Congress, publications, Federal sentencing guidelines, and Federal sentencing statistics.


    International Narcotics Control Board (incb.org/) - The INCB is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ monitoring the implementation of the United Nations drug control conventions. Contains a wealth of information about the specific provisions of the UN drug conventions, and also is a great resource for travelers as it provides a country-by-country list of drug regulations.


    US DOJ - Office of Justice Program - Bureau of Justice Statistics (ojp.gov/bjs/welcome.html) - Statistics on just about everything in the US criminal justice system!


    Australian Institute of Criminology (aic.gov.au/) - Official Australian criminal justice website. Includes crime and drug use statistics for Australia.


    National Statistics Online (statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nscl.asp?id=6358) - Statistical data and reports on alcohol, tobacco and drug use in United Kingdom.


    National Health Services - The Information Centre (ic.nhs.uk/statistics-and-data-collections/health-and-lifestyles/drug-misuse) - The NHS portal for UK drug use information / reports.



    As always, any additional contributions or recommendations for data sources (i.e., what type of data you need) is appreciated.
     
  13. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Please use the links section for posting links.