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Everything you need to know about Drug Testing

Discussion in 'Drug testing discussion' started by Jasim, May 10, 2010.

  1. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Drug Testing Overview


    Drug Screens (Needs Expansion)


    Drug screens are typically immunoassay tests.

    An example of an immunoassay is ELISA. Antibodies are created that will bind to specific chemicals. For example, an antibody may be created that binds to THC (the active chemical in marijuana). This antibody is then attached to an enzyme or color indicator molecule so that when the antibody binds its specific ligand (THC in our example) the shape of the antibody changes causes a light to be emitted or a color change to occur. In the absence of its specific ligand the antibody will not change shape and therefore will not cause a color change.

    Immunoassays are usually qualitative only, meaning they can detect the presence of a chemical but not the amount. Some highly sophisticated immunoassays may be semi-quantitative by measuring the amount of color change or light emitted. These semi-quantitative immunoassays will only give an approximation of the amount. A fully quantitative method must be used for the verification or confirmation of any presumptive positive immunoassay result.

    5 Panel (SAMHSA-5)

    Immunoassay test. Confirmation typically done by GC/MS.

    Tests for:
    Cannabinoids (Marijuana)
    Cocaine
    Amphetamines (Speed/Stimulants)
    Opiates (e.g. Morphine, Heroin, Codeine)
    PCP

    Test may include Ethanol


    Expanded Panel

    Immunoassay test. Confirmation typically done by GC/MS.
    Tests for everything the 5 Panel tests for with additional analytes.

    Tests for:
    Cannabinoids (Marijuana)
    Cocaine
    Amphetamines (Speed/Stimulants)
    Opiates (e.g. Morphine, Heroin, Codeine)
    PCP
    Barbiturates
    Opioids (e.g. Hydrocodone, Oxycodone)
    Methqualone
    Benzodiazepines (e.g. Xanax, Valium, Klonopin)
    Propoxyphene (Darvocet)
    MDMA (Ecstasy)
    LSD
    Buprenorphine
    Ketamine


    Test may include Ethanol


    Urine Testing

    The most common type of drug screen test is a urine dipstick test. The subject urinates into a cup which usually has a temperature pad attached to the outside. Inside the cup is an immunoassay 5 panel screen that will detect the 5 drug classes.

    Besides temperature, several other criteria to determine the validity of the sample (to be sure the sample has not been tampered with or adulterated) can be tested for in urine samples and is required for testing in the USA (see [autolink]Drug Law[/autolink]). Each urine sample must have it's creatinine levels checked. Creatinine is a metabolic waste product present in all urine. For all samples with a creatinine level below 20 ng/mL, the specific gravity of the sample must be determined. Specific gravity is a measure of the relative density of the sample. Urine has a specific gravity of 1.02 - 1.03 g/mL. Diluting urine will result in a lower than expected specific gravity. Drinking copious amounts of water before a test may also lower the specific gravity and creatinine levels. Tests pH and oxidizing agents are also required by SAMHSA law.

    Other validity markers that are tested for include:
    - Tests for nitrite oxidants such as found in the products Klear, Whizzies, and UrineLuck
    - Tests for gluteraldehyde such as found in the products UrinAid and ClearChoice
    - Tests of IgG which will detect non-human urine.

    Quantification/Confirmation Testing (Needs Expansion)


    Confirmation testing is typically done by GC/MS.

    GC or Gas Chromatography is a form of chromatography. In chromatography the sample is carried through a tube or column and the movement of the sample through the column causes the chemical constituents to separate. In GC the sample is slightly heated causing it to volatilize. Note that chromatography of any kind is simple a separation technique. Usually a chromatographic (or separation) technique is combined with a measurement technique.

    MS or Mass spectrometry is a technique of measurement. When the sample is separated by GC, a specific chemical species will come through the column. In MS the chemical is hit with a force causing the molecule to split apart in a predictable way. The pieces of this molecule are then detected as they hit a plate. These pieces appear as peaks on a graph or chromatogram. These peaks are then checked against a library of known chemicals to find a match. Once a match is found, the chemical is identified. This is a quantitative method which means the amount of the chemical in the sample can be determined by the peak heights or intensities.

    Pharmacokinetics - Drug Metabolism and Elimination


    The study of how a drug moves through the body is term 'Pharmacokinetics'. Pharmacokinetics is primarily concerned with the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) of drugs. This encompasses the entire process of how a drug moves through the body. [autolink]Drug testing[/autolink] theory and the analysis of testing results are based on the pharmacokinetics of the particular drug in question.

    Absorption

    Route of administration is extremely important for absorption. A fast absorption, such as is seen with intravenous injection, results in a higher peak plasma concentration. The peak plasma concentration is the maximum amount of drug in the bloodstream during a drug using session. A slower absorption will result in a lower peak plasma concentration. Oral ingestion will result in a lower peak plasma concentration than intravenous injection of the same amount of drug. If the subject has food in the stomach, this will further delay absorption and result in an even lower peak plasma concentration.

    The peak plasma concentration is a major determinant of how long a drug will stay in the system.

    Distribution

    Once a drug is absorbed, it is unlikely to distribute evenly throughout the body. In order for a drug to exert it's effect on the brain (ie. get you high) it must be freely available in the bloodstream. Drugs that are highly lipid-soluble, such as the actives in marijuana (e.g. THC), will concentrate in fat tissue in the body. While 'sequestered' or trapped in fat tissue, the drug is unable to exert it's action. Other drugs may be highly protein bound, which means they bind to proteins in the blood, once again while bound they do not exert an effect. Being freely available in the blood not only affects whether the drug will exert it's action, it also determines how quickly the drug is eliminated from the body. Drugs that are sequestered in fat tissue or bound to protein cannot be eliminated from the body.

    As an example of the effects of drug distribution on [autolink]drug testing[/autolink] consider an overweight marijuana smoker versus a thin marijuana smoker.

    An overweight marijuana smoker has a lot more fat tissue for the lipid-soluble actives to become sequestered in. In order to experience the full effects of marijuana smoking, an overweight user will have to smoke more marijuana in order to saturate their fat cells. Once the fat cells are saturated, the excessive drug will be available in the blood to exert it's action. This also explains why it may be easier for a chronic smoker to get high versus a non-chronic smoker. The chronic smoker is likely to already have their fat cells saturated with THC. A thin marijuana smoker is likely to be able to get high from a smaller amount of marijuana due to less of the drug being sequester in fat tissue.

    This example helps to explain why an overweight, chronic marijuana smoker may test positive for marijuana use up to three months after the last use, while a thin non-chronic user may test clean after only three days. This also helps to explain how a user can test positive for so long without ever experiencing the [autolink]drug effects[/autolink].

    Drug distribution has a direct effect on the both the [autolink]drug effects[/autolink] experienced and the length of time the drug will stay in the system.

    Metabolism

    Metabolism is the body's way of changing a drug into a form that can be eliminated. Typically this involves making the drug more water soluble so it can be excreted by the kidneys in the urine. The half-life of a drug is a measure of the rate of metabolism of the drug. When a drug is metabolized it is actually changed into a different chemical. The chemical that a drug is changed into (the drug's 'metabolite') may also be a drug on it's own and be active in the body, but not always. Typically drug metabolites are not active or as active as the parent drug, but this is not always the case. A pro-drug, such as codeine or tramadol, must be metabolized into a more active form in order for the full [autolink]drug effects[/autolink] to be experienced. In such a case, it is the drug metabolite that is responsible for the for the main effects of the drug.

    Most drug tests are designed to detect both the parent drug and common metabolites of the drug. This means that even after the parent drug itself is out of the system, if it's metabolites remain (even if the metabolites themselves are not active) the metabolites may trigger a positive on a drug test. When a sample is taken for confirmation testing, the confirmation test will differentiate between parent drug and metabolite. Due to the fact that drug tests detect metabolites, half-life is not a measure of the length of time a drug is detectable. As far as [autolink]drug testing[/autolink] is concerned a positive for a drug metabolite is the same as a positive for the parent drug.

    Some drugs are designed to undergo extensive metabolism and may have several metabolic products. A perfect example of this is the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium). Diazepam is known as a long-acting benzodiazepine. It is long acting because it's metabolites are also active benzodiazepines (nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam are all active metabolic products of diazepam). The extensive metabolism of diazepam explains why a single dose of diazepam can cause drug test positives for up to 10 days. Diazepam is also a great example of a drug that is highly lipid-soluble. Chronic dosing of diazepam will result in a buildup of the drug in fat tissue further extending the detection time well beyond 10 days.

    Metabolism of a drug has a direct effect on how long a drug is detectable in the body. Drug screens and confirmations test for the parent drug and common metabolites. Half-life is not a measure of how long a drug is detectable.


    Elimination (Needs Expansion)


    ** Needs to be Written **
    ** Urine versus Blood
    ** Factors affecting elimination

    Other Drug Tests

    EtG/EtS Testing (Needs Expansion)


    EtG (Ethyl glucuronide) is a metabolic conjugation product of ethanol and glucuronic acid. EtG is detectable in urine for up to 3-4 days or 80 hours after drinking.

    Breathalyzer Testing (Needs Expansion)


    A breathalyzer is an instrument used to check blood alcohol level in an individual most commonly used by police when they suspect the subject has been driving under the influence of alcohol. The subject exhales into the breathalyzer and ...ethanol oxidized into acetic acid. Breathalyzers however do not directly measure blood alcohol count nor concentration, just a measure of the amount of ethanol in one’s breath. The only way to get a blood alcohol concentration is by a blood test.

    Hair Testing (Needs Expansion)


    Naturally darker hair tends to keep detectable levels of drugs and metabolites longer than lighter colored or blonde hair.

    Hair testing is relatively expensive and uncommon. Hair tests do not typically detect use within the past week, but can detect use for much longer periods than other tests.

    Saliva and Sweat Testing (Needs Expansion)


    Saliva and sweat tests currently have no standardized levels of cutoffs and reliability can vary widely. Sweat tests are particularly unreliable due to the possibility of environmental factors causing false positives (e.g. cannabis smoke). Saliva tests are becoming more common, but sweat tests are still very uncommon.

    In a saliva test, a swab is taken from the subjects mouth. The swab is typically reconstituted (combined with some solvent) and analyzed similarly to other types of samples.

    In a sweat test, a patch is applied to the skin of the subject and left for some time.

    Beating Drug Tests


    [autolink]Drug testing[/autolink] facilities have gotten smart over the years and many of the little tricks that used to work won't anymore.

    What Does NOT Work


    Drinking lots of water or diluting urine: The idea behind this is to dilute the concentration of the detectable drugs in the urine to below the cutoff levels of the test. The problem with this is that it's easy to over do it and creatinine and specific gravity are both commonly tested for and this method throws those off. Drinking too much water can dilute the urine causing lowered levels of creatinine. Creatinine is naturally found in all urine and is typically tested for as a standard part of any drug test (it's required by law to be tested for in the USA). Specific gravity is also easily tested for (and required by law in the USA if creatinine levels are below 20 ng/mL) and will change if the urine is diluted. Drinking lots of water will do nothing to help clean your system of drugs, it will only dilute the urine.

    Vitamin B: Vitamin B used to be recommended to color the urine after a subject had drank plenty of water. This won't help at all because of what is mentioned above.

    Diuretics: More frequent urination will do nothing to clear drug metabolites from your body, it will only clean your bladder.

    Herbal supplements (e.g. Goldenseal): Do not work, period. There's no science to it. No herbal product can cause a false negative. The best any can do is speed up metabolism, but detection windows are so short anyway that this likely won't have any effect at all. Goldenseal is just a diuretic.

    Non-human urine: This can be tested for (via IgG), but contrary to popular belief age and gender cannot.

    Papain or papaya enzymes: Does not work. Papain, an enzyme found in papaya fruit, binds to THC preventing it from being detected in an immunoassay screen. Papain does not bind to the metabolites of THC which are also tested for. Additionally, a lot of research has been done on papain adulterants in urine immunoassay screens and many techniques have been devised as a workaround for this adulterant.

    Phenylpropylamine (Dexatrim): Myth, doesn't work. And it could cause a false positive for amphetamines.

    Urine adulterants: Nearly all urine adulterants can easily be detected. Ammonia, Draino, and other bases will change the pH which is easily tested for. Oxidants, such as bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and many products sold as urine adulterants, are required by law to be tested for in the USA and are likely tested for elsewhere. Visine does not work; it used to work on old EMIT tests, but it's easily detectable.

    Vinegar, lemon juice, cranberry juice, or other acidifier: Acidic urine will help to clear amphetamines more quickly, however the effect is very negligible and likely won't make any noticeable difference.

    Zinc or zinc sulfate: Myth, does nothing.


    What Might Work, but Isn't Guaranteed


    More Time: The best option is to increase the amount of time between drug use and the drug test. Even a single day can make the difference between passing and failing.

    Exercise and a healthy diet: Lower amounts of body fat mean less area for fat soluble cannabinoid metabolites to be stored. In addition, exercise keeps metabolic rates high and could result in increased elimination, though for most drugs the effect is likely negligible.

    Substituting Clean Urine: Concealment and temperature are of concern using this method. Non-human urine can be detected (via testing for IgG). Gender and age cannot be determined from urine.

    Aspirin: Aspirin only works on some EMIT tests, which are not common anymore. If you know for sure the test you are taking is an EMIT test this may help, but newer tests are likely to not be affected. Take about 1300 mg of aspirin a few hours before the test. NOTE: This is a high dose of aspirin. Aspirin sensitive subjects should not attempt to use this method. Those suffering from liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal problems should not attempt this method. Aspirin at this high of a dose is likely to cause stomach discomfort.

    Lecithin, CLA, and Alpha-GPC: Taking lecithin could possibly cause fat cells to release cannabinoid metabolites into the bloodstream allowing quicker elimination.


    Soluble Fiber Method for Beating Marijuana/Cannabinoid Tests


    Sure-Jell, Pectin, and Certa all contain soluble fiber. In fact one could use any kind of soluble fiber. Metamucil and other related soluble fiber laxatives should also be effective. Clover actually uses a soluble fiber product that contains corn dextrin for health purposes, not for passing drug tests, but such a product should also work. Eating a lot of oats may also contribute as oats have more soluble fiber than most other grains.


    Your liver (hepatic/feces) and kidneys (renal/urine) contribute to the elimination of most drugs in the form of metabolites. Bile acids (from the liver) contribute to elimination through the feces. While the metabolite is being stored in the intestine or in the bladder (or nephrons of the kidney) it is not simply stuck there. The metabolite can be reabsorbed back into the body and often is.

    Soluble fiber prevents the drug metabolite (specifically a cannabinoid metabolite or other lipid-soluble drug) from being reabsorbed back into the body from the intestine. Soluble fiber displaces the micelles (shells) formed by bile acids around the drug metabolite. At the same time soluble fiber also prevents the bile acids from being reabsorbed, causing them to be pulled from the body. Your body then needs to replace those bile acids and it uses up cholesterol from the blood to do this. All of this contributes to more THC metabolites being released into the blood from storage and will contribute to increased rate of clearance. For a short time however the levels of THC metabolites in the blood and urine drop. It's during this window that one can create a false negative for a urine dipstick test and pass a drug test for marijuana.


    As I said, any soluble fiber may be used. The powdered forms of those fiber supplements may be more effective as one is likely to have better control over how much fiber is being consumed, making it easier to consume lots of fiber.

    Also note that the use of soluble fiber is not only effective for passing a drug test acutely, but will also help during periods of detox to clean the system. Therefore, if one knows a drug test is coming up using soluble fiber daily up to the day of the test will also be beneficial.


    - Stop using marijuana or other cannabinoid being tested.

    - As soon as one learns of a drug test for marijuana or other cannabinoids get some soluble fiber and begin using it daily. Clover would probably use a powdered fiber supplement for ease of use, just follow the instructions. Be sure to use plenty of water with the soluble fiber as too little water can cause choking or problems swallowing the liquid.

    - The night before the test don't eat too much. Especially limit complex carbohydrates (no pasta).

    - The day of the test take twice the amount of soluble fiber one has been taking about 2-3 hours before the test. Void the bladder (urinate) after taking the soluble fiber. Drink plenty of water with the fiber, but don't overdo it. There's no reason to force yourself to drink gallons and gallons of water. Urine that is too dilute may make the test invalid which is the same as a failed test.

    - If possible take the middle of the stream of urine. Urinate into the toilet a little, then slip the cup under the stream. Remove the cup just before you finish urinating.

    ** Do note that the increase in fiber is likely to cause an increase in bowel movements.


    What Will Work


    Nothing: Even complete abstinence will not ensure that you pass every drug test, every time. Some tests are just prone to false positives. Luckily a lot of improvements and changes in policy have been made in recent years to reduce the possibility of false positives, but nothing is certain. GC/MS and LC/MS confirmation tests are pretty sure though. If you fail a drug screen and know you are clean, in most places you have a right to insist on a confirmation test. In the USA it's required by law, but you may have to ask/push for it. Unfortunately in other localities you may be required to pay for this out of pocket, which can cost anywhere from $100-$250 USD or more.


    Drug Testing Law (Needs Expansion)


    Most countries have laws applying to occupational [autolink]drug testing[/autolink]. Employers are typically allowed to drug test new employees during the hiring process. In addition, employers are allowed to drug test employees randomly or in response to suspected use. Employers are typically not allowed to drug test employees for punishment purposes.

    An exception to the above is Canadian law. Canada has some of the strictest laws regarding [autolink]drug testing[/autolink]. In July 2002, it was determined that [autolink]drug testing[/autolink] violates employee privacy in workplace situations except where safety issues are involved.

    In the USA, SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) require employers who use commercial driver licenses to drug test employees. The drug test must test for 5 classes of drugs, this is known as the SAMHSA-5 drug test.

    SAMHSA regulations also require that urine samples be checked for several criteria to determine the validity of the sample (to be sure the sample has not been tampered with or adulterated). Each urine sample must have it's creatinine levels checked. Creatinine is a metabolic waste product present in all urine. For all samples with a creatinine level below 20 ng/mL, the specific gravity of the sample must be determined. Specific gravity is a measure of the relative density of the sample. Urine has a specific gravity of 1.02 - 1.03 g/mL. Diluting urine will result in a lower than expected specific gravity. Drinking copious amounts of water before a test may also lower the specific gravity and creatinine levels. Tests for pH and oxidizing agents are also required by SAMHSA law.

    Opiates versus Opioids


    Opiates are distinctly different than opioids for the purposes of drug testing. Opiates are are less chemically refined than opioids. When a drug test says that it tests for opiates, this typically includes morphine, codeine, and the heroin metabolite 6-MonoActeylMorphine (6-MAM). Opioids typically tested for include oxycodone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone. SAMHSA-5 or 5-panel tests (the most common type of urine drug test) only tests for opiates, not opioids. Expanded panel drug tests typically test for both.

    False Positives (Needs Expansion)


    For the standard 5-panel urine drug screen, false positives are extremely rare. In the US, SAMHSA has guidelines for determining cutoff levels to drastically reduce the chance of false positives. Any false positive can be cleared up with a confirmation test. Confirmation tests (GC/MS) are highly sophisticated and are not prone to false positives.


    Poppy Seeds
    A testing cutoff of 2000 ng/mL (such as that in the SAMHSA-5) prevents the possibility of poppy seeds causing a false positive for opiates. Lower cutoffs, such as that used in many criminal tests, may generate false positives for opiates due to over consumption of poppy seeds.

    Meperidine (Demerol)
    Meperidine is not tested for, but it can cause a false positive on a drug screen for morphine. When a confirmation test is performed on the sample, it will be negative.

    Phenylpropylamine, Psuedophedrine, and Ephedrine
    All can cause false positives for amphetamines. Confirmation tests can tell the difference.

    Sertraline (Zoloft)
    Studies suggest that sertraline can cause false positives for benzodiazepines: False-Positive Urine Screening for Benzodiazepines: An Association with Sertraline?: A Two-year Retrospective Chart Analysis (2010)

    DXM (dextromethorphan)
    DXM itself is not tested for in typical drug tests. Recreational doses of DXM have been known to cause false positives for pcp and opiates. Therapeutic doses do not cause false positives.

    Table 1 - Detection Times

    (Expanded from Erowid)

    Analytes Blood Saliva Sweat Urine Hair
    Alcohol 12 hrs 6-12 hrs unknown 6-24 hrs (5 days with EtG) n/a
    Amphetamines 12 hrs 3 days unknown 1-4 days Up to 90 days
    Barbiturates unknown unknown unknown 1-21 days unknown
    Benzodiazepines unknown unknown unknown 1-42 days unknown
    Cannabis (single use) 2-3 days 12-24 hrs unknown 2-3 days up to 90 days
    Cannabis (habitual use) 2 weeks 12-24 hrs unknown 15-30 days up to 90 days
    Cocaine unknown 1 day unknown 4-5 days up to 90 days
    Codeine/Morphine unknown 12-36 hrs unknown 2-4 days up to 90 days
    Heroin (6-MAM) unknown unknown unknown 2-4 days up to 90 days
    Methamphetamine 1-3 days unknown unknown 3-5 days up to 90 days
    PCP 1-3 days 3 days unknown 3-7 days up to 90 days
    GHB and prodrugs 12-24 hours
    JWH-018 and JWH-073 up to 72 hours



    Table 2 - Analytes and Test Types


    Analyte Specimin Types Test Type
    Volatiles (Alcohol) * Breath, Blood, Urine GC/MS; ETG
    Sympathomimetic Amines (Amphetamines) Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat 5 Panel; Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    PCP Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat 5 Panel; Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Opiates Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat 5 Panel; Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Cocaine Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat 5 Panel; Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Cannabinoids Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat 5 Panel; Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Barbiturates Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Benzodiazepines Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Opioids Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Qualudes Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Methadone Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Propoxyphene Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    MDMA Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Buprenorphine Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    LSD Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Ketamine Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Fentanyl Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat Expanded Panel; GC/MS
    Carisoprodol (Soma) Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat GC/MS
    GHB Blood, Urine, Saliva, Sweat GC/MS
    Inhalants ** Frozen Blood/Urine GC/MS
    * Some places include alcohol testing as a standard test along with a standard panel or expanded panel drug test.
    ** Inhalants are difficult to test for and are typically only tested for if there is suspicion. Samples taken for inhalant testing must be frozen as soon as possible (within 24 hours). The tests should be conducted within 1 week after the sample is taken.

    Table 3 - SAMHSA Testing Cutoff Levels

    Analyte Urine Screen Confirmation (GC/MS)
    Amphetamines 1000 ng/mL 500 ng/mL
    Cannabis 50 ng/mL 15 ng/mL
    Cocaine 300 ng/mL 150 ng/mL
    Opiates 2000 ng/mL 2000 ng/mL
    PCP 25 ng/mL 25 ng/mL


    Table 4 - Criminal Testing Cutoffs Levels

    Analytes Urine Screen Blood Screen Confirmation (GC/MS) Limit of Quantitation
    Sympathomimetic Amines 500-1000 ng/mL 100 ng/mL 50 ng/mL
    Barbiturates 200 ng/mL 50 ng/mL 100 ng/mL
    Benzodiazepines 200 ng/mL 20 ng/mL 10-100 ng/mL
    Buprenorphine 2 ng/mL
    Cannabinoids 2.5-5 ng/mL
    Carisoprodol 2000 ng/mL
    Cocaine 20 ng/mL
    Fentanyl 1 ng/mL
    GHB 5000 ng/mL
    Ketamine 300 ng/mL
    LSD 500 pg/mL
    MDMA 500 ng/mL
    Methadone 50 ng/mL
    Opiates 100 ng/mL 20-50 ng/mL
    Opioids 100 ng/mL 50-100 ng/mL
    PCP 20 ng/mL
    Propoxyphene 300 ng/mL 50-100 ng/mL
    Quaaludes 300 ng/mL
    Volatiles 10 mg/dL 10 mg/dL 10 mg/dL



    Common Chemical Analytes of the Classes of Substances (ie. Opiates, Volatiles, etc.)

    Sympathomimetic amines (amphetamines):
    Amphetamine
    Methamphetamine
    MDA
    MDMA (Ecstasy)
    MDEA (EVE)
    Ephedrine
    Psuedoephedrine
    Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)


    Opiates:
    Codeine
    Morphine
    6-Mono Acetyl Morphine (6-MAM, heroin metabolite)

    Opioids:
    Hydrocodone
    Hydromorphone
    Oxycodone (Oxycontin)
    Oxymorphone


    Cocaine:
    Cocaine
    Benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite)

    Cannabinoids:
    Delta-9 THC
    Delta-9-Carboxy-THC (metabolite of delta-9 THC)


    Barbiturates:
    Amobarbital (Amytal)
    Butalbital
    Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
    Secobarbital (Seconal)
    Phenobarbital
    Others may be tested for.


    Benzodiazepines:
    Desalkylflurazepam
    Nordiazepam (Metabolite of diazepam)
    Oxazepam (Serax)
    Lorazepam (Ativan)
    Diazepam (Valium)
    Temazepam (Restoril)
    Midazolam (Versed)
    Flurazepam (Dalmane)
    Alprazolam (Xanax)
    Hydroxy-alprazolam (Metabolite of alprazolam)
    Triazolam (Halcion)
    Clonazepam (Klonopin)
    Others may be tested for.

    GHB is primarily metabolized into d-2-hydroxyglutarate. That metabolite is not tested for. As far as I know, only GHB itself is tested for. GBL and 1,4-butandiol are both metabolized in the body to GHB. So both of those drugs will test positive for GHB since they both are converted in vivo to GHB.


    Different Types of Drug Testing Situations


    Job Testing

    Drug tests for job interviews typically consist of an immunoassy 5 Panel test, though may be an Expanded Panel. Some jobs are more likely to be an Expanded Panel (e.g. CDL Truck Driver). Tests are typically urine or saliva.


    For occupational [autolink]drug testing[/autolink], subjects are typically given a chance to contest a positive result. During this time the subject can provide valid, legal medical reasons (ie. a valid prescription), or have the sample retested by another laboratory (typically there is a cost associated with this). The result of the second test is considered non-contestable.

    Probation and Criminal Testing

    Probation testing or testing for criminal cases almost always include an Expanded Panel and may include other tested substances. Alcohol testing may be done via ETG. Tests are typically urine and/or blood.

    Therapeutic Drug Testing

    This kind of testing occurs when a patient is prescribed a medication. Therapeutic [autolink]drug testing[/autolink] always involves a confirmation test that is usually preceded by a drug screen. The reason for doing such testing is three-fold: 1. to ensure the patient is taking the medication, 2. to ensure the patient is taking the correct dose, and 3. to ensure the patient is not taking other drugs of abuse.

    Military Testing


    NOTE: Members of the US military may be court martialed for drug use without ever taking a drug test! Additionally, passing a drug test in the military does not mean immunity from persecution. The US military strictly forbids the use of any kind of mind-altering substance under general circumstances. The substance in question does not even have to be illegal. Military leaders are trained in the recognition of a range of substances including many commonly used drugs, [autolink]Salvia divinorum[/autolink], Spice (and variants), and others. Being observed smoking, ingesting, huffing, or using any kind of substance in any way may be cause for suspicion and could result in detrimental consequences.

    The following excerpt was taken from US Navy documentation. Note the very broad ramifications of any substance that can cause the described alteration of the CNS from the portion I have put in bold below. This is an example of common wording on many military documents regarding drug use.

    In the US military there are several reasons for a urinalysis.

    Random - All active duty service members must take a urinalysis at least once per year. Members of the Guard and Reserves must be tested at least once every two years. Results may be used in a court martial.

    Medical - Just like going to a hospital and they suspect drug use. Service members do not have the right to refuse medical testing though. Results may be used in a court martial.

    Probable Cause - Results may be used in a court martial.

    Consent - Results may be used in a court martial.

    Commander Directed - If a member does not grant consent, the service member may be ordered to give a sample. Results may be used for discharge, but the urinalysis results may not be used to characterization of service.

    Table 5 - DOD Urinalysis (Drug Test) Cutoff Levels


    Drugs Screening Level Confirmation Level
    THC 50 ng/mL 15 ng/mL
    Cocaine 150 ng/mL 100 ng/mL
    Opiates:
    Morphine 2000 ng/mL 4000 ng/mL
    Codeine 2000 ng/mL 2000 ng/mL
    Heroin (6-MAM) 300 ng/mL 10 ng/mL
    Amphetamines 500 ng/mL 500 ng/mL
    Methamphetamine 500 ng/mL 500 ng/mL
    MDA/MDMA 500 ng/mL 500 ng/mL
    Barbiturates 200 ng/mL 200 ng/mL
    PCP 25 ng/mL 25 ng/mL
    LSD 0.5 ng/mL 0.2 ng/mL



    Table 6 - DOD Drug Detection Windows


    Drug Drug Detection Windows
    THC 1-3 weeks*
    Cocaine 2-4 days
    Amphetamines 2 days
    Barbiturates 1-2 days
    Opiates 1-2 days
    PCP 5-7 days
    LSD 1-2 days
    Steroids 3 days or longer **


    * Longer than three weeks is indicative of chronic or heavy use.
    ** Length of detection determined by type and duration of use.

    -- Information Courtesy of Department of Defense, the United States Navy, and the Manual for Courts-Martial.

    Synthetic Cannabinoid Testing (Spice, K2, etc.)


    On July 12, 2010 Redwood Toxicology Laboratories of California announced a commercially available urine test for JWH-018 and JWH-073 and their respective metabolites. More information will be posted as it becomes available.

    Redwood Toxicology Laboratories conducts this test using LC/MS/MS. It is a confirmation/quanitification test. There is no drug screen for these compounds yet.

    Detection time for JWH-018 and JWH-073 is up to 72 hours after use depending on frequency and amount used.


    How to Beat Drug Tests - https://drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=2930
    [autolink]Drug Testing[/autolink] FAQ - https://drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=103763

    Military Testing of Spice - https://drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=113070


    A Note from the Poster


    First of all, I'd like to make it very clear that I cannot claim complete credit for this guide. A lot of people have helped bring this about. The idea and the layout for this came from Alfa, Ilsa provided a lot of support and encouragement, and numerous members have contributed a lot of time and effort into creating this. In particular, I would like to thank bluntshell for all the effort he put into this guide, all the members of the Forensic Drug Chemistry group, the Euphoric Body forum crew, and many others.

    This guide is far from complete. It's my intention to turn this guide into the most comprehensive guide on the subject on DF (or many other places). This guide addresses a lot of questions that routinely come up in the forums. My hope is that this guide will help in reducing a lot of those questions, clear up some confusion, and be an invaluable resource to many.

    Even though it's far from complete I couldn't keep it from the DF community any longer. The information already present is too valuable. However, as you can clearly see there are a lot of sections that remain to be filled in and this is a ongoing project. I'm also hoping that posting this will encourage more feedback and contributions from the DF community.

    I encourage anyone interested in helping with this guide to post below and/or join the Forensic Drug Chemistry group. There are no requirements for membership beyond membership at DF.

    Thanks,

    -- Jasim May 10, 2010
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Apr 30, 2017
  2. bluntshell

    bluntshell R.I.P. Titanium Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    [h3]What Might Work, but Isn't Guaranteed [/h3]
    CLA and Alpha-GPC- same reason as Lecithin.

    Green Tea - EGCG speeds fat out, plus the extra water way not hurt

    Generally living in good health, keeping you metabolism high.

    -----------------------------------

    I'm not sure how to best explain this one http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/dxm/dxm_testing.shtml too many variables..... But I think it should at least me noted that DXM in some cases my cause false positives for pcp or opiates.


    ----------------------------


    In the US military there are several reasons for a urinalysis.

    Random - All active duty service members must take a urinalysis at least once per year. Members of the Guard and Reserves must be tested at least once every two years. Results may be used in a court martial.

    Medical - Just like going to a hospital and they suspect drug use. Service members do not have the right to refuse medical testing though. Results may be used in a court martial.

    Probable Cause - Results may be used in a court martial.

    Consent - Results may be used in a court martial.

    Commander Directed - If a member does not grant consent, the service member may be ordered to give a sample. Results may be used for discharge, but the urinalysis results may not be used to characterization of service.
     
    Last edited: May 15, 2010
  3. Patdude1992

    Patdude1992 Silver Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    What about Shrooms? Where does that come in if I get a probation test? How long does it stay in the body? From research I has found two answers, 3 days and one week.... Not sure if its even tested for tho
     
  4. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    I'm not familiar with any drug screens for mushrooms. It's possible to perform a confirmation test with GC/MS, but this is highly unusual and costly. This goes for any kind of mushrooms, psilocybes or amanitas or other.
     
  5. Mr.GeoloGist

    Mr.GeoloGist Newbie

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    so is GHB still currently only tested by GC/MS, or is there a urine anaylisis test for it? Would probation jsut test for it randomly or only if theyyhad a cause? because I saw GHB under the back of the drug test form.
     
  6. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    By urinalysis, I'm assuming you mean 'drug screen' or immunoassay screen. Urinalysis, or the analysis of a urine sample, could be either one. I have never seen a drug screen (immunoassay test) for GHB. If one exists, it's not common.

    Most likely, but I can't say for certain, the GHB test would be an optional GC/MS test. From my own experiences in a drug testing lab, GHB probably is not a standard test for all samples. The detection time for GHB is low, as you have discovered and posted in another thread, detection time around 12-24 hours for a single dose. The short detection time means that making the effort to test for GHB in every sample as a standard part of the drug testing protocol would likely be very wasteful of time and resources particularly if the GHB test is a GC/MS only test. GC/MS tests are always more time consuming and costly.


    Everything that is tested in a standard drug screen should be identified as such in the guide above. If it's not listed in the guide, it probably isn't tested for routinely.
     
  7. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    I'm posting this here now as a warning to users. This matter is still very unclear.

    What have traditionally been considered as "opioids" on drug tests may in fact be included in 5-panel tests under "opiates".

    This matter is still under consideration. Additional information would be appreciated.
     
  8. SWIMclub

    SWIMclub Newbie

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    SWIM wonders why one couldn't ingest Creatinine along with copious amounts of water and vitamin C to flush/dilute and still pass the test. Especially in these hot summer months, it's not abnormal for someone to be drinking lots of fluids.

    Thoughts?
     
  9. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    That is something that has been done before and it can work. I'm not sure what the purpose of the vitamin C would be.
     
  10. SWIMclub

    SWIMclub Newbie

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    The C would be to darken the urine so it doesn't appear to be washed out.
     
  11. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    Ahh, I see. Well I saw urine of all kinds of colors when I worked in a drug testing lab. As long as the specific gravity is not affected too much and the creatinine levels are normal, it should be fine either way. But do note that diluting the urine can alter specific gravity. Not sure there's anything that can be done about that one.
     
  12. mushroom-man

    mushroom-man Silver Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    Just a note: my RAT got a DUII and had to go to drug/alcohol therapy (basic brain washing, as in THC causes genetic damage etc.). This included drug/alcohol (etg alcohol testing, look it up...) testing. Was sober for 2 months but after all the BS went back to drinking 2-6 beers/night. Passed 2 ETG tests and 2 drug tests (regular Coca chewer, poppy tea). Trick is to have at least 36 hours before known test to drink at least 3/liters water per 24 hours (don't over do it! 4 ltrs max) and no booze/drugs, of course! The trick, take 4-6 grams per/day of Creatinine starting 2 days before testing, regular B-100 complex (everyday), but take a second 2-3 hours before test (still slamming water). This will get Creatinine and the specific gravity up and add color. The water should dilute most compounds, not sure of THC. Use at your own risk, and remember early morning piss tests are the hardest to beat, unless you wake up every couple hours to piss and drink H2O!

    Happy pissing,

    Mush
     
  13. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: [autolink]Drug Testing[/autolink] - A Comprehensive Guide

    I'm sure this is posted elsewhere, but I think it's applicable to have a copy here. As more information becomes available, I will attempt to include it in the guide.

     
    Last edited: Jul 15, 2010
  14. Agrippa

    Agrippa Newbie

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    Psyche is curious about the half-life time of the JWH compounds. How long does it take to dissipate from detectable levels? Psyche wonders still what the cutoff is for testing positive. Useful information for friends of Psyche who are in the military.
     
  15. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    Redwood Toxicology says it can detect JWH-018 and JWH-073 metabolites in urine up to 72 hours after use.

    When more information becomes available, I'll be editing the guide to include more info regarding this test.
     
  16. Herbal Healer 019

    Herbal Healer 019 Silver Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    I find it odd, if not hard to beleive, that they wouldn't test for benzodiazapines in the military.

    Does anyone know about this who has served or currently serves in the military regarding benzodiazapines?

    Also I have heard that clonazepam isn't ussually detectable in most standard drug tests that do test for benzodiazapines because it isn't metabolized into oxazepam & the metabolites that are tested for aren't any of the major metabolites of clonazepam (klonopin, rivotril)
     
  17. SWIMclub

    SWIMclub Newbie

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    I am less than impressed or pleased, even though he doesn't partake of it anymore because of the unknown risks of it. Nevertheless, it bothers SWIM rather greatly that the substance doesn't even have to be illegal for it to become contraband. The harm/foul? That one can get intoxicated by it. If the stuff were a nutritional supplement, there would be none of this focus. How sick is our society that it feels it must ban everything that someone can enjoy or get high on? Seriously, further indictment. Sex isn't allowed to be enjoyable (in OR out of marriage, by some churches) either. WTF is wrong with this picture?
     
  18. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide


    The test analyte list above on DoD drug testing was taken from United States Department of Defense documents. They may test for benzodiazepines as an additional part of the test as they are easy enough to test for, but the analytes listed are the only ones tested for certain.

    Clonazepam is not usually tested for, but the specific analytes for drug classes are not define by any government regulations in the US (I can't speak for other countries). However, clonazepam is easily tested for and it IS included in some drug screen immunoassay panels, but not most. When clonazepam is an analyte it is typically tested for along with it's metabolite 7-aminoclonazepam.
     
  19. baykt

    baykt Newbie

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    Jasim, have you heard of any such tests that can detect kratom? I myself haven't, and I've heard it definitely doesn't show up as an opiate/opiod.
     
  20. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Drug Testing - A Comprehensive Guide

    Nope. No tests are available to detect kratom use. It's possible some very large labs have the capability to test for it, but the price is probably around $150-$200 USD per test or more so isn't likely anyone would drug test for kratom.