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Experiences - Experiences With Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu)

Discussion in 'Ethnobotanicals' started by Thirdedge, Nov 8, 2006.

  1. Thirdedge

    Thirdedge Newbie

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    In Brazil mulungu has been used for a long time as a natural sedative. The herb is said to be able to stabilize the central nervous system. In stressful times it helps to balance and calm the nerves. The herb is also used as an antioxidant; to tone, balance and strengthen the liver.

    Usage:
    A decoction is commonly made of 1 teaspoon powdered herb or 2 teaspoons of cut herb per 250 ml of boiling water. Cover and reduce heat to medium so that the mixture stays at a good simmer, and keep covered for 20 minutes. Then the decoction has to be cooled, strained and consumed.

    Cautions:
    In traditional medicine the plant is used to lower blood pressure. Clinical research with animals has documented hypotensive actions. It is recommended that those on medications to lower blood pressure (and those with low blood pressure) use mulungu with caution and monitor their blood pressure accordingly.
     
  2. 0utrider

    0utrider Palladium Member

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    Hi
    I read some about Mulungu, some vendors recently started to sell it. It seems to be unknown besides in latin america. *commercial link removed* here is some information about it, many people say that its comparable to kava kava, maybe even stronger. Who has made experiences with it? is it actually comparable to kava or even more subtile? do you "feel" it ? how do you prepare it?
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Jun 8, 2007
  3. 0utrider

    0utrider Palladium Member

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    AW: Experiences with "Mulungu"?

    yea thats the same infos that the site that i posted has.. i didnt want theoretical infos, i need users who actually took it and can compare it to kava
     
  4. Bajeda

    Bajeda Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Effect of Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in rats submitted to animal models of anxiety and depression

    Erythrina velutina (EV) and Erythrina mulungu (EM), popularly used in Brazil as tranquilizing agents, were studied. The effects of acute and chronic oral treatment with a water:alcohol extract of EV (7:3, plant grounded stem bark; acute = 100, 200, 400 mg/kg; chronic = 50, 100, 200 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats (N = 11-12) submitted to the elevated T-maze (for avoidance and escape measurements) model of anxiety. This model was selected for its presumed capacity to elicit specific subtypes of anxiety disorders recognized in clinical practice: avoidance has been related to generalized anxiety and escape to panic. Additionally, animals were treated with the same doses of EV and EM (water:alcohol 7:3, inflorescence extract) and submitted to the forced swim test for the evaluation of antidepressant activity (N = 7-10). Both treatment regimens with EV impaired elevated T-maze avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (avoidance 1, mean ± SEM, acute study: 131.1 ± 45.5 (control), 9.0 ± 3.3 (diazepam), 12.7 ± 2.9 (200 mg/kg), 28.8 ± 15.3 (400 mg/kg); chronic study: 131.7 ± 46.9 (control), 35.8 ± 29.7 (diazepam), 24.4 ± 10.4 (50 mg/kg), 29.7 ± 11.5 (200 mg/kg)). Neither EV nor EM altered measurements performed in the forced swim test, in contrast to the reference drug imipramine that significantly decreased immobility time after chronic treatment. These results were not due to motor alterations since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that EV exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors which have been associated with generalized anxiety disorder.




    Central activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in mice

    This work studied the central behavioural effects of hydroalcoholic extracts from the stem bark of Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu on the elevated plus maze, open field, and rota rod tests in mice. These medicinal plants belong to the Fabaceae family and are popularly used in Brazil for their effects on the central nervous system. Single doses of the extracts were administered orally (200, 400 or 800 mg kg-1) or intraperitoneally (200 or 400 mg kg-1) to female mice. A reduction of the locomotor activity was observed in the open field test with both hydroalcoholic extracts after intraperitoneal treatment with all doses, but only with the highest dose after oral administration. In addition, oral and intraperitoneal administration of the extracts decreased the incidence of rearing and grooming. Decreases in the number of entries in the open (NEOA) and closed (NECA) arms of the elevated plus maze were observed after the administration of the highest dose (800 mg kg-1, p.o.) of both hydroalcoholic extracts, and this effect may be due to the decrease in locomotor activity. These hydroalcoholic extracts failed to affect the motor coordination in the rota rod test. In conclusion, we showed that the hydroalcoholic extracts of E. velutina and E. mulungu have depressant effects on the central nervous system, which, at least partially, corroborates the popular use of these species as tranquilizers in Brazilian popular medicine.



    There is some scientific literature on this, but can't find any anecdotal reports of use at this time.
     
  5. Bajeda

    Bajeda Platinum Member & Advisor

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    The link posted earlier was of a commercial nature, so as I removed it from the post I will include the text of the page here so people can view it.



    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Family: Fabaceae
    Genus: Erythrina
    Species: mulungu, cristi-galli
    Synonyms: Erythrina verna, Corallodendron mulungu
    Common Names: Mulungu, corticeira, murungu, muchocho, murungo, totocero, flor-de-coral, árvore-de-coral, amerikadeigo, ceibo, chilichi, chopo, hosoba deiko, pau-imortal, mulungu-coral, capa-homem, suiná-suiná
    Part Used: Bark, root


    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS

    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Main Actions[FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]
    • [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]relieves pain
    • [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]reduces anxiety
    • [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]calms nerves
    • [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]moderately sedative
    • [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]supports liver
    • [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]reduces blood pressure
    • [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]regulates heart beat
    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Other Actions[FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]
    • [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]kills bacteria
    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]
    Standard Dosage -
    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Bark, root
    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Decoction:[FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] 1/2 cup 1-2 [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]times daily
    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Tincture:[FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] 1-2 ml twice daily


    Mulungu is a medium-sized, well-branched tree that grows 10-14 m high. It produces a profusion of pretty, reddish-orange flowers (pollinated by hummingbirds) at the ends of the tree's many branches. The tree is sometimes called "coral flower," as the flowers resemble the color of orange coral. It produces black seed pods containing large, red-and-black seeds, which are sometimes used by indigenous peoples to make necklaces and jewelry. Mulungu is indigenous to Brazil, parts of Peru, and tropical areas in Latin America and, typically, is found in marshes and along riverbanks. The Erythrina genus comprises more than 100 species of trees and shrubs (mostly all heavily armed with spines or thorns) in the topical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. The mulungu tree (first recorded in 1829) is known by two botanical names, Erythrina mulungu and Erythrina verna. Another closely-related species, E. crista-galli, is used interchangeably in South American herbal medicine systems and is found farther south on the South American continent. The flower of E. crista-galli is the national flower of Argentina.


    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    Several Erythrina tree species are used by indigenous peoples in the Amazon as medicines, insecticides, and fish poisons. Mulungu has long been used in Brazil by indigenous peoples as a natural sedative: it has been used to calm an overexcited nervous system and promote a restful sleep.

    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]In both North and South American herbal medicine systems mulungu is considered to be an excellent sedative to calm agitation and nervous coughs and to treat other nervous system problems including insomnia and anxiety. It also is widely used for asthma, bronchitis, gingivitis, hepatitis, inflammation of the liver and spleen, intermittent fevers, and to clear obstructions in the liver. In both Brazil and Peru mulungu is used for epilepsy. Herbalists and practitioners in the United States use mulungu to quiet hysteria from trauma or shock, as a mild, hypnotic sedative to calm the nervous system, to treat insomnia and promote healthy sleeping patterns (by sedating overactive neurotransmitters), to regulate heart palpitations, and to treat hepatitis and liver disorders. Positive regulatory effects on heart palpitations and decreased blood pressure have been reported; Dr. Donna Schwontkowski, a chiropractor who has used Amazonian plants in her practice, recommends mulungu for hernias, stomachaches, and epilepsy - and to help augment milk flow as well.


    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]PLANT CHEMICALS

    The chemicals in mulungu have been studied extensively; they have been found to comprise large amounts of novel flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids. Much research has been performed on Erythrina alkaloids in the last decade, as they represent a group of very active chemicals with various properties and are almost always present in Erythrina species. Thus far, alkaloids have been found in 78 of 107 species in the genus Erythrina; mulungu is documented with 20 isoquinoline alkaloids. Many of these have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, cardioactive, narcotic, and sedative activities. One novel alkaloid discovered in mulungu is called cristamidine. Its positive effect on the liver was demonstrated in a 1995 clinical study with rats. Mulungu's hypotensive and heart-regulatory activities were studied and attributed to its alkaloids. Another alkaloid in mulungu (and other Erythrina plants), erysodine, has been documented with neuromuscular effects characteristic of curare arrow poisons. Two studies also indicate that it might be useful as an anti-nicotine drug, as it demonstrated actions as a competitive antagonist and to block nicotine receptors. Interestingly, both of these studies were published by major (and competing) pharmaceutical companies!

    The main plant chemicals in mulungu include: alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cristacarpin, cristadine, crystamidine, dimethylmedicarpin, erybidine, erycristagallin, erycristanol, erycristin, erydotrine, erysodienone, erysodine, erysonine, erysopine, erysotrine, erysovine, erystagallin A-C, erythrabyssin II, erythralines, erythramine, erythratine, eryvariestyrene, gamma-amino butyric acid, glutamic acid, hypaphorine lectins, n-nor-orientaline, oleanolic acid, oleanonic acid, phaseollidins, proteinases, sandwicensis, ursolic acid, and vitexin.


    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    The traditional use of mulungu for anxiety and stress has been validated by researchers in a recent (2002) study, where it was shown to alter anxiety-related responses. An animal model (correlating to human generalized anxiety disorder, as well as panic disorder) was undertaken on a water-alcohol extract of mulungu. The researchers reported that the mulungu extract had an effect similar to the commonly-prescribed anti-anxiety drug diazepam. It was suggested in this study that the alkaloids in Erythrina "may alter GABAergic neurotransmission." GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid) acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain; abnormalities with its function is implicated in diseases including epilepsy, anxiety, and depression. Further research has validated the traditional use of mulungu as an antimicrobial agent for throat and urinary infections; mulungu has demonstrated antibacterial activity in two studies against Staphylococcus aureus, and antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium smegmatis.


    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    Mulungu is not very widely known or used in North America; mostly appearing as an ingredient in only a few herbal formulas for anxiety or depression. It is a wonderful rainforest medicinal plant that is deserving of much more attention in herbal medicine systems outside of South America. The main herbal remedy sold in America today for stress, anxiety and as a general sedative is kava-kava. This plant however, has had some negative press in recent years concerning possible negative effects to the liver. Since mulungu provides the same calming and stress relieving effects (if not better), and actually has a positive effect on the liver; it is poised as the new replacement for this highly popular (and profitable) herbal supplement.




    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] MULUNGU PLANT SUMMARY

    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] Main Preparation Method: tincture or decoction [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Main Actions (in order):
    antidepressant, anti-anxiety, sedative, nervine (balances/calms nerves), hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver)

    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Main Uses:
    1. [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]
      [*]for mental disorders (depression, anxiety, stress, hysteria, panic disorders, compulsive disorders, etc.)
      [*]as a sedative for insomnia, restlessness, and sleep disorders
      [*]for liver disorders (hepatitis, obstructions, high liver enzyme levels, sclerosis, etc.)
      [*]for high blood pressure and heart palpitations
      [*]for drug and nicotine withdrawal
    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    anti-anxiety, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimycobacterial, anti-spasmodic, hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver), hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), sedative
    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), anticonvulsant, antiseptic, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart), central nervous system depressant, hypnotic, lactagogue (promotes milk flow), nervine (balances/calms nerves), neurasthenic (reduces nerve pain)

    [FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Cautions: It may lower blood pressure and may cause drowsiness.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Apr 30, 2017
  6. 0utrider

    0utrider Palladium Member

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    AW: Experiences With Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu)

    yeah.. so that sounds interesting. did anyone actually try it? what about the dosage? i don't want any subtile thing, i want "the real deal" so i'd dose a lil
    higher than described above, but i don't know how high..

    btw sry about the commercial link, didnt see that, thought it was a enyclopedia on rainforest plants
     
  7. grandbaby

    grandbaby Newbie

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    ^It is highly recommended that one start with a very low dosage of any novel compound (yes, even ethnobotanicals) in order to gauge the potential effects at higher doses and to rule out any idiosyncratic personal reactions such as allergies or unexpected sensitivities. A friend of mine (see the Sinicuichi experience reports) had quite a strong set of physical side-effects from a low dose. He later told me that he shudders to think what might have happened if he had taken a dose even in the low range of "recommended" dosages.

    Start small, work up.
     
  8. 0utrider

    0utrider Palladium Member

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    AW: Experiences With Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu)

    well swim did, he started with a pretty small dose and didnt feel anything .. or nothing noticeable.. its not like he has unlimited amounts of that stuff and doesnt seem to have any allergic or similar reactions to it.
     
    Last edited: Apr 23, 2010
  9. Br00klynB0y87

    Br00klynB0y87 Titanium Member

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    Anyone have a positive experience with this herb, swim is very curious?

    What was swiys dosage as well as method of preparation?

    ______________________________________________________________________
    "I believe in a long, prolonged, derangement of the senses in order to obtain the unknown."
    -- Jim Morrison
     
  10. Gonzo_Shaman

    Gonzo_Shaman Newbie

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    SWIM is considering on getting his paws on this herb. SWIM, and even his parents, are great fans of herbal downers.
     
  11. 0utrider

    0utrider Palladium Member

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    AW: Experiences With Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu)

    anything new on this topic?
     
  12. Br00klynB0y87

    Br00klynB0y87 Titanium Member

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    swIm has become quite familiar with Mulungu since this thread.

    Mulungu can act as a very strong sedative thus makes it quite a valuable and effective aid for an array of ailments, ranging from certain degrees of anxiety to moderate insomnia.

    swIm have tried both shredded bark and resin, and would prefer the shredded bark since it is much more cost effective - if anything make your own resin with the shredded bark it's cheaper. ;)

    Mulungu has such a pleasant taste as well. When mixed with honey, it makes for a nice cup of tea.

    A friend of mine likes to prepare his Mulungu tea the following way:

    Dosage depends on the individual and what he/she is trying to achieve, whether it be, sleep, slight relaxation, ease anxiety... so basically trial and error is bound until you find your ideal dosage.

    10grams (relaxtion / sleep aid) of shredded bark.. brought to a slight boil and then left to simmer (covered) for 45-60mins.

    My friend has found the longer you simmer the better, since more alkaloids release and result in a stonger tea. I have also read some save the strained bark to re-use, my friend however has yet to try that.

    The effect of Mulungu come on pretty quick. After the first two or three mouthfuls a sense of relaxation is felt. Within 15-25mins the experience has pretty much peaked and a definite sense of tranquility is awaken. Very meditative, and mellow - complete loss of anxiety, calm nerves and mental chatter.

    Mulungu @ the appropriate dosage can be very ideal for those looking for a natural sleep aid.

    Aside from it's unique/pleasurable effect; Mulungu is known to kill bacteria and is said to be rewarding to the liver as well, making Mulungu very beneficial.

    There are certain precautions however that one should be aware, for instance, one should abstain from operating anything that could potentially cause harm to oneself or another; such as driving. The reason being is that Mulungu affects coordination to some extent and the higher the dose the more obvious/apparent it is.

    .peace.
     
  13. Handle

    Handle Titanium Member

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    Sorry, but I have to disagree with you there BrooklynBoy87. My swim never had much luck with mulungu, but it depends what you're after. If you want insomnia of lower duration, then this might be ok for you.
    But if you want a valium type sleeping bark, this ain't it. It won't send you off to sleep or mellowland if the time's not right, in my opinion. It will only take away the excess tension and psychic anxiety that is unhealthy, but it will not take you back down below baseline to a state that is dopier or more sedated than before.

    I'm just trying to tell you all the truth. I went through a "phase" where every new ethnobotanical that I heard of intrigued me, especially if it was mysterious with tantalising little rumours about it.

    I think the only value of mulungu is to keep on hand behind the kava. 100 times out of 100, you will always prefer to use the kava rather than the mulungu, it is the human way, because most people want to get high, they don't really want something that is so legitimate and proper that they can barely even notice it working.

    So, keep the mulungu on hand for when all the good stuff runs out, that's what I say.
    It's so boring and unappealing that you will never use it up faster than the other stuff.
    Think of it as a backup, a second line of defense.

    I will agree with Brooklyn boy that the taste is quite nice, though.
     
  14. Br00klynB0y87

    Br00klynB0y87 Titanium Member

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    SwIm has become quite familiar with mulungu and IS speaking from truth as it pertains to him. -Clearly I can understand and respect that something doesn't affect swiy as it does swim but by no means is swims account a 'rumour' or 'false'.

    Frankly, kava could only aspire to be as effective/beneficial as mulungu. In my buddy's experience: kava and mulungu are on two different levels and mulungu is far more valuable both for it's sedating qualities not to mention it's beneficial effect it has on the body.

    -Both kava and mulungu do however mix quite nicely and will definitely drop you into a coma if the right dosage.

    Once again though, what may affect one a certain way will affect another differently since every body/individual chemistry differs, so it all comes down to personal experience/experimenting, that is if you want guaranteed truth of how it will affect YOU.

    .peace.
     
  15. baron samedi

    baron samedi Newbie

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    Is there any other way of taking mulungu aside from making tea out of the bark? SWIM knows many people enjoy the process of making ethnobotanical tea, but he generally prefers substances which can just be swallowed/encapsulated, just to avoid the whole tea-making process. Can mulungu be ground and swallowed without its effects being diminished?
     
  16. Handle

    Handle Titanium Member

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    The tea doesn't take very long, nor does it taste very bad, just in case you were wondering.

    I have heard that as with Cat's Claw and Yohimbe among others, the bark thing has the problem of excessive tannins. That's only what I've heard. They can be annoying during extractions for some reason.
     
  17. inthecrystalcave

    inthecrystalcave Newbie

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    my little green monster has used the shredded bark in tea numerous times to help after a big night. It doesnt put you to sleep but slows down all your thoughts etc so making sleep very easy.

    a friend once was having a really unpleasant trip in BZP/TFMPP and need to abort - after drinking mulungu tea the friend was much more at ease... Possibly placebo and power of suggestion, either way it worked at the time.
     
  18. baron samedi

    baron samedi Newbie

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    Would any SWIMMER's be able to compare mulungus anxiolytic effects to that of benzos?
    Would it have less of a deppresant edge to it than such drugs?
     
  19. Handle

    Handle Titanium Member

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    Yes, it's totally different. I think it works as an anxiolytic antidepressent myself. None of that "hain't tha foggiest" that you get with benzos. This is just a much more clear headed, very very mild thing that won't knock you flat.
    To me, if it does anything at all, I would liken it to tryptophan maybe, just an uplift mellow, not a downer at all.

    Certainly less harmful than benzos.
     
  20. Opana

    Opana Newbie

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    SWIM is interested in the hepatic benefits of mulungu first, and the anxiolytic effects second. He had a long bout with MRSA that turned into sepsis and multiorgan failure. He recovered eventually, after 7 surgeries and 24 reinfections, but acquired autoimmune, nonviral hepatitis as a result of his immune system attacking all major organs (kidneys completely failed, liver was almost gone by the time they got him to surgery). After a year clean from opiates/opioids (H and OC's mainly), after the surgery and the Dilaudid and OCs that followed during the recovery, he relapsed and has been successfully using kratom to detox. I know this is slightly off-topic, so please forgive me, but I could not find much on mulungu for SWIM. He is wondering if anyone knows, specifcally, how this "tones and strengthens" the liver, as well as hearing anecdotal/personal experiences with this herb (which is back on topic). Thanks, I am a new member, and the members of d-f have to be some of the most helpful, knowledgeable people I've ever encountered.