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Legal status and politics of coca

Discussion in 'Drugs-Wiki' started by Benga, May 10, 2007.

  1. Benga

    Benga Platinum Member & Advisor

    Reputation Points:
    Aug 15, 2005
    from japan

    Coca leaf prohibition

    Coca leaf trade exploded in the late 19th and early 20th century, with the discovery of cocaine by western colonial powers. From then on, until the end of the 2nd World War, coca cultivation was encouraged in many locations, focusing on cocaine production only, coca leaf then cocaine trade reaching enormous proportions (see the section on the History of Coca)This ended after World War II, with the development of new synthethic analogues used as local anaesthethics ( novocaine, procaine, lidocaine and other 'caine drugs), the development of longer lasting amphetamines for use a stimulants, and the growing problems of cocainism, cocaine addiction issues linked with recreational cocaine use.
    Western countries created cocaine, and the issues of cocaine use, from an unproblematic natural product, coca leaf. Yet with the growing awareness of the problems linked with cocaine use, disdain for medical cocaine applications, came cocaine prohibition. Yet in cocaine prohibition came to include unprocess coca leaf and coca cultivation, in the establishement by the United Nations of the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.
    In South-American countries where traditional use of coca leaves is established, such as Bolivia, Peru, Chile and Argentina, the cultivation, sale, and possession of unprocessed coca leaf products (but not of any extracted form of cocaine) remains generally legal– although coca cultivation is often restricted, limited in size and location in an attempt to prevent the clandestine production of cocaine. Governments began to accommodate the existing laws to preserve traditional use and try to restore a legality coca growing, in order to isolate the cocaine production oriented coca black market and narcotraficantes. In Peru and Bolivia for instance small coca patches are authorized in some areas, and coca chewing oriented coca leaf selling and consumption is not repressed.

    Outside of this South American context, the laws of most countries do not make any distinction between the coca leaf and any other substance containing cocaine, so the possession of coca leaf (except for decocainized leaf) is de-facto prohibited. Coca leaves are specifically mentioned.

    The prohibition of the use of the coca leaf and derived products (except for medical or scientific purposes) was established by the Schedule I listing of coca, coca leaves and the actual coca plant, in the 1961 List of Controlled Substances which was annexed to the U.N. Single Convention. Coca leaves are in the same listing category as heroin and cocaine.

    The definition also seems to imply that all erythroxylon plant are illegal, yet this does not seem to be applied. Eythroxylon species contains many plants around the world, some with psychoactive qualities distinct form cocaine ( brasilian Erythroxylon catuaba, for instance)

    e. " Coca bush " means the plant of any species of the genus erythroxylon.

    This oddity is also reflected in subsequent laws, such as the Netherland's Opium law, where coca leaf is legally in the same category as cocaine, List I. The Opium Law also specifically mentions the leaves of the plants of the Erythroxylon species. However, the possession of living Erythroxylon species plants is not actively prosecuted, even though they are legally forbidden.

    The Convention ( see below) clear states coca leaf, and determines that “The Parties shall so far as possible enforce the uprooting of all coca bushes which grow wild. They shall destroy the coca bushes if illegally cultivated” (Article 26), and that, “Coca leaf chewing must be abolished within twenty-five years from the coming into force of this Convention” (Article 49, 2.e).

    Coca plants and coca leaves are thus technically illegal in the countries which have ratified the convention.
    The only exception to this world ban was made for use of decocainized leaves, used as flavouring agent, an arrangement to a famous North-American soft drink company Coca-Cola which specifically imports and decocainizes coca leaves for use as a flavouring agent. In the United States, the Stepan Company of Maywood, New Jersey has a license to legally import coca leaf, as specified in the legal dispositions, and extracting cocaine and manufacturing pure cocaine salt for pharmaceutical / medical use. This company also produces a cocaine-free extract, byproduct of the exhausted coca leaves (from which the medical cocaine is extracted) which is used as a flavoring ingredient in Coca-Cola soft drink. According to the Bolivian Press, the 1996 legal importation of coca leaf by Coca-Cola was of 204 tons annually.

    Extracts from the U.N.'s 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, mentioning coca and coca leaves

    this UN Convention still serves as a landmark for multilateral cooperation in drug regulation
    ( original, non edited text can be found here http://www.incb.org/incb/convention_1961.html )

    Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961

    of New York

    The Parties,

    Hereby agree as follows:


    Art. 1. - 1. Except where otherwise expressly indicated or where the context otherwise requires, the following definitions shall apply throughout the Convention:

    e. " Coca bush " means the plant of any species of the genus erythroxylon.

    f. " Coca leaf ' means the leaf of the coca bush except a leaf from which all ecgonine, cocaine and any other ecgonine alkaloids have been removed

    i. " Cultivation" means the cultivation of the opium poppy, coca bush or cannabis plant.

    j. " Drug" means any of the substances in Schedules I and II, whether natural or synthetic.

    t. "Production" means the separation of opium, coca leaves, cannabis and cannabis resin from the plants from which they are obtained.

    u. "Schedule I", "Schedule II", ..Schedule III" and "Schedule IV'' mean the correspondingly numbered list of drugs or preparations annexed to this Convention, as amended from time to time in accordance with article 3.

    Substances under control

    Schedule, and in addition thereto:

    a. A Party shall adopt any special measures of control which in its opinion are necessary having regard to the particularly dangerous properties of a drug so included; and

    b. A Party shall, if in its opinion the prevailing conditions in its country render it the most appropriate means of protecting the public health and welfare, prohibit the production, manufacture, export and import of, trade in, possession or use of any such drug except for amounts which may be necessary for medical and scientific research only, including clinical trials therewith to be conducted under or subject to the direct supervision and control of the Party.

    - 6. In addition to the measures of control applicable to all drugs in Schedule I, opium is subject to the provisions of article 19, paragraph I, subparagraph i, and of articles 21, 23 and 24, the coca leaf to those of articles 26 and 27 and cannabis to those of article 28.

    - 7. The opium poppy, the coca bush, the cannabis plant, poppy straw and cannabis leaves are subject to the control measures prescribed in article 19, paragraph 1, subparagraph e, article 20, paragraph 1, subparagraph g, article 21 and in articles 22 to 24; 22, 26 and 27; 22 and 28; 25; and 28, respectively.

    - 8. The Parties shall use their best endeavors to apply to substances which do not fall under this Convention, but which may be used in the illicit manufacture of drugs, such measures of supervision as may be practicable.

    Special provision applicable to cultivation

    Art. 22. - 1. Whenever the prevailing conditions in the country or a territory of a Party render the prohibition of the cultivation of the opium poppy, the coca bush or the cannabis plant the most suitable measure, in its opinion, for protecting the public health and welfare and preventing the diversion of drugs into the illicit traffic, the Party concerned shall prohibit cultivation.

    Art. 22. - 1. Whenever the prevailing conditions in the country or a territory of a Party render the prohibition of the cultivation of the opium poppy, the coca bush or the cannabis plant the most suitable measure, in its opinion, for protecting the public health and welfare and preventing the diversion of drugs into the illicit traffic, the Party concerned shall prohibit cultivation.

    The coca bush and coca leaves

    Art. 26. - 1. If a Party permits the cultivation of the coca bush, it shall apply thereto and to coca leaves the system of controls as provided in article 23 respecting the control of the opium poppy, but as regards paragraph 2d of that article, the requirements imposed on the Agency therein referred to shall be only to take physical possession of the crops as soon as possible after the end of the harvest.

    - 2. The Parties shall so far as possible enforce the uprooting of all coca bushes which grow wild. They shall destroy the coca bushes if illegally cultivated.

    Additional provisions relating to coca leaves

    Art. 27. -1. The Parties may permit the use of coca leaves for the preparation of a flavoring agent, which shall not contain any alkaloids, and, to the extent necessary for such use, may permit the production, import, export, trade in and possession of such leaves.

    - 2. The Parties shall furnish separately estimates (article 19) and statistical information (article 20) in respect of coca leaves for preparation of the flavoring agent, except to the extent that the same coca leaves are used for the extraction of alkaloids and the flavoring agent, and so explained in the estimates and statistical information.

    Transifional reservations

    Art. 49. - 1. A Party may at the time of signature, ratification or accession reserve the right to permit temporarily in any one of its territories:

    c. Coca leaf chewing;

    - 2. The reservations under paragraph I shall be subject to the following restrictions:

    e. Coca leaf chewing must be abolished within twenty-five years from the coming into force of this Convention as provided in paragraph 1 of article 41.

    Coca leaf as a food flavouring agent

    Coca leaves are therefore specifically illegal, and yet a special accomodation exists for "decocainized" coca, which is found inside the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, at Article 27 - 1 & 2 which stipulates :

    Additional provisions relating to coca leaves

    Art. 27. -1. The Parties may permit the use of coca leaves for the preparation of a flavoring agent, which shall not contain any alkaloids, and, to the extent necessary for such use, may permit the production, import, export, trade in and possession of such leaves.

    - 2. The Parties shall furnish separately estimates (article 19) and statistical information (article 20) in respect of coca leaves for preparation of the flavoring agent, except to the extent that the same coca leaves are used for the extraction of alkaloids and the flavoring agent, and so explained in the estimates and statistical information.

    In the U.S.A.'s legislation, coca leaves are specifically mention, with a DEA number, in the list of controled substances :

    [SIZE=+1]Schedule II
    Coca Leaves
    DEA number : 9040​
    Schedule : II​
    Narc : Y

    Yet a disposition similar to that of the U.N. Single Convention, regarding coca leaves as a flavouring agent, is also found within the United State's Food and Drug Administration rulings. This slightly odd tolerance was most likely tailor made for the Coca-Cola company (which historically, was born in the wake of the coca, then actual extracted cocaine, containing tonic drinks of the 19th century, such as Vin Mariani, and to this day imports coca leaf as a flavouring agent), since coca has very little culinary uses outside its traditional south-american socio-cultural context.
    In coca's traditional south american cultural context, coca has many uses, including that of food stuff, and even more true today with the commercial expansion of coca containing products ( coca candy, coca chocolate, coca toothpaste etc). Yet it is highly unlikely that the production and importation of such products was what the F.D.A. had in mind when they mentioned decocainized coca leaves...

    Coca leaves are thus regulated worldwide by the 1961 U.N. Single Convention, yet decocainized leaves still have a special mention and status, at least in the politically influential U.S.A. which was behind the establishment of this U.N. convention...Interestingly enough, and despite this disposition, the actual taste and flavour of coca leaves have found little culinary uses outside the soft-drink industry.
    This "decocainization" itself is very blurry notion,for a number of reasons.. "cocaine" and "egconine" for instance, are not the only active alkaloid in the coca leaf spectrum...
    Yet "decocainized" leaves, non psychoactive are considered a flavouring agent and allowed special FDA ( hence D.E.A. disposition, for the supervision of importation) authorizations such as the Coca-Cola company's, or, more recently, the new Redbull cola.
    This notion of "decocainization" is also behind the 1980's "inka tea" mini scandal in the USA, were so called "decocainized" coca leaf teabags were found to be regular, alkaloid containing coca after testing, and promptly removed from shop shelves.

    There might also be other legal workarounds at play, at least for "mate de coca", ie coca leaf teabags, which would be found in this very blurry notion of decocainization itself, which apparently does not specify any maximum alkaloid content per weight. This is therefore a reason sometimes used to justify the importations of mate de coca packed in teabag form, as one serving, roughly one gram of leaves, would be "under this limit". This is a very delicate legal area, and recent commercial developments of the coca trade are not easy to fully understand.

    Here are some of the legal dispositions regulating coca leaf as a food flavouring ingredient.
    from a US FDA site :


    Schedules Sec. 1308.12 Schedule II.

    (a) Schedule II shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated, listed in this section. Each drug or substance has been assigned the Controlled Substances Code Number set forth opposite it.

    (b) Substances, vegetable origin or chemical synthesis. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following substances whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:


    Coca leaves (9040) and any salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves (including cocaine (9041) and ecgonine (9180) and their salts, isomers, derivatives and salts of isomers and derivatives), and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or extraction of coca leaves, which extractions do not contain cocaine or ecgonine.


    from another, the FDA food additive status list :

    This Food Additives Status List organizes additives found in many parts of 21 CFR into one alphabetized list. Additives included are those specified in the regulations promulgated under the FD&C Act, under Sections 401 (Food Standards), and 409 (Food Additives). The list also includes selected pesticide chemicals from 40 CFR 180 for which EPA has set tolerances in food. FDA enforces those tolerances. Within the space available, the Food Additives Status List includes use limitations and permitted tolerances for each additive. For complete information on its use limitations, refer to the specific regulation for each substance. New regulations and revisions are published in current issues of the Federal Register as promulgated. Also refer to the CFSAN website on Food Additives and Premarket Approval to review several FDA databases of additive categories. For example, EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) is a helpful reference within the limitations described at the beginning of the database.

    Coca (decocainized) - ESO, GRAS - 182.20

    which stands for
    ESO : Essential oil and/or oleoresin (solvent free)
    GRAS/FS Substances generally recognized as safe in foods but limited in standardized foods where the standard provides for its use.
    (to be expanded)

    As previously mentioned, an estimated 200 tons of coca leaf are legally importated in the United States ( 204 tons in 1996, in a Bolivian Press estimate) by the Stepan Company of Maywood, New Jersey. The leaves are processed (decocainized) to producs a cocaine-free extract of the coca leaf, which is used as a flavoring ingredient in Coca-Cola. The extracted cocaine alkaloids are processed into pure cocaine for pharmaceutical / medical use.

    Controversies on the international scheduling of coca

    The rationale for including the coca plant and leaf in the 1961 Single Convention is mainly rooted in a report that was prepared and published in 1950, by a commission, the Commission of Enquiry on the Coca Leaf, that visited Bolivia and Peru briefly in 1949 to “investigate the effects of chewing the coca leaf and the possibilities of limiting its production and controlling its distribution.”
    The permanent representative of Peru had requested such a United Nations report, and the commission's conclusion in the report ( Report of the Commission of Enquiry on the Coca Leaf, May 1950. Report to the CND and UN Economic and Social Council, available here http://www.ungassondrugs.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=101&Itemid=108 and in the file archives) were that the effects of chewing coca leaves were negative, even though the chewing coca itself was defined as a habit, not an addiction.
    The ECOSOC report has been sharply criticised for its lack of precision, arbitrary conclusion and racist / derogatory connotations.
    It is clear that a similar study would nowadays never pass the scrutiny and critical review to which scientific studies are routinely subjected. The selected team members’ professional qualifications and parallel interests were also criticised, as was the methodology used for information collection, and the incomplete selection and use made of the existing scientific studies and serious ethnological literature on the use of coca leaves.

    In South America and elsewhere, individuals and organizations are protesting against the legal restrictions on coca leaves and their use, for cultural, scientific, political and religious reasons ( coca is a sacred plant in Andean cultural traditions).
    Despite the international legal restrictions imposed by the U.N. Scheduling, coca chewing and drinking of coca tea is still carried out daily by millions of people in South-America, and the benefits of coca leaves are starting to be appreciated on other continents.
    It is a complex situation, were erroneous, biased information on traditional use of coca leaves, as well as the geopolitical implications of clandestine cocaine production and trade have lead to a situation where it is very difficult to shed light on the plant’s positive aspects, on its beneficial role for the psychophysical health and socioeconomic balance of the people who consume and cultivate it.

    In 1988, Peru and Bolivia attempted to obtain a form of legal recognition for the traditional use of coca, and negotiated the 2nd paragraph of Article 14 into the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
    Paragraph 2 of Article 14 stipulates that the measures taken to eradicate illicit cultivation and to eliminate illicit demand “should take due account of traditional licit use, where there is historic evidence of such use.”
    Bolivia also made formal reservation to the 1988 Convention which required countries to adopt measures to establish the use, consumption, possession, purchase or cultivation of the coca leaf for personal consumption as a criminal offence.
    Bolivia clearly stated that “the coca leaf is not, in and of itself, a narcotic drug or psychotropic substance” and stressed that the Bolivian “legal system recognizes the ancestral nature of the licit use of the coca leaf, which, for much of Bolivia’s population, dates back over centuries.”

    The validity of article 14 of the 1988 convention, and of such reservations, was denied however by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)( the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions), stating that such claims do not override the requirements of the 1961 Single Convention, since it does not "absolve a party of its rights and obligations under the other international drug control treaties."

    Yet in recent years the current legal status of the coca leaf is more and more challenged and questioned. Even the I.N.C.B. acknowledged the issue, stating in its 1994 Annual Report that "mate de coca, which is considered harmless and legal in several countries in South America, is an illegal activity under the provisions of both the 1961 Convention and the 1988 Convention, though that was not the intention of the plenipotentiary conferences that adopted those conventions."
    The I.N.C.B. also implicitly dismissed the conclusions of the original report of the 1949/1950 Commission of Enquiry on the Coca Leaf by recognizing that "there is a need to undertake a scientific review to assess the coca-chewing habit and the drinking of coca tea."

    However, this evolution is not in a straight line. On other occasions, I.N.C.B. did not show signs of an increased sensitivity towards the Peruvian and Bolivian claims on the rights of their indigenous population, and the general public, to consume the coca leaf in a traditional manner by chewing the leaves.
    In 2007, the I.N.C.B. even went as far as to consider drinking coca tea, as "not in line with the provisions of the 1961 Convention" stating that Peru, Bolivia, and a few other states that tolerate coca use and coca tea manufacture to be in breach with their treaty obligations, insisting that “each party to the Convention should establish as a criminal offence, when committed intentionally, the possession and purchase of coca leaf for personal consumption.” (Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2007, paragraphs 217 and 219)

    In reaction to these statements of 2007 Annual Report of the I.N.C.B., the Bolivian government has announced that it would formally issue a request to the United Nations to remove the coca leaf from List 1 Schedule of the 1961 U.N. Single Convention.
    Such a statement, which was made by the vice-minister of Foreign Affairs of Bolivia Hugo Fernandez, at the 51st period of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (Vienna, 10th March 2008), should be placed in the context of increasing political awareness and criticism against the consequences of the repressive actions undertaken by the U.S.A. in the name of the “war on drugs”, and against clandestine cocaine in particular, which has even lead to political interventionism exploiting the tensions of the clandestine drug trade.

    Since the 1980s, the countries in which coca is traditionally cultivated and used have come under strong political and economic pressure from the United States to restrict and ban the cultivation of the crop, in order to reduce the supply of clandestine cocaine on the international market.

    Article 26 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, requires nations that allow the cultivation of coca to designate an agency to regulate said cultivation and to take physical possession of the coca crops as soon as possible after harvest, and to destroy all coca which grows wild or is illegally cultivated.
    The U.S.A. has taken extra effort to enforce these provisions, referred to as “coca eradication”. This has involved many strategies, ranging from aerial spraying of herbicides on coca crops to assistance and financial incentives to encourage farmers to grow alternate crops.

    This “coca eradication” effort has been politically controversial, with proponents of this indiscriminating policy claiming that the production of coca leaf is several times the amount needed to satisfy “legal” demand and application, thus inferring that the vast majority of the coca crops are destined for the illegal market. In this light, coca cultivation not only contributes to the major social problem of drug abuse, but also financially supports various insurgent groups that collaborate with drug traffickers in some cocaine-producing territories.
    Yet most proponents and critics of the effort recognize that the “coca eradication” primarily creates hardship not only for the coca growers but also for entire populations living close to the coca growing areas. “Coca eradication” policy not only attacks a cultural tradition of coca uses, but has consequences for coca growers, many of whom are poor and have little to none viable alternative.
    Arial spraying and fumigation causes environmental problems, polluting other crops and most of all water supplies, animals and humans alike.
    Ironically, the latest media spin on the war on cocaine as been to focus on environmental consequences of clandestine cocaine production, using ethical / political concerns as a call for some kind of "civic boycott" of clandestine cocaine for destroying the environment...

    And this policy, however straightforward it might seem, has not been effective in reducing the production of clandestine cocaine, in part because cultivation can always move to other areas. Furthermore, any social harm created by clandestine cocaine production and drug abuse is only made worse by the actions of the “war on drugs, cocaine, and coca”. It is now recognized as a failure in Colombia, in a November 2008 United States Congressional report stating that the coca eradication campaign Plan Colombia, which has cost more than 4.5 billion euros, has not achieved its goal of halving the production of cocaine, production of which rose by 15 percent between 2000 and 2006.
    Expanding legal coca production, and coca products, has appeared as an socio-economical alternative to the North American backed repressive actions.

    Beginning in the late 1990’s, and expanding in the early 21st century, there has been a strong political movement in Bolivia, Peru, and Venezuela to promote and expand legal coca market, and move away from U.S. demands.
    The movement began gaining more political strength as the elected presidents of these three countries have personally identified with or in favor of this movement. In Bolivia, president Evo Morales (elected in December 2005) was a coca grower’s union leader. E. Morales repeatedly asserts that "la coca no es cocaína"—the coca leaf is not cocaine.
    He also frequently uses coca products symbolically, for instance holding a coca leaf in his hand, to demonstrate its innocuity, during a speech to the General Assembly of the United Nations on September 19, 2006.
    In October 2008, President Evo Morales has announced he is suspending "indefinitely" the operations of the US Drug Enforcement Administration (D.E.A.) in Bolivia, accusing the agency of having encouraged anti-government protests in the country in September 2008. He did not mention whether D.E.A. staff would be asked to leave the country, as coca- growers had been pressing him to do.

    Alan García, president of Peru since the 2006 elections, has recommended using coca in salads and other edible preparations. Peru has for the past 10 years developed many cosmetic and food products based on or containing coca leaves, and the market is expanding.

    In Venezuela, president Hugo Chávez, elected in 1999, declared in a January 2008 speech that he chews coca every day, joking that his "hook up" is none other than Bolivian president Evo Morales.
    H. Chávez also reportedly declared "I chew coca every day in the morning... and look how I am" before showing his biceps to his audience, the Venezuelan National Assembly.

    The Colombian government’s stance is less clear, in a country shaken by the economic and military power of the clandestine cocaine producing cartels, insurgent groups and paramilitaries all deeply connected to the clandestine cocaine economy. For years, Bogotá has allowed indigenous coca farmers to sell coca products, promoting the enterprise as one of the few successful commercial opportunities available to tribal structures like the Nasa, who have grown it for years and regard it as sacred. An indigenous community, the Paeces, started in December 2005 to produce a carbonated soft drink called "Coca Sek". The “Coca Sek” production method belongs to the resguardos of Calderas (Inzá) and is said to take about 150 kg of coca per 3,000 produced bottles.
    In May 2007, the Colombian government abruptly banned “Coca Sek” and other coca products, maybe an indication of renewed U.S. pressure, or of a real change of policy.
    Yet in November 2008, according to a United States Congressional report, the coca eradication campaign Plan Colombia, which has cost more than 4.5 billion euros, has not achieved its goal of halving the production of cocaine. Instead, between 2000 and 2006 production rose by 15 percent. The U.S. report recommends a reduction in aid as well as the transfer of responsibilities to the Colombian government.
    President-elect Barack Obama has expressed concern about human rights violations in Colombia, and the US government recently stopped helping three Colombian army units accused of executing civilians.

    Beyond the South-American context, coca products ( coca tea, coca flour, drinks, food products and cosmetics) are becoming more and more accessible, through South American internet merchants, yet some using a major internet vendor chain and is based in the United States of America. Use of coca as a food flavouring agent is even used as a marketing device by non South-American corporation ( such as the decocainised coca soft drink Red-bull Cola, or in the herbal liquer Agwa, and no longer a "secret" or hidden ingredient). Some reports of coca-tea (non decocainized) being sold specialised outlets of European cities have been heard. But this "tolerance" is very relative and fragile, and there is no way of knowing how the international legal status will evolve in the future.

    In its latest March 2008 report, the I.N.C.B. stated that
    " The Board requests the Government of Bolivia and Peru to take measures to prohibit the sale, use and attempts to export coca leaf for purposes which are not in line with the international drug control
    treaties. The Board is concerned by the negative impact of increased coca leaf production and cocaine manufacture in the region."
    and also INCB also pressured Bolivian president Evo Morales, who in return issued a statement by President Evo Morales, protesting the INCB call for his country to end the use of coca leaves, making it clear that he has no intention to comply.
    In April 2008, the European Parliament, in the "Green Paper on the role of civil society in drugs policy in the European Union" called for a safe use of Coca leaves , stating that the Parliament :

    39. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to explore ways of cooperating with EU civil-society organisations involved in promoting substances derived from coca leaves for lawful use purely as a means of contributing effectively (by absorbing raw materials) to international action against drugs trafficking, ensuring at the same time the safe use of such substances;

    Politics of coca threads on Drugs Forum :


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