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Magic Mushrooms

Discussion in 'Drugs-Wiki' started by Coconut, Nov 24, 2008.

  1. Coconut

    Coconut Gold Member

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    [var]PAGENAME[/var]are hallucinogenic fungi primarily of the genus Psilocybe. There are five primary substances found in these mushrooms which make them famous for their effects on the mind, including euphoria, lethargy, increased appreciation of music and colour, amplified emotions and visual and aural distortion. These substances are tryptamines, related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

    Introduction to [var]PAGENAME[/var]

    are hallucinogenic fungi primarily of the genus Psilocybe. There are five primary substances found in these mushrooms which make them famous for their effects on the mind, including euphoria, lethargy, increased appreciation of music and colour, amplified emotions and visual and aural distortion. These substances are tryptamines, related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

    Using [var]PAGENAME[/var]

    Ways of Administration

    Oral consumption
    Magic mushrooms can be consumed as is, be it dry or fresh, by simply chewing and swallowing like any other food. The longer they are chewed on, the better the absorption through the linings of the mouth and stomach.

    An effective method is to let them sit in tea for approximately fifteen minutes after which the tea is drunk and the mushroom residue is eaten. Note that the mushrooms are not added to boiling water, but to the tea itself, as heat destroys many of the tryptamines. There are many different ways to consume magic mushrooms.

    [​IMG]
    Dried Psilocybe cubensis.

    Mushrooms can be eaten raw, put into food, made into a tea, and so on. However, heat destroys tryptamines including psilocybin and psilocin so a tea or hot food may decrease the potency.

    Dried magic mushrooms are easier/safer to dose. In the process of drying, some psilocin, psilocybin and other psychedelic tryptamines are lost if heat is used. Psilocin is prone to oxidation and breaks down during the drying process at any temperature.

    A good way of illustrating this is that you need (depending on what strain) 12 to 15 kg fresh magic mushrooms to get 1 kg dry magic mushrooms. In the case of Psilocybe cubensis you will need around 13 -14 kg fresh magic mushrooms for 1 kg dry. But the dry magic mushrooms are only 12 times stronger (if you dry it well and without heat), not 13-14 times. This is why fresh magic mushrooms are stronger per mushroom and dry is stronger per gram. Dry mushrooms are easier in dosage as a fresh mushrooms contains a variable amount of water between 85 and 93 percent, so somewhere between 7 and 15 percent of a fresh mushroom when you don't count water. Although rare, this means one fresh mushroom can be more than twice as potent as the next.

    Magic mushrooms are not known for any culinary properties. In fact, most seem to hold them as being somewhat disgusting, if not nauseating. However this can be masked without much effort. The simplest method of avoiding this is to consume them with something that tastes pleasant, such as chocolate, or mixed into fruit juice or a milkshake. Alternatively, they can be ground up and put into empty capsules or gelcaps and swallowed. (see Magic Mushroom Recipes and Cooking With Shrooms)

    Oral dosage [1]
    Species Beginners dose fresh Beginners dose dry Full dose fresh Full dose dry Massive dose fresh Massive dose dry
    Psilocybe tampanensis * 7.5 grams 2.5 grams 15 grams 5 grams 30 grams 10 grams
    Psilocybe cubensis 15 grams 1.25 grams 30 grams 2.5 grams 45-60 grams 3.75-5 grams
    Panaeolus cyanescens 5 grams 0.4 grams 10 grams 0.8 grams 15-20 grams 1.2-1.6 grams
    Psilocybe McKennaii 5 grams 0.4 grams 20 grams 1.6 grams 30-40 grams 2.4-3.2 grams
    Psilocybe azurescens 4 grams 0.4 grams 8 grams 0.8 grams 15 grams 1.5 grams


    * Note: Psilocybe tampanensis truffles in their dry state are extremely hard and can damage teeth. They should be soaked in warm water (or tea) for fifteen minutes prior to consumption.

    Smoking

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that smoking magic mushrooms does not work. The intense heat required to combust dried material would quickly destroy the psychoactive tryptamines. Some report a mild trippy effect when mixed with cannabis, but this may be just a placebo effect and nothing near the effect obtained through oral ingestion. In addition, the smoke is reported to taste disgusting.

    Insufflation

    Insufflating grams of dried mushrooms is probably not a good idea. While is it possible that some active compounds would be absorbed into your bloodstream, pain and the possibility of choking are realistic dangers.

    Consumption of pure psilocybin

    Following an extraction, psilocybin can be consumed in a relatively pure form through oral ingestion, insufflation et cetera.[2]
    Psilocybin dosages Dose in milligrams
    Threshold 2 - 4 mg
    Light 4 - 8 mg
    Common 6 - 20 mg
    Strong 20 - 40 mg
    Heavy 35+ mg


    Effects of [var]PAGENAME[/var]



    Combinations with [var]PAGENAME[/var]

    Alcohol
    Deadens the effects of tripping; increase in nausea; can easily provoke risky and dangerous behaviour. Alcohol was involved in the incidents which led to the prohibition of mushrooms in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Generally not recommended.

    Amphetamine
    Increased unpredictability; energising; paranoia usually increased; comedown may be particularly unpleasant.

    Benzodiazepines
    Can be used to relieve anxiety and arrest panic attacks during a bad trip, but can also dull positive experiences.

    Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids
    Heightens peak of trip, intensifies visuals, can ease comedown and bring back effects. Paranoia-inducing effects of cannabis can cause bad trips.

    Cocaine benzoylmethylecgonine
    Probably no physical dangers, similar to amphetamines. Increased heart rate could induce a bad trip if the user thinks they'll have a heart attack or stroke from the tachycardia and increased blood pressure.

    Ketamine
    No reported problems. Users report simultaneous mushroom and ketamine effects.

    LSD D-Lysergic acid diethylamide
    LSD activates the 5-HT2A receptor and is cross tolerant with psilocin. [3] Like with mescaline, some report trips unlike either substances individually and intense, unique experiences.

    Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenethylamine)
    Mescaline also acts on the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor and is cross-tolerant with psilocin. Some have reported this combination to be enjoyable, with the gentleless of the mescaline experience negating any anxiety-inducing effects of mushrooms and more obvious visuals.

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine)
    No dangers if MDMA's safety limits are adhered to. May reduce chance of a bad trip due to MDMA's tendency to induce happiness and euphoria.

    Different Uses for [var]PAGENAME[/var]

    Cluster headaches

    Cluster headache is a neurological condition which prominently features excruciatingly painful headaches occuring in "cycles" followed by periods of remission. Attacks last anywhere from fifteen minutes to three hours and can happen multiple times daily - the pain is often debilitating or crippling. Psilocybin and other substances such as LSD are the subject of much anecdotal evidence suggesting that they can help cluster headache sufferers by aborting a headache cycle and increasing remission period length.[4]

    Depression

    There is also evidence that psilocybin and other hallucinogens like LSD, salvinorin A and so on can be useful in therapy for those suffering from depression by improving mood and a person's overall outlook on life.[5]

    Obsessive compulsive disorder

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms are found to be eased by administration of magic mushrooms.[6]

    Introspection

    Over thousands of years, people have used magic mushrooms in for the purposes of gaining insight and a new perspective on a troubling matter. They can create profound experiences of understanding and the feeling of becoming one with the universe at high doses, which can lead to life-changing epiphanies.

    Pharmacology of [var]PAGENAME[/var]

    The mushrooms dealt with here are distinct from those of the Amanita genus, whose psychoactive constituents are muscimol and ibotenic acid.[7]

    Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, C12H16N2O) is responsible for most psychoactive effects in the majority of psychoactive mushroom species. It acts by interaction with neurotransmitter receptors on nerve cells in the brain where it mimicks the action of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine). Specifically, psilocin is a post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptor agonist.
    [​IMG]

    Psilocybin (O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, C12H17N2O4P) is usually referred to as being the main psychoactive compund in magic mushrooms. It is thought by some to be dephosphorylated into psilocin upon consumption, acting as a prodrug. The following three compounds are N-methyl analogues of psilocybin.
    [​IMG]

    Baeocystin (O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, C11H15N2O4P) is a demethylated derivative of psilocybin, first isolated from the species Psilocybe baeocystis.
    [​IMG]

    Norbaeocystin (O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-tryptamine, C10H13N2O4P) is a minor compound and demethylated analogue of baeocystin. Its activity is undetermined.
    [​IMG]

    Aeruginascin (O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine, C13H20N2O4P) is a indoleamine derivative which occurs naturally only within the mushroom Inocybe aeruginascens. It is the N-trimethyl analogue of psilocybin. It is closely related to the frog skin toxin bufotenine (5-hydroxy-dimethyltryptamine), a potent 5-HT3 receptor agonist, and has been found exclusively in Inocybe aeruginascens so far.[8][9][10]
    [​IMG]

    Chemistry of [var]PAGENAME[/var]


    The reader should refer to the articles correcponding to the aforementionned compounds :
    psilocybin
    psilocin
    baeocystin
    norbaeocystin
    aeruginascin

    The Dangers of [var]PAGENAME[/var]

    Magic mushrooms are remarkably safe. They present no physical dangers but there is a degree of psychological risk which can be minimised through proper preparation of oneself. It must be noted, however, that they are not for recreational use and must be respected.

    Physical Health Risks


    Overdose

    The therapeutic index of psilocybin is 641.[11] This is the ratio between the LD50 (lethal dose in 50% of subjects) and the ED50 (effective or therapeutic dose in 50% of subjects), meaning that the LD50 is 641 times higher than the ED50.

    Reported Deaths

    Deaths caused by acute poisoning by magic mushrooms have not been reported in medical literature. The intravenous LD50 of psilocybin in rats is 260mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram body weight).[12][13] While this does not translate directly to humans and the lethal dose of psilocybin in humans is not known (also, humans will typically ingest mushrooms orally instead of intravenously injecting psilocybin), this indicates that psilocybin is of a very low toxicity and that a lethal overdose of magic mushrooms is unimaginable.

    Accidental poisoning

    While hunting for mushrooms in the wild, great care must be taken to not confuse poisonous mushrooms for psychoactive ones. Accidental poisonings by inexperienced foragers are common and some mushroom poisonings can cause a slow, agonising death.

    [​IMG]
    Hypholoma fasciculare or Sulphur Tuft is a common poisonous mushroom which grows abundantly in temperate woodland regions such as northern Europe and North America. It is yellow-brown, has a brown spore print and grows on dead organic matter like many Psilocybe species. Poisoning can result in diarrhoea, vomiting and seizures. [14]

    Indirect deaths

    There have been several deaths reported following consumption of magic mushrooms. The link between mushrooms and some of these deaths has been hotly contested.

    United Kingdom
    Brian McCracken, 31, leapt through a window in his flat to his death in 2005 after consuming magic mushrooms and allegedly becoming panicky.[15]

    Ireland
    Colm Hodkinson's death resulted in the immediate prohibition of psilocybin mushrooms in Ireland in 2006, which were previously available for sale in their raw, unprocessed form.[16] This followed the UK's 2005 ban. Colm jumped from a balcony in Dún Laoghaire after consuming three mushrooms. He was reported to have been consuming alcohol and cannabis also. (Go to the related thread.)

    The Netherlands
    Calls for a re-evaluation of the law on psilocybin mushrooms grew after Gaelle Caroff, a seventeen-year-old French girl who had previously been suffering psychological problems, jumped from a building after eating magic mushrooms during a school trip to Amsterdam. The Dutch parliament subsequently voted to ban fresh magic mushrooms. Dried mushrooms were previously illegal. [17] [18] Go to the related thread.
    An eighteen-year-old man jumped from a window on August 1st 2008 after misuse of magic mushrooms. He was badly injured and later died as a result in hospital. (Go to the related thread.)

    Mental Health Risks

    Bad trip

    The infamous "bad trip" is simply an experience with a hallucinogen that the person perceives to be unpleasant or negative. They are commonly characterised as being disturbing in nature, however a bad trip can be as simple as the one having the experience feeling down or sad. Bad trips are entirely subjective - one person may find the patterns on a carpet morphing into one another to be hilarious whereas someone else may find it frightening. Susceptibility to a negative experience depends entirely on the personality and frame of mind of the one having the experience. Bad trips can sometimes be traumatising and on occasion can cause hidden mental disorders to emerge in those who were already susceptible. Common results of a bad trip include paranoia, fear, panic attacks, depression and inability to sleep following the experience. The risk of a bad trip can be reduced by having the correct set and setting. Some have theorised that bad trips are internal conflicts within the user's psyche which emerge, forcing the person to deal with the problem and to engage in a self-healing process. There are cases, however, when attempting to help someone out of a difficult experience is absolutely necessary.[19]

    It must be noted, however, that bad trips are not necessarily confined to use of hallucinogens - substances such as alcohol are also known to cause profoundly negative psychological experiences.

    Methods of making a trip pleasant again or easing the negative effects include reassuring the tripper that they are safe, that the effects will soon wear off, changing the environment to something soothing and sedation through the use of benzodiazepines such as lorazepam.

    Psychological damage

    Psychological damage is the most significant danger from ingesting magic mushrooms. Hallucinogens can occasionally trigger latent and underlying mental disorders such as psychosis. As such, they should only be taken if the user is mentally healthy (no history of schizophrenia or psychosis) and in a safe environment. If these precautions are taken, the risk is minimised, but still significant to warrant solely responsible use and caution. (See: indirect deaths).

    Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)

    HPPD, also known as "flashbacks", comprises visual distortions reminiscent of a psychedelic experience, such as "trails", colours, lights appearing more radiant and so on. Prevalence of HPPD among psychedelic users is unknown, but can be estimated to be around 4%.[20] [21]

    Side Effects


    Addiction


    The active compounds in mushrooms - like most psychedelics - are not psychologically or physically addictive. Tolerance builds rapidly and users must wait at least several days between doses to experience the full effect. Additionally, the experience is typically quite taxing on the mind and body, thus regular use is rarely desirable. Psilocin is cross-tolerant with other serotonergic agonists such as LSD, mescaline and 2C-B, although when taken simultaneously they may produce synergistic effects. Cessation of regular use will not produce withdrawal symptoms.

    Physical Addiction

    Mental Addiction


    Growing [var]PAGENAME[/var]


    Various methods have been developped for growing mushrooms. However, those methods only applies to saprophytic mushrooms, for which one can artificially provide a source of nutrients.
    Note that some psychoactive species are not saprophytic thus cannot be grown by the means given below. The typical example is Amanita Muscaria which is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom.

    Mushrooms are typically cultivated in a controlled, sterile environment on a nutritious substrate. There are many methods for this, all of which can be found online.

    PF Tek

    See Psilocybe Fanaticus Tek

    This is the easiest method developped to grow magic mushrooms. The costs are the lowest.

    Synopsis
    Step 1: Mix water, vermiculite, brown rice flour in a bowl.
    Step 2: Fill jars with mixture.
    Step 3: Pressure cook jars to sterilise them.
    Step 4: Inject spores into jars in a sterile environment.
    Step 5: Wait three weeks then place colonised cakes into terrarium.
    Step 6: Maintain >95% humidity and fresh air exchange in terrarium.
    Step 7: Harvest fruits when veil has torn.

    Casing


    The casing technique can provide much higher and consistent yields than the PF tek, but requires more equipment. The method is summarized as below :

    The mushroom is allowed to colonize some sterilized grain (usually rye, but also wild bird seed; see
    Grain Tek, Wild Bird Seed Tek).
    The colonized substrate is then placed in some container, and covered with a casing substrate (a mixture of coco coir, vermiculite, oyster shell and crushed lime in various proportions).
    The containers are left in a dark, humid environment in order to let the mycellium colonize the casing substrate (it usually takes less than 2 weeks).
    The containers are then open and exposed to light.

    The casing substrate is inert and serves as a source of water for the sporocarp (the "mushroom") growth and as a protection for contaminants.

    Outdoor growing


    Outdoor growing provide lower yields than casing, but requires much less attention and care than casing. Moreover, an outdoor settlement can provide mushrooms for many years.

    Outdoor growing is not available to all species, and some species cannot be grown (satisfactorily) by other means than outdoors (P. Azurescens).
    The point of the method is to colonize a wood substrate by the means of spawn substrate : grain, dowels (small cylinders of wood), PF jars, etc.

    The substrate can be a bed of wood chips, or a log of wood.

    Here's a list of suitable wood essences for P. Azurescens growth :
    - Beech
    - Oak
    - To a lower extent : hardwoods

    Cultivation on "bale of"


    This method provides good yields and big sporocarps. The method consists in colonizing a bale of straw (may be mixed with other things like horse manure) with precolonized grain. The bale can be left outdoors or in a specific chamber for sporocarp growth.

    This technique require some attention to avoid contamination and to maintain a specific level of humidity in the bale : too much brings contaminations, not enough kills the mycellium.

    Agar cultivation


    This method is the method commonly used by biologists to grow bacteria and fungi. It doesn't allow for sporocarp production. It is used to provide a good source of definite stain of mycellium for colonization of grain or liquid cultivation.

    Liquid cultivation


    Liquid cultivation allows for the spreading of a mycellium stain prior to colonization of grain or PF jars. The lifetime of mycellium in a liquid culture is lower than on agar media due to the lower amount of nutrients, and the higher risk of contamination.
    [To be verified : is it possible to germinate spores in liquid media ?]
    The liquid substrate is generally made of honey and water, mixed with other nutrients.

    This method is viable for massive productions, where one can use some sort of gun to quickly inject the liquid in many grain bags or PF jars.

    In Vitro Tek In vitro growing is useful for those who cannot use a terrarium.

    Sterility and contaminants

    It is important to remember that no matter which technique is used for growing, sterility is always of the utmost importance. Substrates should be sterilised in a pressure cooker prior to inoculation and sterile technique (such as the use of disinfectant and sterile surgical gloves) adhered to at all times. There are billions of microscopic organisms in the air, on surfaces and on skin and hair that will do their best to consume the mushroom's substrate and the mycelium itself.

    Mould (or mold)is the biggest problem for mushroom cultivators. While mushroom mycelium is a form of mould, the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma are particularly problematic as their spores are ubiquitous and they are extremely aggressive. Not only that, but many of their species produce mycotoxins and are harmful to health. Many moulds have a distinctive smell which can indicate contamination. Any form of discolouration should be suspect, particularly fuzzy green, blue and red colours.

    However, mycelium and mushrooms may bruise green-blue when damaged or exposed to air due to the oxidation of psilocin, so it is important to differentiate between mould and bruising. If rubbed, bruising will not come off, but mould will. This is because the distinctive colour of the mould is actually its spores, which are easily removable.
    [​IMG]
    Green mould contamination in PF Tek jar.
    Cobweb mould is a nuisance particularly for growing methods which use casing. This organism is grey-white and strandy, somewhat resembling a spider's web, but it can be easily confused for mushroom mycelium by the untrained eye. It grows extremely quickly and can consume an entire substrate in a matter of days.

    [​IMG]
    Cobweb mould.


    Species of [var]PAGENAME[/var]

    Panaeolus cyanescens

    aka Copelandia cyanescens
    Potent. Most popular psilocybin mushroom not of the genus Psilocybe.
    Contains psilocybin, serotonin and urea. Commonly cultivated indoors.
    Native to tropical and neotropical climates.
    [​IMG]

    Psilocybe azurescens

    Considered by some to be the most potent psilocybin mushroom in the world.
    Cultivated both indoors and outdoors.
    Native to moderate climates.
    [​IMG]

    Psilocybe cubensis

    "cubes"
    Medium potency. Most commonly cultivated psychedelic mushroom.
    Native to warm, humid climates.
    [​IMG]

    Psilocybe semilanceata

    "liberty caps"
    High potency. Not cultivated indoors.
    Native to moderate climates.
    [​IMG]

    Defining features

    When a mushroom tests positive for all of these characteristics, it may be a magic mushroom.
    • Blue-green bruising when damaged.
    • Brown/purple spore print.
    • Relatively small, brownish fruiting body.

    Ideally a mushroom should meet the characteristics of a species which has already been identified as safe for consumption. This should be confirmed by an expert mycologist. Safe species have poisonous lookalikes

    List of species

    This is a simple list of known species of fungi containing psychoactive tryptamines and will need to be expanded. You can help here: Psilocybin Mushroom Species Index.
    Galerina Gerronema Gymnopilus Hypholoma
    Galerina steglichii Gerronema solidipes Gymnopilus aeruginosus, Gymnopilus braendlei, Gymnopilus intermedius, Gymnopilus junonius, Gymnopilus lateritius, Gymnopilus liquiritiae, Gymnopilus luteofolius, Gymnopilus luteoviridis, Gymnopilus luteus, Gymnopilus purpuratus, Gymnopilus sapineus, Gymnopilus subpurpuratus, Gymnopilus validipes, Gymnopilus viridans Hypholoma gigasporum, Hypholoma guzmanii, Hypholoma naematoliforme, Hypholoma neocaledonicum, Hypholoma popperianum, Hypholoma rhombispora


    Inocybe Mycena Panaeolus Pluteus
    Inocybe aeruginascens, Inocybe coelestium, Inocybe corydalina var. corydalina, Inocybe corydalina var. erinaceomorpha, Inocybe haemacta, Inocybe tricolor Mycena cyanorrhiza Panaeolus africanus, Panaeolus castaneifolius, Panaeolus cyanescens (aka Copelandia Cyanescens), Panaeolus fimicola, Panaeolus microsporus, Panaeolus moellerianus, Panaeolus olivaceus, Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus, Panaeolus retirugis, Panaeolus rubricaulis, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, Panaeolus subbalteatus, Panaeolus venezolanus Pluteus cyanopuz, Pluteus glaucus, Pluteus nigroviridis, Pluteus salicinus, Pluteus villosus


    Psilocybe
    Psilocybe acutipilea, Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata, Psilocybe antioquiensis, Psilocybe atlantis, Psilocybe aquamarina, Psilocybe arcana, Psilocybe argentipes, Psilocybe armandii, Psilocybe aucklandii, Psilocybe australiana, Psilocybe aztecorum, Psilocybe aztecorum, Psilocybe azurescens, Psilocybe baeocystis, Psilocybe banderillensis, Psilocybe barrerae, Psilocybe bohemica, Psilocybe brasiliensis, Psilocybe brunneocystidiata, Psilocybe caeruleoannulata, Psilocybe caerulescens var. caerulescens, Psilocybe caerulescens var. ombrophila, Psilocybe caerulipes, Psilocybe carbonaria, Psilocybe chiapanensis,Psilocybe collybioides, Psilocybe columbiana, Psilocybe cordispora, Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa, Psilocybe dumontii, Psilocybe eucalypta Psilocybe fagicola var. fagicola, Psilocybe fagicola var. mesocystidiata, Psilocybe farinacea, Psilocybe fimetaria, Psilocybe fuliginosa, Psilocybe furtadoana, Psilocybe galindoi, Psilocybe goniospora, Psilocybe graveolens, Psilocybe guatapensi, Psilocybe guilartensis, Psilocybe heimii, Psilocybe heliconiae, Psilocybe herrerae, Psilocybe hispanica, Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. hoogshagenii, Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. convexa, Psilocybe inconspicua, Psilocybe indica, Psilocybe isabelae, Psilocybe jacobsii, Psilocybe jaliscana, Psilocybe kumaenorum, Psilocybe laurae, Psilocybe lazoi, Psilocybe liniformans var. liniformans, Psilocybe liniformans var. americana, Psilocybe mairei, Psilocybe makarorae, Psilocybe mammillata, Psilocybe meridensis, Psilocybe mexicana, Psilocybe moravica, Psilocybe moravica var. macrospora, Psilocybe moseri, Psilocybe muliercula, Psilocybe natalensis, Psilocybe natarajanii, Psilocybe ochreata, Psilocybe papuana, Psilocybe paulensis, Psilocybe pelliculosa, Psilocybe pericystis, Psilocybe pintonii, Psilocybe pleurocystidiosa, Psilocybe plutonia, Psilocybe portoricensis, Psilocybe pseudoaztecorum, Psilocybe puberula, Psilocybe quebecensis, Psilocybe ramulosa, Psilocybe rostrata, Psilocybe rzedowskii, Psilocybe samuiensis, Psilocybe sanctorum, Psilocybe schultesii, Psilocybe semiinconspicua, Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe septentrionalis, Psilocybe serbica, Psilocybe sierrae, Psilocybe silvatica, Psilocybe singeri, Psilocybe strictipes, Psilocybe stuntzii, Psilocybe subacutipilea, Psilocybe subaeruginascens var. subaeruginascens, Psilocybe subaeruginosa, Psilocybe subcaerulipes, Psilocybe subcubensis, Psilocybe subtropicalis, Psilocybe subyungensis, Psilocybe subzapotecorum, Psilocybe tampanensis, Psilocybe tasmaniana, Psilocybe uruguayensis, Psilocybe uxpanapensis, Psilocybe venenata, Psilocybe verae-crucis, Psilocybe villarrealiae, Psilocybe wassoniorum, Psilocybe weilii, Psilocybe weldenii, Psilocybe wrightii, Psilocybe xalapensis, Psilocybe yungensis, Psilocybe zapotecorum


    Rickenella Weraroa
    Weraroa novae-zelandiae Weraroa novae-zelandiae


    [22] [23]

    United Nations

    Psilocybin and psilocin are Schedule I drugs under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. This means they are illicit, are said to have no therapeutic benefit and are available only for tightly controlled medical and scientific use. However, mushrooms themselves are not controlled by the United Nations, only domestic law.

    USA

    Cultivation Illegal in all states except New Mexico, where the appeals court ruled, on June 15, 2005, that cultivating psilocybin mushrooms for personal use is not manufacture of a controlled substance.
    Possession Psilocybin and psilocin are DEA Schedule I substances, so possession is illegal under federal law, except in Florida, where the Supreme Court ruled in 1978 that possession of wild specimens is not illegal. Intent to consume was not addressed. Possession of spores is illegal in Georgia, Idaho and California (for California, only if imported from outside the state and intented for cultivation). Researchers and their subjects are granted exemption subject to scrutiny by the Drugs Enforcement Administration.
    Sale is illegal.

    EU

    United Kingdom
    Cultivation Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005.
    Possession Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005. (Illegal whatever form they are in, whether raw or prepared, including when packaged for sale.)
    Sale Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005. (Illegal whatever form they are in, whether raw or prepared, including when packaged for sale.)

    Austria
    Cultivation illegal if for the purpose of extracting a narcotic substance
    Possession & Sale not legally controlled, but the judge may choose to convict for “attempt to commit a drug offence” depending on the motive.

    Belgium
    Cultivation Specifically prohibited by the criminal law of 24 February 1921
    Possession Specifically prohibited by the Royal Decree of 22/1/1998
    Sale Specifically prohibited (as is offer for sale) by the Royal Decree of 22/1/1998

    Czech Republic
    Cultivation ‘Mushrooms’ as such not controlled, might be treated as psilocybin/psilocin (prohibited by the Penal Code, s. 187)
    Possession Might be treated as psilocybin/psilocin (prohibited by the Penal Code – possession in the quantity ‘greater than small’, s. 187a) [24]
    Sale Specifically prohibited by s.15 of the Act on Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances (No. 167/1998 Coll.), but no penalty. May be treated as psilocybin/psilocin, or “promotion of drug use” (any addictive substance other than alcohol)

    Cyprus
    Cultivation Prohibited by Law 29/77 which prohibits the cultivation of any plant or product from which such substances (class A controlled substances) may be extracted.
    Possession Treated as psilocin and psilocybin-prohibited by Law 29/77
    Sale Treated as psilocin and psilocybin-prohibited by Law 29/77

    Denmark
    Cultivation Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993
    Possession Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993
    Sale Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993

    Germany
    Cultivation Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication
    Possession Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication
    Sale Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication

    Estonia
    Cultivation Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
    Possession Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
    Sale Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act

    Greece
    Cultivation Prohibited by law 1729/87 (cultivation of any plant from which narcotic substances are produced)
    Possession May be treated as psilocin
    Sale May be treated as psilocin

    Ireland
    Cultivation Illegal if cultivated
    Possession Specifically prohibited under Misuse of Drugs Act
    Sale Specifically prohibited under Misuse of Drugs Act

    Italy
    Cultivation Specifically prohibited under art.26 of DPR 309/90
    Possession Specifically listed under Table I of the amended drug law 2006.
    Sale Specifically listed under Table I of the amended drug law 2006.

    Latvia
    Cultivation Illegal under S. 256 of the Penal Code if a repeated offence
    Possession Treated as possession of a narcotic substance
    Sale Treated as sale of a narcotic substance

    Lithuania
    Cultivation Illegal under Art. 265 of the Penal Code: Cultivating large amount of poppies, cannabis or any other plants included in the list of narcotic or psychotropic substances is prohibited.
    Possession No specific prohibition.
    IlIegal under Art. 44 Code of Administrative Offences.
    Illegal under Art. 259/260 of the Penal Code; Treated as possession of a narcotic or psychotropic substances.
    Sale No specific prohibition.
    Illegal under Art. 260 of the Penal Code; Treated as sale of a narcotic or psychotropic substance.

    Luxembourg
    Cultivation Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin
    Possession Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin
    Sale Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin

    Hungary
    Cultivation Illegal under Art. 282 of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.
    Possession Illegal under Art. 282 of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.
    Sale Illegal under Art. 282/A of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.

    Netherlands
    Cultivation Not controlled
    Possession Only prepared mushrooms are specifically prohibited under the Opium Act.
    Sale Only prepared mushrooms are specifically prohibited under the Opium Act.

    Norway
    Cultivation Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.
    Possession Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.
    Sale Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.

    Poland
    Cultivation Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction
    Possession Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction
    Sale Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction

    Portugal
    Cultivation Treated as psilocin
    Possession Treated as psilocin
    Sale Treated as psilocin

    Slovenia
    Cultivation Treated as psilocin.
    Possession Treated as psilocin.
    Sale Treated as psilocin.

    Slovakia
    Cultivation Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).
    Possession Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).
    Sale Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).

    Sweden
    Cultivation According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.
    Cultivation of narcotic drugs is punishable according to the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64).
    Possession According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.
    Sale According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.

    Other Countries

    Australia
    Cultivation Counts as manufacture of illegal drugs.
    Possession & Sale Illegal under the Criminal Code Act of 1995 (CCA).

    Brazil
    Cultivation Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances but mushrooms are not illegal.
    Possession Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances but mushrooms are not illegal.
    Sale Unknown.

    Finland
    Cultivation Treated as a narcotics offence, with severity according to the quantity.
    Possession Treated as a narcotics offence with severity according to the quantity.
    Sale Treated as a narcotics offence with severity according to the quantity.

    Hong Kong
    Cultivation, Possession & Sale Psilocybin is a controlled substance and the Hong Kong Narcotics Bureau considers psilocybin-containing mushrooms to be controlled under Schedule I, Part I, of the Dangerous Drug Ordinance.

    Japan
    Illegal as of June 2002, Narcotic and Psychotropic Drug Control Law.

    Mexico
    Cultivation Psilocin and psilocybin are prohibited under the Ley General de Salud of 1984. Presumably, this also prohibits production. Wild occurence of does not constitute production.
    Possession Prohibited, but rarely enforced against indigenous populations.
    Sale Presumably prohibited.

    History of [var]PAGENAME[/var]

    Magic mushrooms have been used for thousands of years by humans.

    Ancient paintings dating back to 5000 BC and relating to mushrooms have been found in Algeria. As early as 1000 - 500 BC, Central and South American peoples were carving stone mushrooms or statues depicting figures under the caps of mushrooms.

    The Mesoamerican culture of the Mixtec worshipped multiple deities and gods, one of whom, Piltzintecuhtli, was the god of natural hallucinogens including mushrooms.

    The Aztec people had their own god of hallucinogenic plants, Xochipilli. Teonanácatl, or 'wondrous mushroom', was used at holy ceremonies along with other substances such as salvia divinorum (salvinorin A), morning glory seeds (lysergic acid amide) and Peyote (mescaline).

    European conquest of Central America at the hands of Hernándo Cortés led to the prohibition of non-alcoholic psychoactives and the use of psilocybin mushrooms became an underground activity.

    At present, hallucinogenic mushroom use has been reported among a number of groups spanning from central Mexico to Oaxaca, including groups of Nahua, Mixtecs, Mixe, Mazatecs, Zapotecs, and others. There has not, however, been any confirmed observations of hallucinogenic mushroom use among the Maya peoples, either in the pre-Columbian or post-Contact eras.

    The first mentioning of hallucinogenic mushrooms in the Western medicinal literature appeared in the London Medical and Physical Journal in 1799: a man had served Psilocybe semilanceata mushrooms that he had picked for breakfast in London's Green Park to his family. The doctor who treated them later described how the youngest child "was attacked with fits of immoderate laughter, nor could the threats of his father or mother refrain him."

    In 1955, Valentina and R. Gordon Wasson became the first Westerners to actively participate in an indigenous mushroom ceremony. The Wassons did much to publicize their discovery, even publishing an article on their experiences in Life in 1957. In 1956, Roger Heim identified the hallucinogenic mushroom that the Wassons had brought back from Mexico as Psilocybe and in 1958, Dr. Albert Hofmann became the first person to isolate psilocin and psilocybin. Hofmann was also responsible for the discovery and first ever synthesis of LSD.

    Inspired by the Wassons' Life in 1960, he and article, Timothy Leary traveled to Mexico to experience hallucinogenic mushrooms firsthand. Upon returning to Harvard, Richard Alpert started the Harvard Psilocybin Project, promoting psychological and religious study of psilocybin and other hallucinogenic drugs. After Leary and Alpert were dismissed by Harvard in 1963, they turned their attention toward evangelizing the psychedelic experience to the nascent hippie counterculture.

    The popularization of entheogens by Wasson, Leary, and others has led to an explosion in the use of hallucinogenic Psilocybe throughout the world. By the early 1970s, a number of psychoactive Psilocybe species were described from temperate North America, Europe, and Asia and were widely collected. Books describing methods of cultivating Psilocybe cubensis in large quantities were also published, as well as hundreds of articles and tutorials distributed on the Internet. The relatively easy availability of hallucinogenic mushrooms from wild and cultivated sources has made it among the most widely used of the hallucinogenic drugs.[25] [26] [27] [28]

    More [var]PAGENAME[/var] Sections

    Mushroom & Psilocybin Experiences Post & read some of the most profound experiences with magic mushrooms and psilocybin.
    Panaeolus Cyanescens Experiences
    Psilocybe Azurescens Experiences
    Psilocybe McKennaii Experiences
    Psilocybe Mexicana & Psilocybe Tampanensis Experiences
    Psilocybe Semilanceata Experiences
    Bad Trip Experiences Read about negative experiences and get some helpful advice on how to avoid them.
    Magic Mushroom Documents Upload and read research & articles on magic mushrooms.
    Magic Mushroom Forum Post and read about magic mushrooms
    Magic Mushroom Image Gallery Post and view pictures of mushrooms.



    The Latest [var]PAGENAME[/var] Threads

    [showthreads=10]8[/showthreads]

    1. ^Magic Mushroom use All about using magic mushrooms Drugs-Forum
    2. ^reference needed
    3. ^A. B. Wolbach Jr., Harris Isbell, E. J. Miner. Cross tolerance between mescaline and LSD-25, with a comparison of the mescaline and LSD reactions. Psychopharmacologia 12. 3. 1962, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 1-14
    4. ^Cluster Busters Hallucinogenic Treatment of Neuro-Vascular Headaches
    5. ^Mail Online (this needs a better reference)
    6. ^MSNBC
      Magic mushrooms ease OCD symptoms. (better reference needed)
    7. ^Spritus Temporis Psilocybin pharmacology
    8. ^
    9. ^
    10. ^
    11. ^
    12. ^Psilocybin Awareness Berkeley.edu
    13. ^hxxp://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/ Enter psilocybin and click on Toxicity. (better ref needed)
    14. ^Mykoweb Hypholoma fasciculare
    15. ^Manchester Evening News Death leap man ate magic mushrooms
    16. ^The Independent
    17. ^BBC Netherlands bans magic mushrooms
    18. ^MSNBC Netherlands bans magic mushrooms
    19. ^refs needed
    20. ^HPPD
    21. ^
    22. ^
    23. ^
    24. ^
    25. ^Erowid.org: Mushrooms vault
    26. ^Erowid.org: Psilocybin vault
    27. ^ Wikipedia: Psilocybin mushrooms
    28. ^ StainblueDr. Albert Hoffman
     
    Last edited: Jul 24, 2010
  2. Coconut

    Coconut Gold Member

    Reputation Points:
    1,898
    Messages:
    1,246
    Joined:
    Jul 3, 2007
    from earth
    Magic Mushrooms wiki discussion

    >>
    Note: This is a discussion thread for the
    Magic Mushrooms wiki. Please post completed chapters with a bold title in this thread, or mention if you have added them to the wiki. Please make sure you add citations as well.
    >>
    __NOTOC__

    [h2]Magic mushrooms[/h2]
    Magic mushrooms are hallucinogenic fungi primarily of the genus Psilocybe. There are five primary substances found in these mushrooms which make them famous for their effects on the mind, including euphoria, lethargy, increased appreciation of music and colour, amplified emotions and visual and aural distortion. These substances are tryptamines, related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

    The mushrooms dealt with here are distinct from those of the Amanita genus, whose psychoactive constituents are muscimol and ibotenic acid.

    Psilocin

    [​IMG]
    4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
    C12H16N2O


    Psilocybin

    [​IMG]
    O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
    C12H17N2O4P

    Baeocystin

    [​IMG]
    O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine
    C11H15N2O4P


    Norbaeocystin

    [​IMG]
    O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-tryptamine
    C10[B]H[/B]13[COLOR=#000080][B]N[/B]2[COLOR=#742323][B]O[/B]4[COLOR=#7f3f00][B]P


    [/B]Aeruginascin
    [COLOR=#7f3f00][B]
    [IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/picture.php?albumid=167&pictureid=1442[/IMG]
    [/B][B]O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine[/B]
    [COLOR=#000000][B]C[/B]13[COLOR=#4d4d4d][B]H[/B]20[COLOR=#000080][B]N[/B]2[COLOR=#742323][B]O[/B]4[COLOR=#7f3f00][B]P

    [/B] [/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=#742323][COLOR=#7f3f00][COLOR=#7f3f00][COLOR=#000000][COLOR=#4d4d4d][COLOR=#000080][COLOR=#742323][COLOR=#7f3f00]
    [h2]About magic mushrooms[/h2]
    [h3]Pharmacology[/h3] [17]
    [B]Psilocin[/B] is responsible for most psychoactive effects in the majority of psychoactive mushroom species. It acts by interaction with neurotransmitter receptors on nerve cells in the brain where it mimicks the action of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine). Specifically, psilocin is a post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptor agonist.

    [B] Psilocybin[/B] is usually referred to as being the main psychoactive compund in magic mushrooms - however, it does not produce psychedelic effects and is merely dephosphorylated into psilocin when consumed. Therefore, it is a prodrug. The following three compounds are [I]N[/I]-methyl analogues of psilocybin.

    [B]Baeocystin [/B]is a demethylated derivative of psilocybin, first isolated from the species [I]Psilocybe baeocystis[/I].

    [B]Norbaeocystin[/B] is a minor compound and demethylated analogue of baeocystin. Its activity is undetermined.

    [B]Aeruginascin[/B] is a indoleamine derivative which occurs naturally only within the mushroom [I]Inocybe aeruginascens[/I]. It is the [I]N[/I]-trimethyl analogue of psilocybin. It is closely related to the frog skin toxin bufotenine (5-hydroxy-dimethyltryptamine), a potent 5-HT3 receptor agonist, and has been found exclusively in [I]Inocybe aeruginascens[/I] so far. [1][2][3]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forums/138"]
    Go to the pharmacology forum[/URL].

    [h3]History[/h3] [4][5][6][7]
    Magic mushrooms have been used for thousands of years by humans.

    Ancient paintings dating back to 5000 BC and relating to mushrooms have been found in Algeria. As early as 1000 - 500 BC, Central and South American peoples were carving stone mushrooms or statues depicting figures under the caps of mushrooms.

    The Mesoamerican culture of the Mixtec worshipped multiple deities and gods, one of whom, [I]Piltzintecuhtli[/I], was the god of natural hallucinogens including mushrooms.

    The Aztec people had their own god of hallucinogenic plants, [I]Xochipilli[/I]. [I]Teonanácatl[/I], or 'wondrous mushroom', was used at holy ceremonies along with other substances such as [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forums/35"]salvia divinorum (salvinorin A)[/URL], [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forums/93"]morning glory seeds (lysergic acid amide)[/URL] and [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forums/32"]Peyote (mescaline)[/URL].

    European conquest of Central America at the hands of Hernándo Cortés led to the prohibition of non-alcoholic psychoactives and the use of psilocybin mushrooms became an underground activity.

    At present, hallucinogenic mushroom use has been reported among a number of groups spanning from central Mexico to Oaxaca, including groups of Nahua, Mixtecs, Mixe, Mazatecs, Zapotecs, and others. There has not, however, been any confirmed observations of hallucinogenic mushroom use among the Maya peoples, either in the pre-Columbian or post-Contact eras.

    The first mentioning of hallucinogenic mushrooms in the Western medicinal literature appeared in the London Medical and Physical Journal in 1799: a man had served [I]Psilocybe semilanceata[/I] mushrooms that he had picked for breakfast in London's Green Park to his family. The doctor who treated them later described how the youngest child "was attacked with fits of immoderate laughter, nor could the threats of his father or mother refrain him."

    In 1955, Valentina and R. Gordon Wasson became the first Westerners to actively participate in an indigenous mushroom ceremony. The Wassons did much to publicize their discovery, even publishing an article on their experiences in [I]Life[/I] in 1957. In 1956, Roger Heim identified the hallucinogenic mushroom that the Wassons had brought back from Mexico as [I]Psilocybe[/I] and in 1958, [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/55858"]Dr. Albert Hofmann[/URL] became the first person to isolate psilocin and psilocybin. Hofmann was also responsible for the discovery and first ever synthesis of [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../lsd.html"]d-lysergic acid diethylamide[/URL] (LSD).

    Inspired by the Wassons' [I]Life[/I] in 1960, he and article, Timothy Leary traveled to Mexico to experience hallucinogenic mushrooms firsthand. Upon returning to Harvard, Richard Alpert started the Harvard Psilocybin Project, promoting psychological and religious study of psilocybin and other hallucinogenic drugs. After Leary and Alpert were dismissed by Harvard in 1963, they turned their attention toward evangelizing the psychedelic experience to the nascent hippie counterculture.

    The popularization of entheogens by Wasson, Leary, and others has led to an explosion in the use of hallucinogenic [I]Psilocybe[/I] throughout the world. By the early 1970s, a number of psychoactive [I]Psilocybe[/I] species were described from temperate North America, Europe, and Asia and were widely collected. Books describing methods of cultivating [I]Psilocybe cubensis[/I] in large quantities were also published, as well as hundreds of articles and tutorials distributed on the Internet. The relatively easy availability of hallucinogenic mushrooms from wild and cultivated sources has made it among the most widely used of the hallucinogenic drugs.

    [h3]List of species[/h3]

    This is a simple list of known species of fungi containing psychoactive tryptamines. The [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/group.php?groupid=89"]Mushroom Forum Crew[/URL] are compiling one which is more comprehensive in the form of the [B][URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/97428"]Psilocybin Mushroom Species Index[/URL][/B].

    Agrocybe


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Agrocybe farinacea[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Conocybe


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Conocybe cyanopus[/I]
    [*][I]Conocybe kuehneriana[/I]
    [*][I]Conocybe siligineoides[/I]
    [*][I]Conocybe smithii
    [/I]
    [/LIST]

    Copelandia


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Copelandia affinis[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia anomala[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia bispora[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia cambodginiensis[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia chlorocystis[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia lentisporus[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia tirunelveliensis[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia tropica[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia tropicalis[/I]
    [*][I]Copelandia westii[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Galerina


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Galerina steglichii[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Gerronema


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Gerronema solidipes[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Gymnopilus


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus aeruginosus[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus braendlei[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus intermedius[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus junonius[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus lateritius[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus liquiritiae[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus luteofolius[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus luteoviridis[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus luteus[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus purpuratus[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus sapineus[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus subpurpuratus[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus validipes[/I]
    [*][I]Gymnopilus viridans[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Hypholoma


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Hypholoma gigasporum[/I]
    [*][I]Hypholoma guzmanii[/I]
    [*][I]Hypholoma naematoliforme[/I]
    [*][I]Hypholoma neocaledonicum[/I]
    [*][I]Hypholoma popperianum[/I]
    [*][I]Hypholoma rhombispora[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Inocybe


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Inocybe aeruginascens[/I]
    [*][I]Inocybe coelestium[/I]
    [*][I]Inocybe corydalina var. corydalina[/I]
    [*][I]Inocybe corydalina var. erinaceomorpha[/I]
    [*][I]Inocybe haemacta[/I]
    [*][I]Inocybe tricolor[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Mycena


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Mycena cyanorrhiza[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Panaeolus


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Panaeolus africanus[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus castaneifolius[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus cyanescens (aka Copelandia Cyanescens)
    [/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus fimicola[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus microsporus[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus moellerianus[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus olivaceus[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus retirugis[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus rubricaulis[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus sphinctrinus[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus subbalteatus[/I]
    [*][I]Panaeolus venezolanus[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Pluteus


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Pluteus cyanopus[/I]
    [*][I]Pluteus glaucus[/I]
    [*][I]Pluteus nigroviridis[/I]
    [*][I]Pluteus salicinus[/I]
    [*][I]Pluteus villosus[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Psilocybe


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Psilocybe acutipilea[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe antioquiensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe atlantis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe aquamarina[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe arcana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe argentipes[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe armandii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe aucklandii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe australiana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe aztecorum[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe aztecorum[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe azurescens[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe baeocystis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe banderillensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe barrerae[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe bohemica[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe brasiliensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe brunneocystidiata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe caeruleoannulata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe caerulescens var. caerulescens[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe caerulescens var. ombrophila[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe caerulipes[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe carbonaria[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe chiapanensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe collybioides[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe columbiana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe cordispora[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe cubensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe cyanescens[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe dumontii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe eucalypta[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe fagicola var. fagicola[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe fagicola var. mesocystidiata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe farinacea[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe fimetaria[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe fuliginosa[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe furtadoana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe galindoi[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe goniospora[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe graveolens[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe guatapensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe guilartensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe heimii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe heliconiae[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe herrerae[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe hispanica[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. hoogshagenii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. convexa[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe inconspicua[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe indica[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe isabelae[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe jacobsii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe jaliscana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe kumaenorum[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe laurae[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe lazoi[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe liniformans var. liniformans[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe liniformans var. americana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe mairei[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe makarorae[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe mammillata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe meridensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe mexicana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe moravica[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe moravica var. macrospora[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe moseri[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe muliercula[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe natalensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe natarajanii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe ochreata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe papuana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe paulensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe pelliculosa[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe pericystis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe pintonii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe pleurocystidiosa[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe plutonia[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe portoricensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe pseudoaztecorum[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe puberula[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe quebecensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe ramulosa[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe rostrata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe rzedowskii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe samuiensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe sanctorum[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe schultesii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe semiinconspicua[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe semilanceata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe septentrionalis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe serbica[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe sierrae
    [/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe silvatica
    [/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe singeri[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe strictipes
    [/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe stuntzii
    [/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe subacutipilea[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe subaeruginascens var. subaeruginascens[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe subaeruginosa[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe subcaerulipes[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe subcubensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe subtropicalis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe subyungensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe subzapotecorum[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe tampanensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe tasmaniana[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe uruguayensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe uxpanapensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe venenata[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe verae-crucis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe villarrealiae[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe wassoniorum[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe weilii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe weldenii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe wrightii[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe xalapensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe yungensis[/I]
    [*][I]Psilocybe zapotecorum[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Rickenella


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Weraroa novae-zelandiae[/I]
    [/LIST]

    Weraroa


    [LIST]
    [*][I]Weraroa novae-zelandiae[/I]
    [/LIST]

    [h3]Popular species[/h3]
    [U][URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=3850"][B]Panaeolus cyanescens[/B][/URL]
    [/U]aka Copelandia cyanescens
    Potent. Most popular psilocybin mushroom not of the genus [I]Psilocybe[/I].
    Contains psilocybin, serotonin and urea. Commonly cultivated indoors.
    Native to tropical and neotropical climates.
    [U][URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=3850"] [IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/data/504/thumbs/picture10.jpg[/IMG][/URL][/U]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=2606"]
    [B]Psilocybe azurescens[/B][/URL]
    Considered by some to be the most potent psilocybin mushroom in the world.
    Cultivated both indoors and outdoors.
    Native to moderate climates.
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=2606"] [IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/data/560/thumbs/p_azurescens.jpg[/IMG]
    [/URL]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=1205"]
    [B]Psilocybe cubensis[/B][/URL]
    "cubes"
    Medium potency. Most commonly cultivated psychedelic mushroom.
    Native to warm, humid climates.
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=1205"] [IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/data/504/thumbs/2004-12-02_232809_ungeahnt.JPG[/IMG][/URL]

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=3166"]
    [B]Psilocybe semilanceata[/B][/URL]
    "liberty caps"
    High potency. Not cultivated indoors.
    Native to moderate climates.
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=3166"] [IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/data/560/thumbs/Misc2_002_2.jpg[/IMG][/URL]

    [h3]Defining features[/h3]
    When a mushroom tests positive for all of these characteristics, it [I]may[/I] be a magic mushroom.


    [LIST]
    [*]Blue-green bruising when damaged.
    [*]Brown/purple spore print.
    [*]Relatively small, brownish fruiting body.
    [/LIST]

    Ideally a mushroom should meet the characteristics of a species which has already been identified as safe for consumption. [U]This should be confirmed by an expert mycologist.[/U] Safe species have poisonous lookalikes.

    [h2]Dosing[/h2]
    [h3]Oral consumption[/h3]
    Magic mushrooms can be consumed as is, be it dry or fresh, by simply chewing and swallowing like any other food. The longer they are chewed on, the better the absorption through the linings of the mouth and stomach.

    An effective method is to let them sit in tea for approximately fifteen minutes after which the tea is drunk and the mushroom residue is eaten. Note that the mushrooms are not added to boiling water, but to the tea itself, as heat destroys many of the tryptamines. There are many different ways to consume magic mushrooms.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showphoto.php?photo=1201"][IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/data/560/thumbs/2004-12-02_230617_Unbenannt.JPG[/IMG][/URL]
    Dried Psilocybe cubensis.

    Mushrooms can be eaten raw, put into food, made into a tea, and so on. However, heat destroys tryptamines including psilocybin and psilocin so a tea or hot food may decrease the potency.

    Dried magic mushrooms are easier/safer to dose. In the process of drying, some psilocin, psilocybin and other psychedelic tryptamines are lost if heat is used.

    A good way of illustrating this is that you need (depending on what strain) 12 to 15 kg fresh magic mushrooms to get 1 kg dry magic mushrooms. In the case of [I]Psilocybe cubensis[/I] you will need around 13 -14 kg fresh magic mushrooms for 1 kg dry. But the dry magic mushrooms are only 12 times stronger (if you dry it well and without heat), not 13-14 times. This is why fresh magic mushrooms are stronger per mushroom and dry is stronger per gram. Dry mushrooms are easier in dosage as a fresh mushrooms contains a variable amount of water between 85 and 93 percent, so somewhere between 7 and 15 percent of a fresh mushroom when you don't count water. Although rare, this means one fresh mushroom can be more than twice as potent as the next.

    Magic mushrooms are not known for any culinary properties. In fact, most seem to hold them as being somewhat disgusting, if not nauseating. However this can be masked without much effort. The simplest method of avoiding this is to consume them with something that tastes pleasant, such as chocolate, or mixed into fruit juice or a milkshake. Alternatively, they can be ground up and put into empty capsules or gelcaps and swallowed.

    There are several Drugs Forum threads which deal with this topic.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/40934"]Magic Mushroom Recipes[/URL]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/43334"]Cooking With Shrooms[/URL]

    [B]Oral dosage[/B]

    Source: [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/8082"]Drugs-Forum[/URL]

    [table="head"] Species | Beginners dose fresh | Beginners dose dry | Full dose fresh | Full dose dry | Massive dose fresh | Massive dose dry
    Psilocybe tampanensis* | 7.5 grams | 2.5 grams | 15 grams | 5 grams | 30 grams | 10 grams
    Psilocybe cubensis | 15 grams | 1.25 grams | 30 grams | 2.5 grams | 45-60 grams | 3.75-5 grams
    Panaeolus cyanescens | 5 grams | 0.4 grams | 10 grams | 0.8 grams | 15-20 grams | 1.2-1.6 grams
    Psilocybe McKennaii | 5 grams | 0.4 grams | 20 grams | 1.6 grams | 30-40 grams | 2.4-3.2 grams
    Psilocybe azurescens | 4 grams | 0.4 grams | 8 grams | 0.8 grams | 15 grams | 1.5 grams[/table]

    *Note: Psilocybe tampanensis truffles in their dry state are extremely hard and can damage teeth. They should be soaked in warm water (or tea) for fifteen minutes prior to consumption.

    [h3]Smoking[/h3]Anecdotal evidence suggests that smoking magic mushrooms does not work. The intense heat required to combust dried material would quickly destroy the psychoactive tryptamines. Some report a mild trippy effect when mixed with cannabis, but this may be just a placebo effect and nothing near the effect obtained through oral ingestion. In addition, the smoke is reported to taste disgusting.

    [h3]Insufflation[/h3]Insufflating grams of dried mushrooms is probably not a good idea. While is it possible that some active compounds would be absorbed into your bloodstream, pain and the possibility of choking are realistic dangers.

    [h3]Consumption of pure psilocybin[/h3]
    Following an [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/3768"]extraction[/URL], psilocybin can be consumed in a relatively pure form through oral ingestion, insufflation et cetera.

    Source: Erowid

    [table="head"]Psilocybin dosages | Dose in milligrams
    Threshold | 2 - 4 mg
    Light | 4 - 8 mg
    Common | 6 - 20 mg
    Strong | 20 - 40 mg
    Heavy | 35+ mg[/table]

    [h3]Effects[/h3]
    Source: Erowid

    [table="head"] Total Duration | 4 - 7 hours
    Onset | 15 - 60 mins
    Coming Up | 15 - 30 mins
    Plateau | 2 - 4 hours
    Coming Down | 1 - 3 hours
    After Effects | 0 - 6 hours[/table]

    Effects will last roughly same length of time independent of dosage, which affects intensity. Note that positive and neutral effects are much more common than negative ones.

    [B]POSITIVE[/B]


    [LIST]
    [*]mood lift, euphoria
    [*]giggling, laughter, giddiness
    [*]overwhelming feelings of happiness
    [*]creative, philosophical or deep thinking; ideas flow more easily
    [*]boring tasks or entertainment can become more interesting or funny
    [*]sensation of insight; epiphanies resulting from altered thought patterns
    [*]life-changing spiritual experience
    [*]intense feelings of wonder
    [*]paradoxical feeling of a normalcy and deep alteration of psyche
    [*]may interrupt cluster sequences in those suffering from cluster headache
    [/LIST]

    [B]NEUTRAL[/B]


    [LIST]
    [*]increased emotional sensitivity
    [*]general change in consciousness (as with many psychoactives)
    [*]time dilation
    [*]lights seem brighter, sensitivity to light
    [*]starring and rainbow patterns around pinpoint lights
    [*]increased detection of motion in peripheral vision
    [*]closed-eye visuals (common at medium or stronger dose)
    [*]sleepiness, lethargy
    [*]pupil dilation
    [*]sensation of energy or buzzing in the nevous system/peripheral limbs
    [*]memories come to life
    [*]synaesthesia, the merging of sensory input, perceiving sounds as colours and so on
    [*]colours seem brighter, more vibrant
    [*]music sounds fuller, wider, more immersive
    [*]increased perspiration
    [/LIST]

    [B]NEGATIVE[/B]


    [LIST]
    [*]intense feelings of fear
    [*]headache, usually as effects wear off, sometimes beginning the next day, lasting for up to 24 hours
    [*]nausea (especially during come-up), gas, gastrointestinal discomfort, especially when dry mushrooms eaten raw
    [*]mild to severe anxiety
    [*]dizziness, confusion
    [*]lightheadedness or fainting (in cases of lowered blood pressure)
    [*]can precipitate or exacerbate latent or existing mental disorders, for example psychosis or depression
    [*]working memory disruption (reduced ability to do tasks requiring current remembering and attention)
    [*]come-down can be rough, causing feelings of sadness and despair
    [/LIST]

    [B]Threshold Effects

    [/B][I](from 0.25 grams - 0.75 grams dried Psilocybe cubensis)

    [/I] Slight cold feeling, mild gas or nausea, nervous-feeling, slight pupil-dilation, mild visual changes including lights seeming brighter, lights having a 'starry' look, and noticing movement at the periphery of vision, giddiness, feeling more emotionally sensitive, feelings of happiness and many other effects related to a change in neurochemistry.

    [B]Medium Effects

    [/B][I](0.75 grams - 2.5 grams [/I][I]dried Psilocybe cubensis[/I][I])[/I]

    'Cold' feeling, gas and/or stomach discomfort, nausea, pupil-dilation, open-eye visual effects: lights gain auras, star-pattern effects, rainbowing around lighting, lights seem brighter, often 'more beautiful', notice movement in periphery, sometimes increased ability to focus, sometimes reduced ability to focus, visual field 'distracting', visual field 'entertaining', closed eye 'visuals': normal closed eye 'blobs' take on patterns, shapes, distinct forms, increased ability to visualize creatively, spontaneous detailed images, feelings of time-dilation, feelings of `coming home again' which is often more pronounced for those who have used mushrooms before, feelings of belonging and connection, increased emotional sensitivity, increased ability to focus on emotional problems or memories, chance of becoming 'caught in a loop' thinking / dwelling on a single thought or feeling (usually negative or painful), realizations about past feelings, realizations about how to live, gain a new perspective on current lifestyle and behaviors, feelings of connection with those around you, noticing things which are normally ignored or taken for granted, feelings of wonder, spirit, joy, sadness, despair, religious awakening, contentment, complete happiness. Can possibly trigger latent psychological conditions.

    [B]High Dose Effects

    [/B][I](2.5 grams - 10 grams [/I][I]dried Psilocybe cubensis[/I][I])

    [/I] All of the Medium Effects, usually with a significantly more uncomfortable coming up, more pronounced nausea sometimes (rarely) resulting in vomiting, sometimes significant mental discomfort associated with feelings of fear and often times accompanying a "what have I done to myself" or "how far am I going" thought, the unpleasant coming up effects usually lessen with familiarity and more knowledge about the safety and character of mushroom effects. High dose effects are usually characterized by the closed eye visualizations being significantly more elaborate and enfolding, religious revelation, spiritual awakening, near death experiences, loss of self, talking to seemingly external, autonomous entities, extreme emotional responses, repressed memories coming to life, latent psychological crises can come to the surface, an increase in artistic sense, and intense feelings of wonder, connection, joy, fear. High dose effects can also include extreme time-dilation, with experiences of wall-clock minutes taking an experientially large amount of time, watching clocks or digital counters where the seconds seem to take minutes to count off. One of the most interesting effects is the feeling of awakening for the first time ever from a previous state of sleep, of liberation from what is now seen as a life-long state of bondage. Paradoxically, it is this new awareness which feels normal and natural and the previous fog which is seen to have been unreal all along. The bemushroomed seeker is convinced that, once gained, this awareness is impossible to lose, but inexplicably by the next day it is just a memory.

    [h3]Combinations[/h3]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/33590"][COLOR=#cc0000][B]Alcohol[/B][/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#cc0000]
    Deadens the effects of tripping; increase in nausea; can easily provoke risky and dangerous behaviour. Alcohol was involved in the incidents which led to the prohibition of mushrooms in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Generally not recommended.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/30457"][B][COLOR=#cc0000]Amphetamine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/URL][COLOR=#cc0000]
    Increased unpredictability; energising; paranoia usually increased; comedown may be particularly unpleasant.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/54850"][B][COLOR=#cc0000]Benzodiazepines[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/URL][COLOR=#cc0000]
    Can be used to relieve anxiety and arrest panic attacks during a bad trip, but can also dull positive experiences.

    [B][COLOR=#cc0000]Cannabis[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000]and synthetic cannabinoids[B][COLOR=#cc0000]
    [/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000]Heightens peak of trip, intensifies visuals, can ease comedown and bring back effects. Paranoia-inducing effects of cannabis can cause bad trips.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/27814"][B][COLOR=#cc0000]Cocaine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/URL][COLOR=#cc0000] benzoylmethylecgonine
    Probably no physical dangers, similar to amphetamines. Increased heart rate could induce a bad trip if the user thinks they'll have a heart attack or stroke from the tachycardia and increased blood pressure.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/11322"][B][B][COLOR=#cc0000]Ketamine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/B][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/URL][COLOR=#cc0000]
    No reported problems. Users report simultaneous mushroom and ketamine effects.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/30708"][B][COLOR=#cc0000]LSD[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/URL][COLOR=#cc0000] D-Lysergic acid diethylamide
    LSD activates the 5-HT2A receptor and is cross tolerant with psilocin. Like with mescaline, some report trips unlike either substances individually and intense, unique experiences.

    [B][URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/38243&highlight=mushrooms"][B][COLOR=#cc0000]Mescaline[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/URL][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/B][COLOR=#cc0000] 3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenethylamineMescaline also acts on the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor and is cross-tolerant with psilocin. Some have reported this combination to be enjoyable, with the gentleless of the mescaline experience negating any anxiety-inducing effects of mushrooms and more obvious visuals.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/38243&highlight=mushrooms"][B][COLOR=#cc0000]MDMA[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#cc0000][/color][/URL][COLOR=#cc0000] 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine
    No dangers if MDMA's safety limits are adhered to. May reduce chance of a bad trip due to MDMA's tendency to induce happiness and euphoria.

    [h2]Therapeutic and beneficial uses[/h2]
    [B]Cluster headaches [/B][12]

    Cluster headache is a neurological condition which prominently features excruciatingly painful headaches occuring in "cycles" followed by periods of remission. Attacks last anywhere from fifteen minutes to three hours and can happen multiple times daily - the pain is often debilitating or crippling. Psilocybin and other substances such as LSD are the subject of much anecdotal evidence suggesting that they can help cluster headache sufferers by aborting a headache cycle and increasing remission period length.
    [B][URL="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-395143/Magic-mushrooms-help-depression-say-scientists.html"]
    [/URL] Depression [/B][22]

    There is also evidence that psilocybin and other hallucinogens like LSD, salvinorin A and so on can be useful in therapy for those suffering from depression by improving mood and a person's overall outlook on life.

    [B]Obsessive compulsive disorder [/B][23]

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms are found to be eased by administration of magic mushrooms.

    [B]Introspection

    [/B]Over thousands of years, people have used magic mushrooms in for the purposes of gaining insight and a new perspective on a troubling matter. They can create profound experiences of understanding and the feeling of becoming one with the universe at high doses, which can lead to life-changing epiphanies.

    [h2]Dangers[/h2]
    Magic mushrooms are remarkably safe. They present no physical dangers but there is a degree of psychological risk which can be minimised through proper preparation of oneself. It must be noted, however, that they are [B]not[/B] for recreational use and must be respected.

    [B]Addiction and dependence[/B]

    The active compounds in mushrooms - like most psychedelics - are not psychologically or physically addictive. Tolerance builds rapidly and users must wait at least several days between doses to experience the full effect. Additionally, the experience is typically quite taxing on the mind and body, thus regular use is rarely desirable. Psilocin is cross-tolerant with other serotonergic agonists such as LSD, mescaline and 2C-B, although when taken simultaneously they may produce synergistic effects. Cessation of regular use will not produce withdrawal symptoms.

    [B]Lethal overdose
    [/B]
    The therapeutic index of psilocybin is 641. [19] This is the ratio between the LD50 (lethal dose in 50% of subjects) and the ED50 (effective or therapeutic dose in 50% of subjects), meaning that the LD50 is 641 times higher than the ED50.

    Deaths caused by acute poisoning by magic mushrooms have not been reported in medical literature. The intravenous LD50 of psilocybin in rats is 260mg/kg [20] [21] (milligrams per kilogram body weight). While this does not translate directly to humans and the lethal dose of psilocybin in humans is not known (also, humans will typically ingest mushrooms orally instead of intravenously injecting psilocybin), this indicates that psilocybin is of a very low toxicity and that a lethal overdose of magic mushrooms is unimaginable.

    [B]Bad trip[/B] [28]

    The infamous "bad trip" is simply an experience with a hallucinogen that the person perceives to be unpleasant or negative. They are commonly characterised as being disturbing in nature, however a bad trip can be as simple as the one having the experience feeling down or sad. Bad trips are entirely subjective - one person may find the patterns on a carpet morphing into one another to be hilarious whereas someone else may find it frightening. Susceptibility to a negative experience depends entirely on the personality and frame of mind of the one having the experience. Bad trips can sometimes be traumatising and on occasion can cause hidden mental disorders to emerge in those who were already susceptible. Common results of a bad trip include paranoia, fear, panic attacks, depression and inability to sleep following the experience. The risk of a bad trip can be reduced by having the correct set and setting. Some have theorised that bad trips are internal conflicts within the user's psyche which emerge, forcing the person to deal with the problem and to engage in a self-healing process. There are cases, however, when attempting to help someone out of a difficult experience is absolutely necessary.

    It must be noted, however, that bad trips are not necessarily confined to use of hallucinogens - substances such as alcohol are also known to cause profoundly negative psychological experiences.

    Methods of making a trip pleasant again or easing the negative effects include reassuring the tripper that they are safe, that the effects will soon wear off, changing the environment to something soothing and sedation through the use of benzodiazepines such as lorazepam.

    [COLOR=#cc0000][B]Psychological damage[/B]

    Psychological damage is the most significant danger from ingesting magic mushrooms. Hallucinogens can occasionally trigger latent and underlying mental disorders such as psychosis. As such, they should only be taken if the user is mentally healthy (no history of schizophrenia or psychosis) and in a safe environment. If these precautions are taken, the risk is minimised, but still significant to warrant solely responsible use and caution. (See: indirect deaths).

    [B]Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)[/B] [29] [30]

    HPPD, also known as "flashbacks", comprises visual distortions reminiscent of a psychedelic experience, such as "trails", colours, lights appearing more radiant and so on. Prevalence of HPPD among psychedelic users is unknown, but can be estimated to be around 4%.
    [COLOR=#cc0000]
    [B]Accidental poisoning[/B]

    While hunting for mushrooms in the wild, great care must be taken to not confuse poisonous mushrooms for psychoactive ones. Accidental poisonings by inexperienced foragers are common and some mushroom poisonings can cause a slow, agonising death.

    [IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/picture.php?albumid=167&pictureid=1411[/IMG]
    [B][I]Hypholoma fasciculare[/I][/B] or [I]Sulphur Tuft [/I]is a common poisonous mushroom which grows abundantly in temperate woodland regions such as northern Europe and North America. It is yellow-brown, has a brown spore print and grows on dead organic matter like many [I]Psilocybe[/I] species. Poisoning can result in diarrhoea, vomiting and seizures. [16]

    [h3]Indirect deaths[/h3]
    [COLOR=#cc0000]There have been several deaths reported following consumption of magic mushrooms. The link between mushrooms and some of these deaths has been hotly contested.

    [B]United Kingdom[/B]

    Brian McCracken, 31, leapt through a window in his flat to his death in 2005 after consuming magic mushrooms and allegedly becoming panicky. [24]

    [B]Ireland[/B]

    Colm Hodkinson's death resulted in the immediate prohibition of psilocybin mushrooms in Ireland in 2006, which were previously available for sale in their raw, unprocessed form. [25] This followed the UK's 2005 ban. Colm jumped from a balcony in Dún Laoghaire after consuming three mushrooms. He was reported to have been consuming alcohol and cannabis also.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/15365"]Go to the related thread[/URL].

    [B]The Netherlands[/B]

    Calls for a re-evaluation of the law on psilocybin mushrooms grew after Gaelle Caroff, a seventeen-year-old French girl who had previously been suffering psychological problems, jumped from a building after eating magic mushrooms during a school trip to Amsterdam. The Dutch parliament subsequently voted to ban fresh magic mushrooms. Dried mushrooms were previously illegal. [26][27]
    [COLOR=#cc0000][URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/40249"]
    Go to the related thread[/URL].

    An eighteen-year-old man jumped from a window on August 1st 2008 after misuse of magic mushrooms. He was badly injured and later died as a result in hospital.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/64924"]Go to the related thread[/URL].

    [h2]Cultivation[/h2]
    Mushrooms are typically cultivated in a controlled, sterile environment on a nutritious substrate. There are [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/10683"]many methods[/URL] for this, all of which can be found online.
    [B]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/851"]Psilocybe Fanaticus Tek[/URL][/B]

    [B]Synopsis[/B]

    Step 1: Mix water, vermiculite, brown rice flour in a bowl.
    Step 2: Fill jars with mixture.
    Step 3: Pressure cook jars to sterilise them.
    Step 4: Inject spores into jars in a sterile environment.
    Step 5: Wait three weeks then place colonised cakes into terrarium.
    Step 6: Maintain >95% humidity and fresh air exchange in terrarium.
    Step 7: Harvest fruits when veil has torn.

    [B][URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/860"]Grain Tek[/URL]

    [/B]Using grain is preferred for casing and higher yields.

    [B][URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/56495"]Wild Bird Seed Tek[/URL]

    [/B]Rye grain is not available to everyone, but any decent pet shop should stock wild bird seed.
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/1224"][B]
    In Vitro Tek[/B][/URL]

    In vitro growing is useful for those who cannot use a terrarium.

    [h3]Sterility and contaminants[/h3]
    It is important to remember that no matter which technique is used for growing, sterility is always of the utmost importance. Substrates should be sterilised in a pressure cooker prior to inoculation and sterile technique (such as the use of disinfectant and sterile surgical gloves) adhered to at all times. There are billions of microscopic organisms in the air, on surfaces and on skin and hair that will do their best to consume the mushroom's substrate and the mycelium itself.

    [B]Mould[/B] or [B]mold[/B] (American English) is the biggest problem for mushroom cultivators. While mushroom mycelium is a form of mould, the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma are particularly problematic as their spores are ubiquitous and they are extremely aggressive. Not only that, but many of their species produce mycotoxins and are harmful to health. Many moulds have a distinctive smell which can indicate contamination. Any form of discolouration should be suspect, particularly fuzzy green, blue and red colours.

    However, mycelium and mushrooms may bruise green-blue when damaged or exposed to air due to the oxidation of psilocin, so it is important to differentiate between mould and bruising. If rubbed, bruising will not come off, but mould will. This is because the distinctive colour of the mould is actually its spores, which are easily removable.

    [IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/picture.php?albumid=167&pictureid=1523[/IMG]
    [I]Green mould contamination[/I] in PF Tek jar.

    Cobweb mould is a nuisance particularly for growing methods which use casing. This organism is grey-white and strandy, somewhat resembling a spider's web, but it can be easily confused for mushroom mycelium by the untrained eye. It grows extremely quickly and can consume an entire substrate in a matter of days.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/photopost/showphoto.php?photo=4541"][IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/photopost/data/504/thumbs/cobweb1.jpg[/IMG][/URL]
    [I]Cobweb mould.[/I]

    Mould-contaminated substrates can occasionally be saved if the contaminant has not spread beyond a small spot, but if one wishes to avoid potentially contaminating other substrates or toxic exposure, it is wise to dispose of them immediately.

    [B]Bacteria[/B] can overwhelm an improperly sterilised substrate, creating a bacterial colony which will destroy mycelium, produce toxins and smell absolutely disgusting. Substrates which are contaminated with bacteria should be disposed of.

    [IMG]https://drugs-forum.com/forum/picture.php?albumid=167&pictureid=1649[/IMG][I]
    Bacterial contamination[/I] in wild bird seed jar. The contamination itself is invisible, but note that no mycelium has grown. Also, eminating from the jar is a putrid aroma.[h3]Storage[/h3]
    Freshly harvested mushrooms can be kept in a fridge - the optimal storage temperature is 2 to 4 degrees celsius. As a rule of thumb, a week is the maximum length of time one should wait before consumption or throwing them out. Any longer and they will probably turn dark and slimy, a sign of rot. Under no circumstances should rotting mushrooms be consumed.

    Mushrooms can be dried and stored for prolonged periods of time: months to years if done properly. Once completely dried, they should be placed in an [U]airtight[/U] container in a cool, dark place, such as a fridge or freezer.

    Mushrooms are completely dry if they are not moist inside and snap when bent or crumble in your hands. Improperly dried mushrooms may lose potency or rot over time.

    [B]Air drying

    [/B]This method is simple. If one lives in a climate which is not humid (such as in a temperate zone), simply lie the mushrooms out on a table away from heat and direct sunlight. A fan can be used to gently blow cool air over them. After a few days to a week, they should be dry.

    [B]Food dehydrator

    [/B]Dehydrators are used for drying out food, including edible mushrooms, for storage. Simply follow the instructions provided with your the dehydrator and keep it on the [U]lowest[/U] heat setting (or no heat if possible).

    [B]Cool desiccation

    [/B]Place the mushrooms on a screen above a layer of desiccant inside an airtight container. The desiccant should suck the moisture out of the air and the mushrooms, leaving them dry. Desiccation can be used to finish off drying by other methods. For more, see this [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/949"]thread[/URL] or this [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/64170"]thread[/URL].


    [h2]Synthesis[/h2]
    Synthesising psilocin and psilocybin is possible, although rare, time-consuming and only to be attempted by a skilled and experienced chemist.

    One such synthesis can be seen below. [18]

    [quote="[SIZE=-1]Alexander & Ann Shulgin"]
    [LEFT][SIZE=-1]To a solution of 0.50 g 4-acetoxyindol in 4 mL Et2[SIZE=-1]O, that was stirred and cooled with an external ice bath, there was added, dropwise, a solution of 0.5 mL oxalyl chloride in 3 mL anhydrous Et2[SIZE=-1]O. Stirring was continued for 0.5 h and the intermediate indoleglyoxylchloride separated as a yellow crystalline solid but it was not isolated. There was then added, dropwise, a 40% solution of dimethylamine in Et2[SIZE=-1]O until the pH came to 8-9. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 100 mL CHCl3[SIZE=-1], and the organic phase was washed with 30 mL of 5% NaHSO4[SIZE=-1] solution, with 30 mL of saturated NaHCO3[SIZE=-1], and finally with 30 mL of saturated brine. After drying with anhydrous MgSO4[SIZE=-1], the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue set up as crystals and, after recrystallization from THF, provided 0.61 g 4-acetoxyindol-3-yl-N,N-dimethylglyoxylamide (80% yield) with a mp of 204-205 °C. Anal: C,H,N.

    [SIZE=-1]A suspension of 0.38 g LAH in 10 mL anhydrous THF was held in an inert atmosphere and vigorously stirred. To this there was added, dropwise, a solution of 0.55 g of 4-acetoxyindol-3-yl-N,N- dimethylglyoxylamide in 10 mL anhydrous THF at a rate that maintained a gentle reflux. After the addition was complete, the refluxing was maintained for an additional 15 min, the reaction mixture cooled to 40 °C, and the excess hydride destroyed by the addition of water diluted with a little THF. The reaction mixture was filtered free of insoluble material under a N2 atmosphere, the resulting solids washed with THF. The filtrate and washings were combined and stripped of solvent under vacuum. The residue was distilled in a KugelRohr apparatus allized from EtOAc / hexane to give 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-4-indolol (4-HO-DMT, psilocin) as white crystals which, after recrystallization from ethyl acetate / hexane, had a mp of 103-104 °C. The final weight was 0.23 g (yield 56%). IR (in cm-1[SIZE=-1]): 686, 725, 832, 991, 1040 and 1055; the OH stretch is at 3240. MS (in m/z): C3[SIZE=-1]H8[SIZE=-1]N+[SIZE=-1] 58 (100%); parent ion 204 (15%); indolemethylene+[SIZE=-1] 146 (3%); 159 (2%).

    [SIZE=-1]Most of the early syntheses of psilocin and psilocybin employ the O-benzyl ether as a protecting group. This provides more stability to the chemical intermediates, but also requires the additional step of reductive debenzylation. The flow chart of this process is: conversion of 4-hydroxyindole to 4-benzyloxyindole via the sodium salt, with benzyl chloride; the conversion of this with oxalyl chloride to 4-benzyloxyindole-3-glyoxylchloride; the conversion of this to 4-benzyloxy-3- (N,N-dimethyl-glyoxamide with anhydrous dimethylamine; the conversion of this to 4-benzyloxy- N,N-dimethyltryptamine with LAH in dioxane; and finally the conversion of this to 4-HO-DMT (psilocin) with hydrogen with a Pd catalyst on Al2[SIZE=-1]O3[SIZE=-1]. The phosphate ester, psilocybin, requires two additional steps: the conversion of 4-HO-DMT (as the sodium salt) to 4-(O,O-dibenzylphosphoryloxy)- N,N-dimethyltryptamine, with dibenzyl chlorophosphonate, followed by the catalytic removal of the benzyl groups with hydrogen and Pd on Al2[SIZE=-1]O3[SIZE=-1] to give the phosphate ester of 4-HO-DMT (psilocybin). This product is much more stable in air than psilocin, and is water soluble. The yields of this conversion are, however, very bad, often less than 10%, and the two products appear to be pharmacologically equivalent. Further, I have heard that the phosphorylating agent dibenzyl chlorophosphonate must always be used in solution as it is quite unstable as a pure reagent. The fingerprint infra-red spectrum for psilocybin shows (in cm-1[SIZE=-1]): 752, 789, 806, 858, 925 and the P=O stretch at 1110; the acidic OH stretches are broad peaks at 2400, 2700 and 3200. The mass spectrum is identical to that of psilocin.[/LEFT]
    [/quote]

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forums/67"]Go to the tryptamine chemistry forum[/URL].

    [h2]Legal status[/h2] [14][15]
    [h3]International law[/h3]
    Psilocybin and psilocin are Schedule I drugs under the [URL="http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/conv/convention_1971_en.pdf"]United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances[/URL]. This means they are illicit, are said to have no therapeutic benefit and are available only for tightly controlled medical and scientific use. However, mushrooms themselves are [URL="http://www.magic-mushrooms.net/on-the-legallity-and-public-health-risk-of-magic-mushrooms.pdf"]not controlled by the United Nations[/URL], only domestic law.

    [h3]Domestic law[/h3]
    [B][U]Australia[/U][/B]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Counts as manufacture of illegal drugs.
    [B]Possession & Sale [/B]Illegal under the Criminal Code Act of 1995 (CCA).
    [B][U]
    Austria[/U][/B]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Illegal if for the purpose of extracting a narcotic substance
    [B]Possession & Sale [/B]Not legally controlled, but the judge may choose to convict for “attempt to commit a drug offence” depending on the motive.

    [U][B]Belgium [/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Specifically prohibited by the criminal law of 24 February 1921
    [B]Possession [/B]Specifically prohibited by the Royal Decree of 22/1/1998
    [B]Sale [/B]Specifically prohibited (as is offer for sale) by the Royal Decree of 22/1/1998

    [U][B]Brazil[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances but mushrooms are not illegal[B].[/B]
    [B]Possession [/B]Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances but mushrooms are not illegal[B].
    Sale [/B]Unknown.

    [U][B]Czech Republic[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]‘Mushrooms’ as such not controlled, might be treated as psilocybin/psilocin (prohibited by the Penal Code, s. 187)
    [B]Possession [/B]Might be treated as psilocybin/psilocin (prohibited by the Penal Code – possession in the quantity ‘greater than small’, s. 187a)
    [B]Sale [/B]Specifically prohibited by s.15 of the Act on Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances (No. 167/1998 Coll.), but no penalty. May be treated as psilocybin/psilocin, or “promotion of drug use” (any addictive substance other than alcohol)

    [U][B]Cyprus[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Prohibited by Law 29/77 which prohibits the cultivation of any plant or product from which such substances (class A controlled substances) may be extracted.
    [B]Possession [/B]Treated as psilocin and psilocybin-prohibited by Law 29/77
    [B]Sale [/B]Treated as psilocin and psilocybin-prohibited by Law 29/77

    [U][B]Denmark[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993
    [B]Possession [/B]Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993
    [B]Sale [/B]Specifically prohibited by Executive Order 698 of 1993

    [U][B]Germany[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication
    [B]Possession [/B]Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication
    [B]Sale [/B]Illegal if for the purpose of intoxication
    [U]
    [B]Estonia[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
    [B]Possession [/B]Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
    [B]Sale [/B]Specifically prohibited by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act

    [U][B]Finland[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Treated as a narcotics offence, with severity according to the quantity.
    [B]Possession [/B]Treated as a narcotics offence with severity according to the quantity.
    [B]Sale [/B]Treated as a narcotics offence with severity according to the quantity.

    [U][B]Greece[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Prohibited by law 1729/87 (cultivation of any plant from which narcotic substances are produced)
    [B]Possession [/B]May be treated as psilocin
    [B]Sale [/B]May be treated as psilocin
    [B]
    [U]Hong Kong[/U][/B]
    [B]Cultivation, Possession & Sale[/B] Psilocybin is a controlled substance and the Hong Kong Narcotics Bureau considers psilocybin-containing mushrooms to be controlled under Schedule I, Part I, of the Dangerous Drug Ordinance.

    [U][B]Ireland[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Illegal if cultivated
    [B]Possession [/B]Specifically prohibited under Misuse of Drugs Act
    [B]Sale [/B]Specifically prohibited under Misuse of Drugs Act

    [U][B]Italy[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Specifically prohibited under art.26 of DPR 309/90
    [B]Possession [/B]Specifically listed under Table I of the amended drug law 2006.
    [B]Sale [/B]Specifically listed under Table I of the amended drug law 2006.

    [U][B]Japan[/B][/U]
    Illegal as of June 2002, Narcotic and Psychotropic Drug Control Law.

    [U][B]Latvia[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Illegal under S. 256 of the Penal Code if a repeated offence
    [B]Possession [/B]Treated as possession of a narcotic substance
    [B]Sale [/B]Treated as sale of a narcotic substance

    [U][B]Lithuania[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Illegal under Art. 265 of the Penal Code: Cultivating large amount of poppies, cannabis or any other plants included in the list of narcotic or psychotropic substances is prohibited.
    [B]Possession [/B]No specific prohibition.
    IlIegal under Art. 44 Code of Administrative Offences.
    Illegal under Art. 259/260 of the Penal Code; Treated as possession of a narcotic or psychotropic substances.
    [B]Sale [/B]No specific prohibition.
    Illegal under Art. 260 of the Penal Code; Treated as sale of a narcotic or psychotropic substance.

    [B][U]Luxembourg[/U][/B]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin
    [B]Possession [/B]Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin
    [B]Sale [/B]Treated as psilocybin/ psilocin
    [U]
    [B]Hungary[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation[/B] Illegal under Art. 282 of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.
    [B]Possession [/B]Illegal under Art. 282 of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.
    [B]Sale [/B]Illegal under Art. 282/A of the Penal Code, treated as psilocin.

    [U][B]Mexico[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Psilocin and psilocybin are prohibited under the Ley General de Salud of 1984. Presumably, this also prohibits production. Wild occurence of does not constitute production.
    [B]Possession [/B]Prohibited, but rarely enforced against indigenous populations.
    [B]Sale[/B] Presumably prohibited.

    [B][U]Netherlands[/U] [/B]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Not controlled
    [B]Possession [/B]Only prepared mushrooms are specifically prohibited under the Opium Act.
    [B]Sale [/B]Only prepared mushrooms are specifically prohibited under the Opium Act.

    [U][B]Norway[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.
    [B]Possession [/B]Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.
    [B]Sale [/B]Prohibited according to the Regulation regarding Narcotics etc.

    [U][B]Poland[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction
    [B]Possession [/B]Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction
    [B]Sale [/B]Specifically prohibited under the Act on Countering Drug Addiction
    [U]
    [B]Portugal[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Treated as psilocin
    [B]Possession [/B]Treated as psilocin
    [B]Sale [/B]Treated as psilocin
    [U]
    [B]Slovenia[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Treated as psilocin.
    [B]Possession [/B]Treated as psilocin.
    [B]Sale [/B]Treated as psilocin.

    [U][B]Slovakia[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).
    [B]Possession [/B]Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).
    [B]Sale [/B]Little experience - may be treated as psilocin. Large quantities may be “preparation” of a drug trafficking offence (same sentence as an offence actually committed).
    [U]
    [B]Sweden[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.
    Cultivation of narcotic drugs is punishable according to the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64).
    [B]Possession [/B]According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.
    [B]Sale [/B]According to the Ordinance on the Control of Narcotic Drugs (1992:1554) those parts of the fungi Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe cubensis growing above ground shall be considered to be narcotic drugs for the purposes of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act (1968:64). The same shall be the case for other fungi containing psilocybin or psilocin, if the fungi have been cultivated or if they have been dried or prepared in other ways.

    [U][B]United Kingdom[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005.
    [B]Possession [/B]Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005. (Illegal whatever form they are in, whether raw or prepared, including when packaged for sale.)
    [B]Sale [/B]Prohibited by section 21 of the Drugs Act 2005. (Illegal whatever form they are in, whether raw or prepared, including when packaged for sale.)

    [U][B]United [/B][B]States of America[/B][/U]
    [B]Cultivation [/B]Illegal in all states except New Mexico, where the appeals court ruled, on June 15, 2005, that cultivating psilocybin mushrooms for personal use is not manufacture of a controlled substance.
    [B]Possession [/B]Psilocybin and psilocin are DEA Schedule I substances, so possession is illegal under federal law, except in Florida, where the Supreme Court ruled in 1978 that possession of wild specimens is not illegal. Intent to consume was not addressed. Possession of spores is illegal in Georgia, Idaho and California (for California, only if imported from outside the state and intented for cultivation). Researchers and their subjects are granted exemption subject to scrutiny by the Drugs Enforcement Administration.
    [B]Sale[/B] Sale is illegal.

    [h2]More magic mushroom sections[/h2]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/12119"]Mushroom & Psilocybin Experiences[/URL] Post & read some of the most profound experiences with magic mushrooms and psilocybin.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/11305"]Panaeolus Cyanescens Experiences[/URL]
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    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/3207"]Psilocybe Semilanceata Experiences[/URL]

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/threads/39895"]Bad Trip Experiences[/URL] Read about negative experiences and get some helpful advice on how to avoid them.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/local_links.php?catid=19"]Magic Mushroom Documents[/URL] Upload and read research & articles on magic mushrooms.

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forums/8"]Magic Mushroom Forum[/URL] Post and read about magic mushrooms

    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../photopost/showgallery.php?cat=524"]Magic Mushroom Image Gallery[/URL] Post and view pictures of mushrooms.

    [h3]Drug Price Calculator[/h3]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../calculator/reportdrugs.php?currency=SELECT&Submit=Submit"]View the price, quality and availability of magic mushrooms worldwide[/URL]
    [URL="https://drugs-forum.com/forum/../calculator/submitprice.php?"]
    Submit the price of magic mushrooms in your area[/URL]

    [h2]The latest magic mushroom threads[/h2]
    [showthreads=10]8[/showthreads]

    [h2]References[/h2]
    1. [URL="http://www.museocivico.rovereto.tn.it/pubblicazioni.jsp?ID_LINK=111258&area=3"]Inocybe aeruginascens Babos[/URL]
    Museo Civico di Roverto
    2. [URL="http://wwwuser.gwdg.de/%7Eucoc/laatsch/168_Aeruginascin_col.pdf"]Aeruginascin, a Trimethylammonium Analogue of Psilocybin from the Hallucinogenic Mushroom Inocybe aeruginascens[/URL]
    Niels Jensen, Jochen Gartz, Hartmut Laatsch
    3. [URL="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17269094?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.%20Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum"]Variation of the Amount of Alkaloids in Fruit Bodies of Inocybe aeruginascens.[/URL]
    Jochen Gartz
    4. [COLOR=Blue]Erowid.org:
    Mushrooms vault
    5. [COLOR=Blue]Erowid.org:
    Psilocybin vault
    6.[COLOR=Blue]Wikipedia:
    Psilocybin mushrooms (History)
    7. [URL="http://www.stainblue.com/ah.html"]Stainblue[/URL]
    Dr. Albert Hoffman
    8. [URL="http://www.safety1st.org/images/stories/drugfacts/mushrooms.pdf"]Safety First[/URL]
    Psilocybin ("The Risks")
    9. [URL="http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/alcohol,_tobacco,_&_other_drugs/psilocybin.php"]Brown University[/URL]
    Health Education: Psilocybin
    10. [URL="http://www.thegooddrugsguide.com/mushrooms/"]The Good Drugs Guide[/URL]
    11. [COLOR=Blue]Erowid.org:
    Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans.[/URL]"
    Wittmann M, Carter O, Hasler F, Cahn BR, Grimberg U, Spring P, Hell D, Flohr H, Vollenweider FX.
    [I]J Psychopharmacol[/I]. 2006
    12. [URL="http://www.clusterbusters.com/"]Cluster Busters[/URL]
    Hallucinogenic Treatment of Neuro-Vascular Headaches
    13. [URL="http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf"]International Narcotics Control Board[/URL]
    List of psychotropic substances under international control
    14. [COLOR=Blue]Wikipedia:
    Legal status of psilocybin mushrooms
    15. [COLOR=Blue]Erowid.org:
    Cross tolerance between mescaline and LSD-25, with a comparison of the mescaline and LSD reactions[/URL]".
    Wolbach AB Jr, Isbell H, Miner EJ (1962)
    [I]Psychopharmacologia[/I] [B]3[/B]: 1-14
    16. [URL="http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species/Hypholoma_fasciculare.html"]Mykoweb[/URL]
    Hypholoma fasciculare
    17. [URL="http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/psilocybin/pharmacology.html"]Spritus Temporis[/URL]
    Psilocybin pharmacology
    18. [URL="http://www.lycaeum.org/books/tihkal/18--4-ho-dmt.shtml"]Alexander and Ann Shulgin[/URL]
    Synthesis of Psilocybin
    19.[COLOR=Blue]Erowid.org
    LD50s & Material Safey Data Sheets[/URL]
    20. [URL="http://sulcus.berkeley.edu/mcb/165_001/papers/manuscripts/_471.html"]Psilocybin Awareness[/URL]
    Berkeley.edu
    21. [URL]hxxp://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/[/URL]
    Enter psilocybin and click on Toxicity.
    22. [URL="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-395143/Magic-mushrooms-help-depression-say-scientists.html"]Mail Online[/URL]
    Magic mushrooms could help depression, say scientists
    23. [URL="http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16304852/"]MSNBC[/URL]
    Magic mushrooms ease OCD symptoms
    24. [URL="http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/s/156/156498_death_leap_man_ate_magic_mushrooms.html"]Manchester Evening News[/URL]
    Death leap man ate magic mushrooms
    25. [URL="http://www.independent.ie/opinion/analysis/how-tragedy-led-family-to-crusade-for-ban-on-magic-mushrooms-126322.html"]The Independent[/URL]
    How tragedy led family to crusade for ban on magic mushrooms
    26. [URL="http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7041961.stm"]BBC[/URL]
    Netherlands bans magic mushrooms
    27. [URL="http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21269227/"]MSNBC[/URL]
    Netherlands bans magic mushrooms
    28. [COLOR=Blue]Wikipedia:
    Bad trip
    29. [URL="hxxp://www.stormloader.com/hppd/"]HPPD[/URL]
    30. [COLOR=Blue]Wikipedia:
    Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color]
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Sep 9, 2017
  3. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Re: Magic (psilocybian) mushrooms - wiki entry

    Please integrate this:
    https://drugs-forum.com/mushrooms-use.html

    Please revise your statements on the combination with alcohol.
    Combination with cannabis is great for some and leads to paranoia for others. Cannabis adds confusion, which is great if someone enjoys to get fucked, but since magic mushrooms are a powerful psychedelic tool, that can stir up quite some feelings, insights and other psychological dynamics, confusion caused by cannabis can lead to bad trips.

    What other tryptamines are found in magic mushrooms?
    please add a section on drying magic mushrooms.

    Please add a complete list of psilocybe mushroom species. In a later stadium, there will be a need for dedicated threads for info about each specie. (for some info about the way I want to set this up, see [​IMG] research chemical forum protocol & structure )

    Please take the coca, Ketamine and Dxm wiki's as a reference /example and check what elements and topics, yo0u can add to this article.
     
    Last edited: Jun 7, 2008
  4. Coconut

    Coconut Gold Member

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    from earth
    Re: Magic (psilocybian) mushrooms - wiki entry

    Thanks Alfa. I should have it all done relatively soon.
     
  5. Coconut

    Coconut Gold Member

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    Re: Magic mushrooms - wiki entry (under construction)

    I have taken your advice on board Alfa and I'm grateful for your help. Hopefully the article will soon be considered complete enough for inclusion in the wiki.

    I searched for the thread on mushrooms being banned in Austria but came up empty handed apart from this. Could you point me in the right direction? Thanks.
     
  6. cra$h

    cra$h Palladium Member

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    Re: Magic mushrooms - wiki entry (under construction)

    great guide so far. especially for someone fresh to mushrooms, or even someone looking for a good combination.
     
  7. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

    Reputation Points:
    13,528
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    Jan 14, 2003
    117 y/o from The Netherlands
    Re: Magic (psilocybian) mushrooms - wiki entry

    Oohps; I was till adding stuff when you postyed. Here are my remarks:



    • Please add:
      - Pharmacology of psilocin and psilocybin.
      - Recipes for consumption. (links to threads)
      - What about smoking magic mushrooms?
      - history of magic mushrooms
      - please add a section on drying magic mushrooms.
    • Please integrate this: https://drugs-forum.com/mushrooms-use.html
    • Please revise your statements on the combination with alcohol. See my new remarks in the related thread.
    • Combination with cannabis is great for some and leads to paranoia for others. Cannabis adds confusion, which is great if someone enjoys to get fucked, but since magic mushrooms are a powerful psychedelic tool, that can stir up quite some feelings, insights and other psychological dynamics, confusion caused by cannabis can lead to bad trips.
    • What other tryptamines, etc are found in magic mushrooms?
    • Please add a complete list of psilocybe mushroom species. In a later stadium, there will be a need for dedicated threads for info about each specie. (for some info about the way I want to set this up, see research chemical forum protocol & structure
    • You describe the cross tolerance of LSD with magic mushrooms, but how about other psychedelics that affect the 5HT2a receptor as well?
    • Regarding tolerance: Even after 7 days effects can still be less than normal.
    • Storage: optimal storage temp for fresh mushrooms is 2 - 4 degrees Celsius.
    • Legality UN: the UN has specifically not listed magic mushrooms and has communicated repeatedly that magic mushrooms do not fall under the convention.
    • Austria: A new law has banned the sale of magic mushrooms. There is a thread on the topic.
    • I do not agree that psilocybin is the main psychoactive constituent, but it is one of them. In fact some psilocybe mushrooms(like copelandia for example which has high psilocin content), have a very low psilocybin content, but high content of other tryptamines, which cause those species their specific effect.
     
  8. Paracelsus

    Paracelsus Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Re: Magic mushrooms - wiki entry (under construction)

    Is aeruginascin relevant enough to mention in pharmacology?

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17269094?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16673333?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

    If possible, please provide references. This is especially important in the dangers section, as it will force you to stick to verified facts and limit speculation and unverifiable opinions.

    An example (please take this as constructive criticism, as this is what I'm attempting to do):
    Here you have to be more specific about what you mean by an overdose. Overdosing generally means taking a large dose that causes significant adverse effects, but you seem to be talking about fatal overdose. The second statement doesn't provide the "necessary" amount for an overdose and it is of course obvious that nobody will accidentally take mushrooms, especially in overdose. Pure psilocybin makes overdose possible, indeed, but to say that only chemists and experienced users take pure psilocybin, and that those people know enough to not overdose, is pure speculation and unverifiable. The whole sentence isn't particularly useful, since the article is about mushrooms and not psilocybin per se, and because it is fairly obvious. For the LD50, you always have to provide method of administration and the species. You should also mention that this doesn't directly translate to humans, and that lethal doses of psilocybin in humans aren't known (I suppose they aren't). The comparison to caffeine isn't necessary in my opinion, and the term "non-toxic" is misleading. Assuming that we got our facts right (and referenced), this paragraph would look much better this way:

    A probably better way to deal with the toxicity issue would be to find out the LD50/ED50 ratio, which is the therapeutic index, and explain what it implies about the relative toxicity.

    If not mentioned elsewhere in the article, here would also be the place to include information about deaths indirectly caused by magic mushrooms, e.g. by delusions or bad trips. Try to stick to known cases, be concise and as neutral as possible.

    I hope this helps.
     
  9. Coconut

    Coconut Gold Member

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    Re: Magic mushrooms - wiki entry (under construction)

    Thanks Paracelsus. I'm working your suggestions into the article, slowly but surely.
     
  10. Coconut

    Coconut Gold Member

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    Re: Magic (psilocybian) mushrooms - wiki entry

    I think the article is coming along well. Any idea when it can be considered ready for transplantation to the wiki? Obviously it will need to be updated and improved as time goes on.

    I can still find no information regarding this ban. Tried the forum search engine, Google etc. but I only came up with your thread.
     
  11. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Re: Magic mushrooms - wiki entry (under construction)

    Please read the above wiki and post questions and suggestions here.
     
  12. salviablue

    salviablue Gold Member

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    Top article. OK, 4 points for now.
    1:
    In the experience of the etherlectricpenguin, dried p.semilanceata, do work when smoked. On the few occasions he tried such an administration method, the effects where very mild, and where more noticeable in dream time, asleep.
    Each time he tried, there was the equiv. of around 20-30 dried p.semilanceata mixed with tobacco, each time the onset was around 30 mins., and after a further hour the effects seemed not to noticeably increase.

    The first time (also incidentally his first ever experience with psilocin), he went to bed approx 20 min after finishing the 'mushy joint', never noticed any effects, had memorably lucid and psychedelic dreams, the next day, after dosing with around 50 dried p.semilanceata in a cup of tea, and consequently feeling the full effects of a 'mushy trip', on reflection, he noticed that he had infact tripped, at least in someway above placebo.

    The other three times with smoking where all very similar, bed to sleep after finishing the joint (just tobacco and mushrooms, dried, p.semilanceata approx 20 -30) about an hour twice, and around 1.5 hrs. Each time little noticable effect, but intense trip like dreams.

    2:
    In effects, the 'drunk-like' mild ataxia effects seems to have been omitted, the elp have found this to be a prominent effect of psilocin intoxication. Although, from memory, this was most noticed when "boiling down" the mushrooms, so maybe those effects are more likely dependant on method of preparation?

    3:
    the elp, and many of his friends, found that cannabis ingestion actually deadens some of the 'brighter' and more exotic qualities of the oev's experienced by psilocin. Although it does seem to increase the quality of cev's and mental psychedelia.

    4:
    Is this line
    supposed to read
    ?
     
    Last edited: Apr 30, 2010
  13. Joe-(5-HTP)

    Joe-(5-HTP) Palladium Member Supporter Donating Member

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    As I understand it, HPPD and flashbacks are two distinct things. HPPD is when you continue to constantly have visual distortions after the drug has worn off, and flashbacks are when you re-live part of the trip you experienced periodically. Also, afaik, the HPPD, afaik, has no mental element (aside from annoyance or worry) unlike the flashback which can be a true revival of all sensory distortion.
     
  14. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Does Wikipedia have any sources listed for those references? Wikipedia itself should not be used.
     
  15. bananaskin

    bananaskin Newbie

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    Nor should direct links to Erowid.
     
  16. Coconut

    Coconut Gold Member

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    Feel free to edit the article. I don't have the time or inclination to do so.
     
  17. salviablue

    salviablue Gold Member

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  18. salviablue

    salviablue Gold Member

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    Re: Magic Mushrooms wiki discussion

    Here is a c+p from the discussion attached to the actual wiki entry:

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    30-04-2010 at 20:47.
    salviablue

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    02-05-2010, 01:36
    Joe-(5-HTP)
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    02-05-2010, 19:42
    Jasim
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    03-05-2010, 12:07
    bananaskin

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    03-05-2010, 12:27
    Coconut

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    salviablue

     
  19. bananaskin

    bananaskin Newbie

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    Links to Erowid and the online enyclopaedia are edited
    Also reference 9 returned 404 so that is repaired... as is the .gov site (21) and the message board (29)

    :thumbsup:
     
    Last edited: May 3, 2010
  20. Jasim

    Jasim Gold Member

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    Re: Magic Mushrooms wiki discussion

    Can we just get rid of that .gov link altogether and just cite the United States National Library of Medicine, ChemIDplus Advance database?