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Medical Marijuana

Discussion in 'Drug Articles' started by Joe-(5-HTP), Feb 29, 2012.

  1. Joe-(5-HTP)

    Joe-(5-HTP) Palladium Member

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    [h="1"]What is Medical Marijuana?[/h]
    Medical marijuana is cannabis that is taken as medicine, for a variety of ailments. It specifically refers to the state-sanctioned use, although it remains federally illegal in the united states, a schedule 1 controlled substance

    [h="1"]For which illnesses is medical marijuana prescribed?[/h]
    Chronic pain, headaches, and muscle spasms; depression, anxiety, and panic attacks; relieving the vomiting, nausea, and other symptoms of cancer and HIV/AIDS, and the side effects of chemotherapy.
    It is been used as a folk-remedy for asthma. It relieves arthritis. It has been shown to reduce the inter-occular pressure in those who suffer from glaucoma. It increases appetite in those whose medicine or illness causes them to have appetite issues. And cannabis relieves insomnia. These, and many more, are the medicinal uses of this plant.

    [h="1"]Who prescribes Medical Marijuana?[/h]

    Doctors can give recommendations to patients, but not prescribe. In some states, these recommendations, and maybe a clinic issued ID(at least in California)- will suffice, legally. In other states, the patient must take his/her doctors rec to the Medical Marijuana program to get an official Medical Marijuana ID card, or paperwork.( personal communications, 2010-2012)

    [h="1"]Where can a patient buy medical marijuana?[/h]

    Several states have laws governing the existence of “dispenseries” or “collectives” or “co-ops”. These are legal storefronts for medical marijuana patients to purchase their medicine. The collectives have marijuana, often with “suggested donations” rivaling the street price, and some have many forms of medical marijuana, from medicated candy to sodas; From ice water “bubble hash” to dry sifted “kief”; From clones to mother plants to vaporizers to rolling papers.(personal communications, 2010-2012)
    Some places give away free medical marijuana to patients with either a financial hardship or terminal illness, while some provide free medicine, or plants, to those in very rural places, who would otherwise suffer.(personal communication, 2012)

    [h="1]Using medical Marijuana.[/h]

    There are a variety of ways of using medicinal cannabis. The most popular is, of course, smoking the flower , or “bud”,which can be accomplished by a joint or pipe or-the healthiest way of “smoking”-the water pipe. But there are other ways to introduce the medicine to the body
    “edibles”, THC infused foods which work well on chronic pain and insomnia; “concentrates” which are the trichomes-THC resin glands- collected by various means, and which provide more medicinal effect per inhalation; vaporization-which is heating the cannabis to a sub-combustion temperature, and only the cannabinoids vaporize, the plant matter remains unburned. Some feel this is the most healthful way of consuming medical marijujana. ; Tinctures-which is THC-infused alcohol or glycerin. These tinctures are orally and sublinguilly active and fast acting. (Patient experience)

    [h="1"]Pharmacology of medical marijuana.[/h]

    Research providing the breakdown of all of the chemicals in marijuana and their specific physiological and psychological effects is scarce. When analyzing the medicinal effects of marijuana on spasticity, researchers focus primarily on two main active ingredients in the marijuana plant: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinoids (CBD and CBN-chemicals related to THC) Recently, scientists discovered that cannabinoids closely resemble a chemical in the body called anandamide. Anandamide "turns on" nerve receptors throughout the Central Nervous System that effect motor functioning, nausea, and various other biological functions .This development suggests that cannabinoids have similar effects to anandamide and justifies further research on the therapeutic value of marijuana for muscle spasms attributed to MS- vanderbuilt dot edu

    [h="1"]Risks of Medical Marijuana[/h]

    According to an approved statement from the U.S. dept of justice in 1988, "Nearly all medicines have toxic, potentially lethal effects. But marijuana is not such a substance. There is no record in the extensive medical literature describing a proven, documented cannabis-induced fatality. In practical terms, marijuana cannot induce a lethal response as a result of drug-related toxicity."
    From January 1997 to June 2005, the US Food and drug administration (FDA) reported zero deaths caused by the primary use of marijuana. Through that time period, 279 deaths were reported where marijuana was a possible "concomitant" drug used in conjunction with other drugs at the time of death In contrast, common FDA-approved drugs which are often prescribed in lieu of marijuana (such as anti-emetics and anti-psychotics), were the primary cause of 10,008 deaths.

    [h="1"Growing Medical Marijuana[/h]

    While growing medical marijuana is in some respects the same as cannabis produced commercially, It is often different. Most MEDICINE is grown using organic methods in pest control and nutrient application

    [h="1"]Forms of Medical Marijuana.[/h]

    flowers, concentrates, edibles, tinctures, juicing and drinks

    [h="1"]History of Medical Marijuana.[/h]

    [h="1"]Legal status of medical Marijuana.[/h]
    What other countries have mmj: While utilizing cannabis for recreational purposes is illegal in many parts of the world, many countries are beginning to entertain varying levels of decriminalization for medical usage, including
    [h="2"]Austria [/h]
    [h="2"]Canada [/h]
    [h="2"]Czech Republic [/h]
    [h="2"]Finland [/h]
    [h="2"]Germany [/h]
    [h="2"]Israel [/h]
    [h="2"]Italy [/h]
    [h="2"]the Netherlands [/h]
    [h="2"]Portugal [/h]
    [h="2"]Spain [/h]
    [h="2"]Switzerland [/h]
    [h="1"]USA State laws [/h]
    Different states have laws that are vastly different. Some states allow growing, some do not.
    What is allowed: see below list
    [h="2"]Alaska[/h] 1 oz usable; 6 plants (3 mature, 3 immature
    [h="2"]Arizona[/h] 2.5 oz usable; 0-12 plants
    [h="2"]California[/h] 8 oz usable; 6 mature or 1 2 immature plants
    [h="2"]Colorado[/h] 2 oz usable; 6 plants (3 mature, 3 immature)
    DC 2 oz dried; limits on other forms to be determined
    [h="2"]Delaware[/h] 6 oz usable
    [h="2"]Hawaii[/h] 3 oz usable; 7 plants (3 mature, 4 immature
    [h="2"]Maine[/h] 2.5 oz usable; 6 plants
    [h="2"]Michigan[/h] 2.5 oz usable; 12 plants
    [h="2"]Montana[/h] 1 oz usable; 4 plants (mature); 12 seedlings
    [h="2"]Nevada[/h] 1 oz usable; 7 plants (3 mature, 4 immature
    [h="2"]New jersey[/h] 2 oz usable
    [h="2"]New Mexico[/h] 6 oz usable; 16 plants (4 mature, 12 immature
    [h="2"]Oregon 24[/h] oz usable; 24 plants (6 mature, 18 immature
    [h="2"]Rhode Island[/h] 2.5 oz usable; 12 plants
    [h="2"]Vermont[/h] 2 oz usable; 9 plants (2 mature, 7 immature
    [h="2"]Washington[/h] 24 oz usable; 15 plants

    [h="1"]References[/h]
     
  2. al-k-mist

    al-k-mist

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    Hey. Please enter this in, under illnesses marijuana is prescribed for:

    "Chronic pain, headaches, and muscle spasms; depression, anxiety, and panic attacks; relieving the vomiting, nausea, and other symptoms of cancer and HIV/AIDS, and the side effects of chemotherapy.
    It is been used as a folk-remedy for asthma. It relieves arthritis. It has been shown to reduce the inter-occular pressure in those who suffer from glaucoma. It increases appetite in those whose medicine or illness causes them to have appetite issues. And cannabis relieves insomnia. These, and many more, are the medicinal uses of this plant."

    And enter this under laws governing medical marijuana. Edit out the other paragraph, please.


    "Canada, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Spain, Israel, Italy, Finland, and Portugal have decriminalized cannabis for medicinal use."
     
  3. C.D.rose

    C.D.rose Donating

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    That statement is definitely not true for Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Italy and Finland. It is imprecise for the Netherlands, Israel and Portugal.

    As far as I know, none of the countries of the first batch have passed legislation that recognizes medicinal use of cannabis. German patients can apply for an exception at the German authorities, but this is on a case-by-case basis and not based on laws passed. I am pretty sure that the situation in conservative countries like Italy is even worse.

    The Netherlands and Israel recognize medicinal use of cannabis, so I think it would be correct to say that they actually legalized medical marijuana. Portugal has decriminalized all use of cannabis, medicinal or not.

    If I am wrong, please correct me and provide sources for it.
     
  4. al-k-mist

    al-k-mist

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    Right on., came from wikipedia. I should have researched it a bit more. Thanks.
     
  5. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member

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    It would be best to add each country separately, so that these can easily be expanded upon.
     
  6. al-k-mist

    al-k-mist

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    I have come up with similar information, I will format and add it when I can
     
  7. C.D.rose

    C.D.rose Donating

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    No worries :). With this topic, it's really important to verify and check sources, because there is a lot of info on the internet that is simply false. I too went to Wikipedia for verification and actually came across completely false info as well. Plus it's important to make the distinction between legalization of medical marijuana, decriminalization policies for recreational and/or medicinal use, and so on...
     
  8. Mindless

    Mindless Gold Member

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    List of references on Medical Marijuana/Cannabis

    The list was complied by medical cannabis grower and user Edwin Stratton, as part of an appeal for a judicial review of his prosecution. Sadly the appeal was denied.

    Since posting a request in List of references on Medical Marijuana/Cannabis, Behrang has kindly uploaded this entire list to Medical Marijuana Documents. He also provides links to these documents in the same thread.

    These documents focus is on pain management.

    D.I. Abrams, C.A. Jay, S.B. Shade, H. Vizoso, H. Reda, S. Press, M.E. Kelly, M.C. Rowbotham, and K.L. Petersen
    Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial [2007]
    NEUROLOGY 2007;68:515–521

    Emily Woolridge, Simon Barton, Jonathon Samuel, Jess Osorio, Andrew Dougherty, and Anita Holdcroft
    Cannabis Use in HIV for Pain and Other Medical Symptoms[2005]
    Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol. 29 No. 4 :358-67 - April 2005

    Jonathan S. Berman, Catherine Symonds, Rolfe Birch
    Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial
    [2004]
    Pain Volume 112, Issue 3, December 2004, Pages 299–306

    D. R. Blake, P. Robson, M. Ho , R. W. Jubb and C. S. McCabe
    Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis[2006]
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006;45(1):50-52

    Doblin, Richard and Kleiman, Mark A. R,
    Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Experiences and Attitudes
    Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1991; 9(7): pp. 1314-1319.
    Submitted by ZenobiaSky

    Anita Holdcroft, Mervyn Maze, Caroline Doré , Susan Tebbs, Simon Thompson
    A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management [2006]
    Anesthesiology May 2006 - Volume 104 - Issue 5 - pp 1040-1046

    T.G. Kantor, M. Hopper
    A study of levonantradol, a cannabinol derivative, for analgesia in post operative pain [1981]

    PAIN Volume 11, Supplement 1, 1981, Pages S37

    E. A. Formukong, A. T. Evans, F. J. Evans
    Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis Sativa L. [1988]
    Inflammation August 1988, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 361-371

    W Hamann, PP di Vadi
    Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone is not mediated by opioid receptors [1999]
    The Lancet Volume 353, Issue 9152, 13 February 1999, Pages 560

    Matthias Karst, Kahlid Salim, Summer Burstein, Ingomar Conard, Ludwig Hoy, Udo Schneider
    Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. [2003]
    JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1757-62

    Mark K. Greenwald, Maxine L. Stitzer
    Antinociceptive, subjective and behavioral effects of smoked marijuana in humans [2000]
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence Volume 59, Issue 3, 1 June 2000, Pages 261–275

    Mary E Lynch, Alexander J Clark
    Cannabis Reduces Opioid Dose in the Treatment of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain [2003]

    Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Volume 25, Issue 6, June 2003, Pages 496–498

    Jo Howard, Kofi A. Anie, Anita Holdcroft, Simon Korn, and Sally C. Davies
    Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: a questionnaire study [2005]
    British Journal of Haematology Volume 131, Issue 1, Pages 123-8, First published online: 1 SEP 2005

    A. Holdcroft, M. Smith, A. Jacklin, H. Hodgson, B. Smith, M. Newton, and F. Evans
    Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever [1997]
    Anaesthesia Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 483-8, Article first published online: 5 JAN 2004

    Elsner F, Radbruch L, Sabatowski R
    Tetrahydrocannabinol zur Therapie chronischer Schmerzen[Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain] [Article in German] [2001]
    Schmerz. 2001 Jun;15(3):200-4

    Michael Dunn, Ph.D., and Ross Davis, M.D.
    The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males [1974]
    Paraplegia. 1974 Nov;12(3):175

    Vincent Maida, Marguerite Ennis, Shiraz Irani, Mario Corbo, and Michael Dolzhykov
    Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management: a prospective observational study using propensity scoring [2008]
    J. Supportive Oncology, 2008 Mar;VOLUME 6, NUMBER 3:119-24

    Russell Noyes, Jr., and David A. Baram
    Cannabis Analgesia [1974]
    Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 15, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1974, Pages 531-535

    M. Maurer, V. Henn, A. Dittrich, and A. Hofmann
    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial [1990]
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience September 1990, Volume 240, Issue 1, pp 1-4

    Sanjeet Narang, Daniel Gibson, Ajay D. Wasan, Edgar L. Ross, Edward Michna, Srdjan S. Nedeljkovic, and Robert N. Jamison
    Efficacy of Dronabinol as an Adjuvant Treatment for Chronic Pain Patients on Opioid Therapy [2008]
    The Journal of Pain Volume 9, Issue 3, March 2008, Pages 254–264

    William Notcutt, Mario Price, Roy Miller, Samantha Newport, Cheryl Phillips, Susan Simmons and Cathy Sansom
    Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 'N of 1' studies. [2004]
    Anaesthesia Volume 59, Issue 5, pages 440–452, May 2004


    Martin Pinsger, Wolfgang Schimetta, Dieter Volc, Erich Hiermann, Franz Riederer, Werner Pölz
    Nutzen einer Add-On-Therapie mit dem synthetischen Cannabinomimetikum Nabilone bei Patienten mit chronischen Schmerzzuständen – eine randomisierte kontrollierte Studie (Benefits of an add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain--a randomized controlled trial) [Article in German][2006]
    Abstract (English): European Journal of Pain Volume 10, Supplement 1, September 2006, Pages S163–S164
    Article (German): Wiener klinische Wochenschrift June 2006, Volume 118, Issue 11-12, pp 327-335

    Turo J. Nurmikko, Mick G. Serpell, Barbara Hoggart, Peter J. Toomey, Bart J. Morlion, Derek Haines
    Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial [2007]
    PAIN Volume 133, Issues 1–3, 15 December 2007, Pages 210–220

    William J. Martin, Andrea G. Hohmann, and J. Michael Walker
    Suppression of noxious stimulus-evoked activity in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus by a cannabinoid agonist: correlation between electrophysiological and antinociceptive effects. [1996]
    The Journal of Neuroscience, October 15, 1996, 16(20):6601–6611

    Russell Noyes Jr., S. Fred Brunk, David H. Avery, and Arthur Canter
    The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine [1975]
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1975 Jul;18(1):84-9

    Donald E. Moss, Richard L. Johnson
    Tonic analgesic effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol as measured with the formalin test [1980]
    European Journal of Pharmacology Volume 61, Issue 3, 8 February 1980, Pages 313–315

    David W Rowen, James P Embrey, Charles H Moore, Sandra P Welch
    Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides to the Kappa1 Receptor Enhance Δ9-THC–Induced Antinociceptive Tolerance [1998]
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Volume 59, Issue 2, February 1998, Pages 399–404

    Ethan Russo
    Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review [1998]
    Pain. 1998 May;76(1-2):3-8

    S.A. Page, M.J. Verhoef, R.A. Stebbins, L.M. Metz, J.C. Levy
    Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis [2003]
    THE CANADIAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES 2003; 30: 201-205

    FORREST L. SMITH, KEN FUJIMORI, JOHN LOWE AND SANDRA P. WELCH
    Characterization of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Anandamide Antinociception in Nonarthritic and Arthritic Rats [1998]
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Volume 60, Issue 1, May 1998, Pages 183–191

    Ethan Russo, Mary Lynn Mathre, Al Byrne, Robert Velin, Paul J. Bach, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Kristin A. Kirlin
    Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis [2002]
    Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 2(1) 2002, Pages 3-57

    R. Duane Sofia, Heidi B. Vassar, and Linda C. Knobloch
    Comparative analgesic activity of various naturally occurring cannabinoids in mice and rats [1975]
    Psychopharmacologia, 10. III. 1975, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 285-295

    Marcus Schley, Andreas Legler, Gisela Skopp, Martin Schmelz, Christoph Konrad and Roman Rukwied
    Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief [2006]
    Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2006 Jul;22(7):1269-76

    Kristina B Svendsen, Troels S Jensen, Flemming W Bach
    Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial [2004]
    BMJ. 2004 Jul 31;329(7460):253. Epub 2004 Jul 16

    Ethan Russo
    Hemp for Headache: An In-Depth Historical and Scientific Review of Cannabis in Migraine Treatment [2001]
    Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 1(2) 2001, Pages 21-92

    Jennelle Durnett Richardson, Lin Aanonsen, Kenneth M. Hargreaves
    Hypoactivity of the spinal cannabinoid system results in NMDA-dependent hyperalgesia [1998]
    The Journal of Neuroscience, January 1, 1998, 18(1):451–457

    Ignacio Reche, Mariano Ruiz-Gayo, José A Fuentes
    Inhibition of opioid-degrading enzymes potentiates Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in mice [1998]
    Neuropharmacology Volume 37, Issue 2, February 1998, Pages 215–222

    Ryan Quinlan Skrabek, Lena Galimova, Karen Ethans, Daryl Perry
    Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia [2008]
    The Journal of Pain, Volume 9, Issue 2, February 2008, Pages 164–173

    David J. Rog, Turo J. Nurmikko, Carolyn A. Young
    Oromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial [2007]
    Clinical Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 9, September 2007, Pages 2068–2079

    Diane Prentiss, Rachel Power, Gladys Balmas, Gloria Tzuang, and Dennis M. Israelski
    Patterns of marijuana use among patients with HIV/AIDS followed in a public health care setting [2004]
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, Volume 35, Number 1, January 1 2004, Pages 38-45

    John D. Robertsa, Chris Gennings, Margaret Shih
    Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine [2006]
    European Journal of Pharmacology, Volume 530, Issues 1–2, 13 January 2006, Pages 54–58

    Derick T Wade, Philip Robson, Heather House, Petra Makela and Julia Aram
    A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms [2003]
    Clinical Rehabilitation 2003; 17: 21–29

    Barth Wilsey, Thomas Marcotte, Alexander Tsodikov, Jeanna Millman, Heather Bentley, Ben Gouaux, Scott Fishman
    A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain [2008]
    The Journal of Pain Volume 9, Issue 6 , Pages 506-521, June 2008

    Aya Abrahamov, Avraham Abrahamov, R. Mechoulam
    An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology [1995]
    Life Sciences Volume 56, Issues 23–24, 5 May 1995, Pages 2097–2102

    JEFFREY A. VIVIAN, SHIROH KISHIOKA, EDUARDO R. BUTELMAN, JILLIAN BROADBEAR, KATHERINE O. LEE and JAMES H. WOODS
    Analgesic, respiratory and heart rate effects of cannabinoid and opioid agonists in rhesus monkeys: antagonist effects of SR 141716A [1998]
    Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, August-1-1998, Vol. 286, No. 2, Pages 697-70.

    S. Ahmedzai, D.L. Carlyle, I.T. Calder and F. Moran
    Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy [1983]
    British Journal of Cancer (1983), 48, 657-663

    Mark A Ware, Crystal R Doyle, Ryan Woods, Mary E Lynch, Alexander J Clark
    Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: results of a prospective survey [2003]
    Pain Volume 102, Issues 1–2, March 2003, Pages 211–216

    Mark Wallace, Gery Schulteis, J. Hampton Atkinson, Tanya Wolfson, Deborah Lazzaretto, Heather Bentley, Ben Gouaux, Ian Abramson
    Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers [2007]
    Anesthesiology. 2007 Nov; Vol. 107, Issue 5, Pages 785-96

    Mark A Ware, Thierry Ducruet and Ann R Robinson
    Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial [2006]
    Harm Reduction Journal 2006 Nov 13;3:32

    Jörg Wissel, Tanja Haydn, Jörg Müller, Christian Brenneis, Thomas Berger, Werner Poewe, Ludwig D. Schelosky
    Low dose treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain : a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial [2006]
    Journal of Neurology October 2006, Volume 253, Issue 10, Pages 1337-1341

    Lester Grinspoon, James B. Bakalar, Rick Doblin
    Marijuana, the AIDS wasting syndrome, and the U.S. government [1995]
    The New England Journal of Medicine 1995; 333:670-671

    D. Cunningham, C.J. Bradley, G.J. Forrest, A.W. Hutcheon, L. Adams, M. Sneddon, M. Harding, D.J. Kerr, M. Soukop, S.B. Kaye
    A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin or cisplatin analogues [1988]
    European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, Vol. 24, Issue 4, April 1988, Pages 685–689

    Richard W. Foltin, Joseph V. Brady, Marian W. Fischman
    Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans [1986]
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Vol. 25, Issue 3, September 1986, Pages 577–582

    Cannabinoids for nausea [1981]
    The Lancet Vol. 317, Issue 8214, 31 January 1981, Pages 255–256

    Jeffrey E. Beal, Richard Olson, Linda Laubenstein, Javier O. Morales, Paul Bellman, Bienvenido Yangco, Lewis Lefkowitz, Terry F. Plasse, Kirk V. Shepard
    Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS [1995]
    Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol. 10, Issue 2 , Pages 89-97, February 1995

    Tuba Esfandyari, Michael Camilleri, Irene Busciglio, Duane Burton, Kari Baxter, and Alan R. Zinsmeister
    Effects of a cannabinoid receptor agonist on colonic motor and sensory functions in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study [2007]
    Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - American Journal of Physiology, 2007 Jul;293(1):G137-45. Epub 2007 Mar 29

    Isaac Greenberg, John Kuehnle, Jack H. Mendelson, Jerrold G. Bernstein
    Effects of marihuana use on body weight and caloric intake in humans [1976]
    Psychopharmacology 26. VIII. 1976, Vol. 49, Issue 1, Pages 79-84

    Richard W. Foltin, Marian W. Fischman, Maryanne F. Byrne
    Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory [1988]
    Appetite Vol 11, Issue 1, August 1988, Pages 1–14

    Cecilia T Costiniuk, Edward Mills, and Curtis L Cooper
    Evaluation of oral cannabinoid-containing medications for the management of interferon and ribavirin-induced anorexia, nausea and weight loss in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C virus [2008]
    The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology Apr 2008; Vol. 22, No. 4, Pages 376–380

    Wei-Ni Lin Curry
    Hyperemesis Gravidarum and Clinical Cannabis: To Eat or Not to Eat? [2002]
    Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 01/2002; 24:63-83

    Francisco Gonzalez-Rosales, Declan Walsh
    Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) [1997]
    Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 14, Issue 5 , Pages 311-314, November 1997

    Jeffrey E. Beal, Richard Olson, Lewis Lefkowitz, Linda Laubenstein, Paul Bellman, Bienvenido Yangco, Javier O. Morales, Robert Murphy, William Powderly, Terry F. Plasse, Kristen W. Mosdell, Kirk V. ShepardLong-term efficacy and safety of dronabinol for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated anorexia [1997]
    Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol. 14, Issue 1, July 1997, Pages 7–14

    Bouke C. de Jong, Diane Prentiss, Willi McFarland, Rhoderick Machekano, and Dennis M. Israelski
    Marijuana use and its association with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons with moderate to severe nausea [2005]
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Vol. 38, Number 1, Pages 43-6, January 1 2005

    S. M. Crawford, R. Buckman
    Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to cisplatinum: a double blind study [1986]
    Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy March 1986, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Pages 39-42

    A M Dalzell, H Bartlett, and J S Lilleyman
    Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy [1986]
    Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1986, 61(5), 502-505

    D N BATEMAN, M D RAWLINS
    Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids [1982]
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    Last edited: Jun 25, 2014