Drug info - morphine basics

Discussion in 'Morphine' started by Urban, May 16, 2006.

  1. Urban

    Urban Titanium Member

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    Morphine, a narcotic , directly effects the central nervous system. Besides relieving pain, Morphine's effects impair mental and physical performance, relieves fear and anxiety, and produces euphoria. Morphine's effects also decreases hunger, inhibits the cough reflex, produces constipation, and usually reduces the sex drive; in women it may interfere with the menstrual cycle. Morphine's euphoric effects can be highly addictive. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence develop quickly.

    Morphine effects include but are not limited to:

    relieves pain
    impairment of mental and physical performance
    relief of fear and anxiety
    euphoria
    decease in hunger
    inhibiting the cough reflex
    Another one of morphine's effects is addiction. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence to morphine's effects develop quickly. Withdrawal from morphine causes nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and sweating lasting up to three days. Morphine crosses the placental barrier, and babies born to morphine-using mothers go through withdrawal.

    Morphine activates the brain’s reward systems. The promise of reward is very intense, causing the individual to crave the drug and to focus his or her activities around taking morphine. The ability of morphine to strongly activate brain reward mechanisms and its ability to chemically alter the normal functioning of these systems can produce an addiction. Morphine effects also reduce a person’s level of consciousness, harming the ability to think or be fully aware of present surroundings.


    Morphine is a narcotic analgesic. Morphine was first isolated from opium in 1805 by a German pharmacist, Wilhelm Sertürner. Sertürner described it as the Principium Somniferum. He named it morphium - after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams. Today morphine is isolated from opium in substantially larger quantities - over 1000 tons per year - although most commercial opium is converted into codeine by methylation. On the illicit market, opium gum is filtered into morphine base and then synthesized into heroin.



    x
     
  2. Alicia

    Alicia Gold Member

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    Urban -" Morphine activates the brain’s reward systems"

    The reward systems morphine and most other opiods for that matter effect is the endorphins, endorphins are usually released in great pain, or when someone exercise for long periods they are the bodies own pain killers opiates bind with endorphins and increase that effect.
     
  3. RunRedFox

    RunRedFox Gold Member

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    i think its also worth mentioning the irratibility and confusion that comes late after the rush and the dreamlike hallucinations that can accompany the experience.
     
  4. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Please post information about morphine in this topic.
     
  5. Fantasian

    Fantasian Gold Member

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    Morphine, a narcotic , directly effects the central nervous system. Besides relieving pain, Morphine's effects impair mental and physical performance, relieves fear and anxiety, and produces euphoria. Morphine's effects also decreases hunger, inhibits the cough reflex, produces constipation, and usually reduces the sex drive; in women it may interfere with the menstrual cycle. Morphine's euphoric effects can be highly addictive. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence develop quickly.

    Morphine effects include but are not limited to:

    relieves pain
    impairment of mental and physical performance
    relief of fear and anxiety
    euphoria
    decease in hunger
    inhibiting the cough reflex
    Another one of morphine's effects is addiction. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence to morphine's effects develop quickly. Withdrawal from morphine causes nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and sweating lasting up to three days. Morphine crosses the placental barrier, and babies born to morphine-using mothers go through withdrawal.

    Morphine activates the brain’s reward systems. The promise of reward is very intense, causing the individual to crave the drug and to focus his or her activities around taking morphine. The ability of morphine to strongly activate brain reward mechanisms and its ability to chemically alter the normal functioning of these systems can produce an addiction. Morphine effects also reduce a person’s level of consciousness, harming the ability to think or be fully aware of present surroundings.


    Morphine is a narcotic analgesic. Morphine was first isolated from opium in 1805 by a German pharmacist, Wilhelm Sertürner. Sertürner described it as the Principium Somniferum. He named it morphium - after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams. Today morphine is isolated from opium in substantially larger quantities - over 1000 tons per year - although most commercial opium is converted into codeine by methylation. On the illicit market, opium gum is filtered into morphine base and then synthesized into heroin.


    Courtacy of URBAN[B/]
     
    1. 4/5,
      Good basics!
      Jun 6, 2006
  6. HandyMan81

    HandyMan81 Titanium Member

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    Morphine

    (MOR feen)
    Avinza, Kadian, MS Contin, MSIR, OMS, Oramorph SR, Rescudose, RMS, Roxanol, Roxanol 100, Roxanol-T

    What is the most important information I should know about morphine?

    • Do not stop taking morphine suddenly if you have been taking it continuously for more than 5 to 7 days. Stopping suddenly could cause withdrawal symptoms and make you very uncomfortable. Your doctor may want to gradually reduce your dose.
    • Do not crush, chew, break, or open controlled-release forms of morphine such as Oramorph SR, Kadian, and MS Contin. Swallow them whole. They are specially formulated to release morphine slowly into your system. Breaking them would cause too much of the drug to be released into your blood at one time.
    Morphine will cause drowsiness and fatigue. Avoid alcohol, sleeping pills, antihistamines, sedatives, and tranquilizers that may also make you drowsy except under the supervision of your doctor.
    Morphine will also cause constipation. Drink plenty of water (six to eight full glasses a day) to lessen this side effect. Increasing the amount of fiber in your diet can also help to alleviate constipation.
    • Never take more morphine than is prescribed for you. If your pain is not being adequately treated, talk to your doctor.

    What is morphine?

    Morphine is in a class of drugs called narcotic analgesics. It relieves pain.
    Morphine is used to treat moderate-to-severe pain.
    Morphine may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

    Who should not take morphine?

    Morphine is habit forming and should only be used under close supervision if you have an alcohol or drug addiction.
    • Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you have ·kidney disease, ·liver disease, ·asthma, ·urinary retention, ·an enlarged prostate, ·hypothyroidism, ·seizures or epilepsy, ·gallbladder disease, ·a head injury, or ·Addison's disease.
    • You may not be able to take morphine, or you may require a lower dose or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above.
    Morphine may cause addiction and withdrawal symptoms as well as other harmful effects in an unborn baby. Do not take morphine without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant.
    Morphine may also cause addiction and withdrawal symptoms in a nursing infant. Do not take morphine without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.
    • If you are younger than 18 years of age or older than 60 years of age, you may be more likely to experience side effects from morphine therapy. Use extra caution.

    How should I take morphine?

    • Take morphine exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these directions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.
    • Take each dose with a full glass of water.
    • Take morphine with food or milk if it upsets your stomach.
    • Never take more of this medication than is prescribed for you. Too much morphine could be very harmful.
    • To ensure that you get a correct dose, measure the liquid form of morphine with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not with a regular tablespoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist where you can get one.
    • Do not crush, chew, break, or open controlled-release forms of morphine such as Oramorph SR, Kadian, or MS Contin. Swallow them whole. They are specially formulated to release morphine slowly into your system. Breaking them would cause too much drug to be released into your blood at one time.
    • Use the suppositories rectally as directed by your doctor. If you do not know how to use them, ask you doctor, nurse, or pharmacist for instructions.
    • Do not stop taking morphine suddenly if you have been taking it continuously for more than 5 to 7 days. Stopping suddenly could cause withdrawal symptoms and make you feel uncomfortable. Your doctor may want to gradually reduce your dose.
    Morphine will cause constipation. Increase the amount of fiber and water (at least six to eight full glasses daily) in your diet to prevent constipation.
    • Do not share this medication with anyone else.
    • Store morphine at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
    • Discard any opened bottle of morphine solution after 90 days.

    What happens if I miss a dose?

    • Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Do not take a double dose of this medication. Wait the prescribed amount of time before taking your next dose.

    What happens if I overdose?

    • Seek emergency medical attention.
    • Symptoms of a morphine overdose include slow breathing, seizures, dizziness, weakness, loss of consciousness, coma, confusion, tiredness, cold and clammy skin, and small pupils.

    What should I avoid while taking morphine?

    • Avoid alcohol while taking morphine. Alcohol will greatly increase the drowsiness and dizziness caused by morphine and could be dangerous.
    • Also avoid sleeping pills, tranquilizers, sedatives, and antihistamines except under the supervision of your doctor. These medications also may cause dangerous sedation.
    • Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Morphine may cause drowsiness. If you experience drowsiness, avoid these activities.

    What are the possible side effects of morphine?

    • If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop taking morphine and seek emergency medical attention: ·an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of your throat; swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; or hives); ·slow, weak breathing; ·seizures; ·cold, clammy skin; ·severe weakness or dizziness; or ·unconsciousness.
    • Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to take morphine and talk to your doctor if you experience ·constipation; ·dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, or decreased appetite; ·dizziness, tiredness, or lightheadedness; ·muscle twitches; ·sweating; ·itching; ·decreased urination; or ·decreased sex drive.
    Morphine is habit forming. Do not stop taking it suddenly.
    Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.

    What other drugs will affect morphine?

    • Do not take morphine if you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), or tranylcypromine (Parnate) in the last 14 days. Dangerous side effects could result.
    • The most serious interactions affecting morphine are with those drugs that also cause sedation. The following drugs may lead to dangerous sedation if taken with morphine:

    ·antihistamines such as brompheniramine (Dimetane, Bromfed, others), diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Nytol, Compoz, others), chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton, Teldrin, others), and others; ·tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline (Elavil) and doxepin (Sinequan), and serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and paroxetine (Paxil); ·other commonly used antidepressants, including amoxapine (Asendin), clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), and protriptyline (Vivactil); ·anticholinergics such as belladonna (Donnatal), clidinium (Quarzan), dicyclomine (Bentyl, Antispas), hyoscyamine (Levsin, Anaspaz), ipratropium (Atrovent), propantheline (Pro-Banthine), and scopolamine (Transderm-Scop); ·phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), thioridazine (Mellaril), and prochlorperazine (Compazine); and ·tranquilizers and sedatives such as phenobarbital (Solfoton, Luminal), amobarbital (Amytal), secobarbital (Seconal), alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), flurazepam (Prosom), and temazepam (Restoril).

    • Do not take any of the drugs listed above without the approval of your doctor.
    • Drugs other than those listed here may also interact with morphine. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines.
     
    1. 3/5,
      Superb set of information, thank you!
      Mar 7, 2010
    2. 4/5,
      great post
      Jun 23, 2007
  7. kenrtkams

    kenrtkams Newbie

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    Over here in UK MXLs are the 'secondary methadone' starting at 200 mg. They will be perscribed but have to be taken in the chemist. Anyway these are capsules and do break down in water but being slow release the waxes float to the top. But as many other people have told me they have rigged them only to get a pound in your head like yo've been sledge hammer and a burning. Followed by pounding head ache which decreases with each pound. What woould this highly souble additive be?
     
  8. hoodabudda

    hoodabudda Silver Member

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    swim herd that they were thinking of cutting cII only preperations with hydrocloric acid because when taken orally it would do nothing because stomach acid is hydrocloric acid but when snorted or punched they would cause extreme burning.
     
  9. samuraigecko

    samuraigecko Palladium Member

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    Slightly incorrect. Morphine actually bonds to endorphin receptors, not the endorphins themselves. for example:

    Heroin is diacetyl-morphine. It crosses into the brain very rapidly but is then converted into morphine.
    Morphine mimics endogenous neurotransmitters (endorphins).
    • (However, the endorphins are produced in the nerve cell body and transported to the nerve ending for release. Endorphins are not taken back up into the nerve ending. There are both presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors for the endorphins.)
    Morphine binds to specific morphine-like (endorphin) receptors (EndR) and activates them.

    So to be more accurate and elaborate on ones statement one would be inclined to state that: "Morphine is taken up by endorphin receptors and activates them which in turn activates the brains reward system"

    One would also be inclined to state that Morphine would by default also be an endorphin re uptake inhibitor. If one was to flood their brain system with Morphine all of the endorphin receptors would then be blocked from the re uptake of the naturally occurring endorphins themselves. There by creating a state of dependency rather quickly because the brain will stop producing endorphins when they are not needed. Morphine or Heroin would take the place of these naturally occurring substances in the brain and then shut down the endorphin producing system because it is now redundant. One would be more and more dependent on Morphine or any opiate for that matter just to feel "normal" and even more to feel "good". In this way one may find opiate based drugs to be similar to SS RI or MAO drugs in action only. There are a few other examples where as Morphine could be found to be similar in this way to almost all drugs because it is used as a substitute to flood the system with the said chemical to bind to the receptor it was either designed or intended for.

    In closing Morphine mimics certain endorphins and is then taken up by the endorphin receptors in place of the endorphins themselves because it is more readily available than the endorphins to the receptors once either an injection or oral dosage has been taken because it floods the brain with the said chemical more prolifically.

    Hope this has been of some help. cheers. :thumbsup:
     
    1. 3/5,
      Great info.
      May 1, 2010
  10. Psych0naut

    Psych0naut Platinum Member

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    Hydrochloric acid is a gas, though it's usually available as a solution in water. The maximum solubility of hydrochloric acid in water is 37%. For the pills to contain hydrochloric acid they would either have to contain a gas, or a liquid, which is impossible.
     
  11. samuraigecko

    samuraigecko Palladium Member

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    one would have to agree with psych on that.

    here is a quick rundown to help one understand better

    (Proscribed link)

    hydrochloric acid is a gas which uses water as its carrier, it is also one of the main consistuants in stomach acids. However, there needs to be liquid enough present for HCl to occur or remain. Therefor HCl in any dry pill would be impossible, unless it was a gel cap. Snorting would not be possible unless one wanted to snort a liquid. Punching would be ill advised since HCl is HIGHLY CORROSIVE and would almost certainly cause vein collapse. But in short, HCl in a dry pill used for such a purpose is not possible and in a gel cap is highly improbable because of HCl's corrosive properties. The gel cap would not even have a shelf life because the HCl would corrode through it.

    Hope that has helped in some way.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Feb 9, 2015
    1. 3/5,
      Please do not link to Wikipedia; it's against the rules.
      Feb 9, 2015
  12. FloatingInDreams

    FloatingInDreams Silver Member

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    Hope i'm not ressurecting a dead thread but i felt the need to point out that Morphine activates the reward system not only through binding to the opioid receptors but also via the inhibition of GABA which leads to increased levels of dopamine in the brain, and mesolimbic pathway, which is the reward system.
     
    1. 3/5,
      Good info
      Nov 10, 2009
  13. Neptune

    Neptune Newbie

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    I'm not sure whether this holds much significance, but the combination of morphine plus gabapentin has been shown to alleviate neuropathic pain much better (and at lower doses) than either of the two drugs alone (albeit with more severe side effects). Why this happens is unknown, but it is speculated that the combined activity of both on the GABA receptors is what causes this.
     
    1. 4/5,
      helpful to my situation
      Jan 5, 2016
  14. Skeetastic

    Skeetastic Silver Member

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    SWIM may be wrong, but isn't it true that the medical community doesn't actually know how opiates/opioids work? Like, they believe they bind to the brain's opiate receptors, but they can't 100% prove it? I would like to know if this is just a myth of some kind or it's really the case
     
  15. Helene

    Helene Gold Member

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    Nah, this isn't the case at all, the medical community (and many others who care to read up on the subject) are pretty sure of the way opiates work in the brain. I wrote up an explanation of it all in another thread, detailing exactly why opiates have the effect they do and how tolerance, dependence and withdrawal occur, all on a neurological level. It can be found by clicking here - https://drugs-forum.com/forum/showpost.php?p=738392&postcount=5

    It's part of the thread How Opiates Work in the Brain, which may be of interest to you as well.

    H
     
  16. Guillan'sbarre

    Guillan'sbarre Newbie

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    Swig can testify to this. 30mg Opana and Neurontin doesn't work. Hydromorphone and Neurontin doesn't work. Oxycontin and Neurontin doesn't work. Little Ole' bitty 30mg MS-contin and Neurontin do the job. However Swig gets 3200mg Neurontin daily.
     
    1. 3/5,
      pls add a source to back up this statement
      Mar 7, 2010
  17. Dr_Janus

    Dr_Janus Newbie

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    Whilst anecdotal evidence is always good to hear, a little bit more explanation might be needed as to how these combinations effected swiy.

    Gabapentin has never affected swim's use of Tramadol, but Tramadol is an atypical-opioid with SSRI and different effects than most.
     
  18. Blacky

    Blacky Newbie

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  19. upshurG

    upshurG Newbie

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    I had heard that morphine effects the gallbladder (one of the reasons it is contraindicated for gall bladder disease). Upon searching for a good explanation I found and article on nuclear medicine from med harvard edu and use of morphine to view the gallbladder:

    This sphincter
     
  20. Mainline

    Mainline Silver Member

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    Whenever AFOM took Gabapentin with her Oxy or Norco she would have a terrible headache the next day, all day... Weird?
     
    Last edited: Jul 21, 2010