Narcohypnosis and post-hypnotic suggestions

Discussion in 'Pharmacology' started by inception, Mar 12, 2019.

  1. inception

    inception Newbie

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    Before I start, let me list some threads that seem to bear some relevance to this question:
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/dru...-hypnosis-trance-induction.72054/#post-500779
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/met...-mind-that-are-not-drugs.196394/#post-1196454
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/replicating-heroin-high-with-hypnosis.138900/#post-1384589
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/hypnosis-to-get-high.35447/page-2#post-1345528
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/take-a-vote-pick-your-favourite-dissociative.290941/#post-1778558
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/the-power-of-suggestion.76149/#post-527900
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/scopolamine.72640/page-2#post-1806478
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/similarities-between-diphenhydramine-trips.329997/#post-1990380

    My question is as much to do with my scepticism about the effects of narcotics as it is about the effects of hypnosis.

    I've read a bit about how the brain works, how memory is encoded and retrieved, what neurotransmitters do, and what effects different drugs are reported to have with respect to the above.

    Something I read about how the memory of dreams works intrigued me, because I had previously thought that acetylcholine was largely responsible for the encoding of memories from working memory to short-term memory to being consolidated into long-term memory; but apparently dopamine and aminergics play a role too. I'm not talking about how dopamine tunes long-term memory, but how the memory of dreams involves chemicals other than acetylcholine.

    So we read that anticholinergic antimuscarinics impair memory, but not entirely, which is probably why people are able to write reports of some parts of their experiences. So that prompts me to wonder whether some memory still works when acetylcholine is inhibited, because other "stuff" is involved in that memory-making, and perhaps it's certain criteria of memory that is not so impaired because acetylcholine is not involved in every type or aspect of memory.

    So, i'm not fully convinced about hypnosis, whilst there are published papers and loads of anecdotal reports, for it to be a real thing, there must be some specific mechanism going on. When people say "hypnosis", i suspect they usually mean the implanting of instructions or triggers.
    i wonder how post-hypnotic suggestions are encoded, and whether any drugs help with that because of how they work.
    One or two threads suggest possible candidates like LSD, cannabis, scopolamine etc.. but i'm not yet convinced whether someone on these would be hypnotisable and whether anny suggestions would stick. It's all very well being super-relaxed or super-suggestible, but if you can't remember anything, does is still work?! More to the point, why does it work (or not work)? Do particular things allow or inhibit suggestions to linger?

    When i read about how hypnotic induction isn't needed, and it's just about relaxation and imagination, i'm wondering whether drugs would either help or hinder retaining suggestions. I'm guessing there are ethical and legal (or insurance) reasons why scientific studies aren't done on this, so perhaps we'll only have anecdotal evidence to have any clues? This, of course assumes that real hypnosis is actually a thing, more than just deep relaxation and imagination or CBT.

    It might even be amusing to make a table of narcotics, and describe what might probably happen if a person on each of the drugs was hypnotised.
     
  2. Calliope

    Calliope Fictional Member Gold Member Sponsor

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    from a nutshell, an infinite space
    There actually is scientific research (recent and older) on the effect of various drugs on hypnotic suggestibility. It is of interest not just theoretically and/or to those of us who take various consciousness altering substances but because hypnotic suggestion is of real therapeutic value in a variety of ways. Hypnotic suggestion has been successfully use, for example to reduce the dose of pain medication needed to achieve the same degree of pain reduction. Hypnosis is also used successfully in some psychotherapeutic contexts to help individuals in a variety of ways. So if a drug can enhance the effectiveness of such methods this is potentially significant.

    I don't currently have time to upload the studies I found that are relevant here, but here are a few abstracts:

    Psychedelics and hypnosis: Commonalities and therapeutic implications Lemercier, C.E., Terhune, D.B. 2018 Journal of Psychopharmacology
    32(7), pp. 732-740
    Background: Recent research on psychedelics and hypnosis demonstrates the value of both methods in the treatment of a range of psychopathologies with overlapping applications and neurophenomenological features. The potential of harnessing the power of suggestion to influence the phenomenological response to psychedelics toward more therapeutic action has remained unexplored in recent research and thereby warrants empirical attention.
    Aims: Here we aim to elucidate the phenomenological and neurophysiological similarities and dissimilarities between psychedelic states and hypnosis in order to revisit how contemporary knowledge may inform their conjunct usage in psychotherapy.
    Methods: We review recent advances in phenomenological and neurophysiological research on psychedelics and hypnosis, and we summarize early investigations on the coupling of psychedelics and hypnosis in scientific and therapeutic contexts.
    Results/outcomes: We highlight commonalities and differences between psychedelics and hypnosis that point to the potential efficacy of combining the two in psychotherapy. We propose multiple research paths for coupling these two phenomena at different stages in the preparation, acute phase and follow-up of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy in order to prepare, guide and integrate the psychedelic experience with the aim of enhancing therapeutic outcomes. Conclusions/interpretation: Harnessing the power of suggestion to modulate response to psychedelics could enhance their therapeutic efficacy by helping to increase the likelihood of positive responses, including mystical-type experiences.

    Improving hypnotizability in adults with Modafinil: What is the trick?! Rajabi, M., Nojoumi, M.M., Hashemian, F., (...), Fathi, M., Mostafavi, S.-A. 2017 Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
    42, pp. 11-18
    Influence of the dopaminergic modality of Modafinil on hypnosis was investigated in 40 volunteers (20-40 years old) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility Form C (WSGC) was used prior and one hour after drug or placebo administration. Some improvement was observed for drug group in intergroup comparison studies. Medium to large effect sizes were observed for drug versus placebo post administration for hand lowering and age regression suggestions. Small to medium effect sizes were observed for moving hands together, arm rigidity, arm immobilization and taste hallucination suggestions. These differences while suggestive were non significant following Bonferroni correction. Modafinil may enhance the absorption stage of hypnosis and in combination with other strategies, to significantly improve the hypnotizability outcome.

    Methylphenidate facilitates hypnotizability in adults with ADHD: A naturalistic cohort study Lotan, A., Bonne, O., Abramowitz, E.G. 2015 International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
    63(3), pp. 294-308
    Impaired attention may impede learning of adaptive skills in ADHD. While manipulations that reduce competition between attentional processes, including hypnosis, could boost learning, their feasibility in ADHD is unknown. Because hypnotic phenomena rely on attentional mechanisms, the authors aimed to assess whether stimulants could enhance hypnotizability in ADHD. In the current study, stimulant-naïve patients seeking treatment for ADHD-related symptoms were assessed with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS) at baseline and during methylphenidate treatment. Methylphenidate dose and SHSS increase were negatively correlated with baseline SHSS scores. Upon reaching effective doses, mean SHSS scores increased significantly. All patients who had been poorly hypnotizable at baseline demonstrated moderate-to-high hypnotizability at follow-up. The data support methylphenidate enhancement of hypnotizability in ADHD, thus highlighting novel treatment approaches for this disabling disorder.

    LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers Carhart-Harris, R.L., Kaelen, M., Whalley, M.G., (...), Feilding, A., Nutt, D.J. 2015 Psychopharmacology
    232(4), pp. 785-794
    Rationale: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. Objectives: The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A≈B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Results: Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p=0.018), but not the MIT (p=0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p=0.0005). Conclusions: These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

    EDIT: It may be interesting to also learn that alcohol acts this way:
    Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility Semmens-Wheeler, R., Dienes, Z., Duka, T. 2013 Consciousness and Cognition
    22(3), pp. 1082-1091
    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8. mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function.
     
  3. inception

    inception Newbie

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    Thanks for that. There was a BBC documentary that showed somebody having two front teeth extracted allegedly only under hypnosis, which is a pretty impressive a demonstration.

    So you list:
    LSD
    Modafinil
    Methylphenidate

    Can't see the first link yet.
    --- Double Post Merged, Mar 12, 2019 ---
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/ami...which-is-the-stronger-anticholinergic.348408/
    --- Double Post Merged, Mar 13, 2019 ---
    https://drugs-forum.com/threads/trihexiphenidyl-best-deliriant-ever-for-all-dph-ers-here.284211/
    --- Double Post Merged, Mar 13, 2019 ---
    Interesting about alcohol. Are there any studies about hypnotic suggestability on deliriants or dissociatives?
     
  4. inception

    inception Newbie

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