Drug info - Nootropic Guide

Discussion in 'Nootropics' started by blinkKDX, Jan 3, 2007.

  1. blinkKDX

    blinkKDX Newbie

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    MOD EDIT: A cleaned up and organized version is available here: List of Nootropics

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    Quick guide to the most popular nootropic supplements. All can be stacked, or taken alone. Neurostim +C is a good premade stack, though I like to add piracetam to it when I need to concentrate in order to learn (only 4 more months of grad school at night, yay). All of these typically take days to weeks to make a noticeable improvement on concentration and focus, and are best taken in longer periods (2-3 months) followed by down time of one month. As with all supplements, start with the basics, and move on from there.


    Piracetam (2-oxo-Pyrrolidine Acetamide) - is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). Chemically related to the amino acid Pyroglutamic Acid (Pyrrolidine Carboxylic acid), which occurs in cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in cognitive functioning.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    -Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow){Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation}
    -Increases Cerebral Phospholipids & Cellular Membrane Fluidity (By interacting with the polar head moieties of the phospholipid bilayer) {Supports healthy neuron communication & structure}.
    -Supports Cognitive Receptors (By amplifying the density of the Muscarinic Cholinergic {Frontal Cortex, Striatum, & Hippocampus}, NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) {Hippocampus}, & AMPA (Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-isoxazole-Propionic Acid) Cerebral Cortex Receptors {Strengthens neurotransmitter receptors involved in memory and neuroprotection}
    -Stimulates the Corpus Callosum, an area of the brain that controls communication between the left and right hemispheres (Increases communication between both hemispheres) {Involved in speech and creative thinking}.
    - Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) {Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory}
    -Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (By increasing Red-White blood cells & Platelet deformability, inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthetase or antagonism of thromboxane A2, reducing von Willebrand's factor & fibrinogen levels) {Supports Healthy Blood Flow}.
    -Decreases EEG complexity (Increases cooperatively of brain functional processing) {Positively effects Neuro-Electrical Functioning}.
    -Has a significant antioxidant effect.

    -Overview-
    Piracetam positively supports healthy cognitive & cardiovascular functioning by a multifaceted means of action.

    -Notes-
    Approved & used since 1970’s worldwide (Europe, Asia, and South American) for various health conditions. Recommended by many healthcare professionals and health organizations, such as the Life Extension Foundation, as a Nootropic.
    Piracetum is the first step in the use of nootropics, it also stacks nicely with all of the following.

    -Dose-
    2-6 grams daily.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within an hour to a few days.
    -------------------------------------------------------------

    Aniracetam - Aniracetam (1-Anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam.
    -Biochemical Effects-
    Similar to Piracetam, but due to its fat solubility its effects last longer and is far more potent.
    - Helps increase communication between your left and right sides of the brain, resulting in improved creatively, perception, and more.
    - Has an more potent AMPA receptor enhancing effect than Piracetam, resulting in better focus and concentration.
    - Been reported to be best ‘cetam for anti-anxiety effects

    -Dose-
    750-1,500 mg daily with meals.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within an hour to a few days.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Oxiracetam - (4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinacetamide) is a potent fast acting water soluble analog of Piracetam. Works faster than all other racetams.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    Similar to Piracetam, but much stronger than Aniracetam and far faster acting. The preferred premium Nootropic for the elite smart drug user.
    - Supports multiple aspects of Cognition
    - Boosts Brain ATP levels (Mental Energy)
    - Increase Choline Acetylcholinetranferase the neuro-enzyme that creates Acetylcholine (in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum) {Memory Support}

    -Dose-
    800-1,600 mg daily.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within an hour to a few days.
    --------------------------------------------------------------

    Pramiracetam
    (N-{2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl}-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine-acetamide) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam, the most potent Racetam compound being about 15 times stronger than Piracetam.

    -Dose-
    100-300mg daily

    Availability
    Sporadic due to customs issues.
    ---------------------------------------------------------

    L-Huperzine - A is a natural plant alkaloid (extracted from Huperzia serrata), which quickly and potently boosts memory, learning, and concentration. Used worldwide for decades in adults and high school students. Is considered the most potent short term memory enhancer available.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    - Potently raises Acetylcholine (main memory neurotransmitter) by inhibiting its breakdown from Acetylcholinesterase.
    - Strengthens the Brain's NMDA receptors (Enhances Focus, Learning, and Brain Functioning)

    -Dose-
    Take 200-400 mcg daily for best results with meals.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within an hour to a few days.
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    Alpha GPC (Alpha L-GlycerylPhosphorylCholine), also known as choline alfoscerate, is an unique NeuroActive form of choline that rapidly penetrates the blood brain barrier, naturally found in small amounts in milk and soybeans.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    - A precursor for the neurotransmitter AcetylCholine [Supports Memory].
    - A precursor for PhosphatidylCholine [Supports Brain Structure]

    -Dose-
    300-2000 mg daily.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within a few days.
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    Vinpocetine (Ethyl Apovincamine) is a derivative of vincamine (a phytonootropic from periwinkle). While less potent as a mental stimulant than vincamine, Vinpocetine is the preferred nootropic for Enhancing blood flow to the Brain, Eyes, and Ears. Its effects on Cerebral Blood Flow far exceeds all other nootropics.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    -Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow) (Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation)
    - Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) (Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory)
    -Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (Reduces abnormal blood clots).
    -Has a significant antioxidant effect.

    -Dose-
    20-40 mg daily with meals.
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    Theanine (gamma-ethylamino-L-glutamic acid) is an unique amino acid found in trace amounts in green tea. It converts in the brain into GABA, the neurochemical involved in inhibiting over active mental activities, such as stress, anxiety, worrying, and nervousness. Unlike herbs theanine protects & enhances Cognition, without causing sleepy or drowsiness.


    -Biochemical Effects-
    - Instant relaxation due to its potent effects on raising GABA
    - Unlike the supplement GABA it passes through the blood brain barrier readily and has superior GABA raising effects.
    - Has been studied compared to Paxil.

    -Notes-
    In Japan it is used in soft drinks much like caffeine is added in the US, but to relax rather than stimulate the mind.

    -Dose-
    200-1000mg daily.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within a few hours.
    -------------------------------------------------

    Acetyl-L-Carnitine (2-Acetoxy-3-(trimethylaminium)butanoic acid) is an amino acid-like compound related to Choline found in high levels in brain cells.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    - Increases Acetylation of Coenzyme A (a precursor to Acetylcholine) [Memory Enhancer]
    - Enhances transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria [Increased Cellular Energy Levels]

    -Dose-
    500-3000mg daily
    ------------------------------------------------------------------

    Choline supplements should be taken during the administration of all nootropics. Lecithin (caps and granules) is a cheap choline source. Lecithin should be taken in doses of 5-8 grams daily to support the nootropics. Alpha GPC (listed above) is another source for choline. It is more effective / more expensive, but only requires dosing in the 1-3 gram range to support choline levels in the brain.

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    STACKS

    Simple Stack :
    1-2 grams piracetam every 8 hours with 5 grams lecithin daily.

    Study Stack - Simple :
    1-2 grams piracetam every 8 hours / 5 grams lecithin / 10mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours

    Advanced Stack :
    2 grams piracetam every 8 hours
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    1 gram Alpha GPC every 8 hours

    Study Stack - advanced :
    1.5 grams piracetam every 8 hours
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    1.5 grams Alpha GPC every 8 hours
    15 mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours
    150 mcg Huperzine every 8 hours

    Anxiety / Concentration Stack :
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    200 mg theanine every 8 hours (plan for one dose prior to a speech or presentation)

    After all test are done stack :
    500mg Theanine
    1.5 grams Phenibut (do not study on phenibut)
    5 grams lecithin
    ----------------------------------------------------





    shawn74797 Posted: Jan 23 2006, 10:09 AM
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    May You Never Sleep: Cognition Enhancing Drugs
    by R.U. Sirius
    NOTICE: TO ALL CONCERNED Certain text files and messages contained on this site deal with activities and devices which would be in violation of various Federal, State, and local laws if actually carried out or constructed. The webmasters of this site do not advocate the breaking of any law. Our text files and message bases are for informational purposes only. We recommend that you contact your local law enforcement officials before undertaking any project based upon any information obtained from this or any other web site. We do not guarantee that any of the information contained on this system is correct, workable, or factual. We are not responsible for, nor do we assume any liability for, damages resulting from the use of any information on this site.

    INTELLIGENCE INCREASING DRUGS might be labeled "Cognitive Enhancers," "Memory Enhancers," or, in some cases, "Psychic Energizers." What many of these drugs and nutrients have in common is that they produce effects similar to effects people are seeking from popular stimulants such as caffeine, amphetamines and cocaine. These popular drugs temporarily enhance cognition and memory, and amp up the user's energy levels only to leave the user depleted. Cocaine and amphetamines might properly be labeled as short-term intelligence-increase drugs and long-term intelligence-decrease drugs.

    However, the drugs and nutrients discussed in this review are all believed to create long term improvements in memory and cognition. Some of them also provide the short-term high-energy states associated with the stimulant drugs. Also, there is virtually no tendency towards the kind of weirdness and darkness of the spirit which so often accompanies even the occasional speed or cocaine high. It seems that while the illicit stimulants cause short-term release, but long-term depletion of norepinephrin, many of the memory-enhancing drugs and nutrients work on the noradrenergic nervous system in a different way, apparently modulating nerve cell control mechanisms so that the cellular response is neither too great nor too little. This is a gross oversimplification. More precise information on each of these cognitive enhancers is easily available to the serious researcher. Accurate and concise information for the layperson is easily available through the popular written works of Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw who, whatever one might think of their bucket-of-pills-a-day personal regimen, do carefully monitor all of the research in this field.

    This survey deals primarily with the short-term experiential effects of these compounds, since I only have the experience of a relative and imprecise ongoing use of one drug, Pemoline, and no scientific proof of any intelligence increase on my part. Besides, a three-hour play can be realistically reviewed. Reviewing a life is a somewhat more dubious prospect.

    In consideration of all this, I hereby present a review of intelligence-increasing drugs. May you never sleep.

    VASOPRESSIN - Definitely the most euphoric of the memory-enhancing intelligence-increase drugs outside of the one being called "Euphoria" (more on Euphoria later), Vasopressin is marketed as Diapid, a prescription drug made by our old friends Sandoz. It can also be ordered as Vasopressin through chemical supply houses by those who know the ropes. I had five squirts of Vasopressin out of a nasal inhaler. I was surprised by how strong the effects were. I had that charged-up hyperconfident rush that one experiences with cocaine, but combined with much clearer ideation and without the numbing and discomfort or the strange and disquieting hard edges which often accompany even the more euphoric coke highs. It didn't last very long, about two hours, most of which unfortunately spent riding the BART and walking. By the time I got home, the experience had pretty well dissipated. I did not have an opportunity to experience Vasopressin as a work/writing drug. It was clear, however, simply from reading (I was reading "Gravity's Rainbow" at the time and I consider that a fairly challenging test of comprehension) on the BART ride home, that Vasopressin is an excellent tool for rapid learning and comprehension of complex systems of thought.

    The only other time I had Vasopressin, it was in the form of Diapid. I had only two squirts at a party late at night on top of fairly substantial amounts of marijuana and alcohol. It didn't noticeably cut through the depressant effects of those drugs. However, I did experience an intensified and prolonged orgasm!

    HYDERGINE - The invention of one Dr. Albert Hoffmann of Sandoz Laboratories. I know of many people who got their hands on buckets of this stuff and I know of nobody who continues to take it. The effects are said to be cumulative rather than immediate and everybody seems to lose interest. "I forgot to take my Hydergine" is a term which one often hears from chagrined "intelligence agents," fully cognizant (even without Hydergine) of the ironies involved. This probably says more about the people that I hang out with than about Hydergine as an intelligence increase agent.

    Incidentally, Dr. Hoffmann told a friend of mine that one can get exactly the same effects one gets from daily megadoses of Hydergine by using 25 micrograms of LSD daily. I have not experimented with subthreshold acid as an IQ substance, so I cannot comment.

    LECITHIN, CHOLINE with INOSITOL, PHENYLALANINE (with VITAMIN C and B6) - While perhaps less intriguing and glamorous to technophilic reality hackers, most of these easily available cognitive enhancers have a substantially perceptible effect. LECITHIN seems to be the exception. Even at "Durk and Sandy" dosage levels there was no noticeable enhancement of focus, recall, etc. CHOLINE and INOSITOL, at about three grams each, produce mild but definite results with no discomfort and can be used daily. I did this once for about a month and found myself losing my sense of humor. However, if you're already humorless you might just as well give this a go. PHENYLALANINE is quite speedy. While it can be used for creativity and focus, it tends to make one irritable. For emergency use only.

    DEANER - This is getting really popular with the "health food set." Experientially, the effect is very subtle but noticeable. I've tried this a few times and what I've found is that if I already have a task to do, I will do it and, in retrospect, I will realize that I sustained my attention for an unusually long time without flagging or needing a break. However, if I use this (as I often do with other cognitive enhancers) without a precise sense of what the task at hand is, it doesn't clarify and help to motivate activity. This is an important point. Drugs such as Vasopressin, Pemoline, Euphoria and THA can actually cut through confusion and ennui and help invoke will. My guess is that most of these substances also work, to varying degrees, on the pleasure centers of the brain, provoking one's natural 'joie di vivre' and thereby provoking enthusiasm for creative and organizational activities.

    PEMOLINE (usually combined with Magnesium) - The information most frequently passed around in reference to MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE was published by the Church of the Tree of Life some years ago in their publication "Bark Leaf". It recommends taking "Mag-Pem" at 50-100 mgs. every day for two months in order to substantially increase your I.Q. OUCH! This program is a sure ticket to severe headaches and extreme nervousness. However, in the 20-30 milligram range, I've found that this can be used twice weekly with excellent results. The lift is very substantial and noticeable. I, and several of my friends, find it particularly good for writing, both creative and functional. For rapid-fire associations and grand synthesis just combine it with moderate amounts of Cannabis (Sativa, if possible). It lasts about twelve hours, coming on slowly and having its greatest effect at around the fifth through the tenth hours. Clarity and verbal acuity are the strong points here. At times, the sheer mass of information, new thoughts and connections can overwhelm and put one into a rather confused state, particularly if one is not applying oneself to something. When this occurs I find that I can slow down my thoughts to a point where there is coherence simply by verbalizing them or writing them down. Unlike its close cousin "EUPHORIA," Pemoline is emotionally bland. It is not a pleasure drug. WARNING: from my observations, approximately one in every ten people get nothin' but headaches from even small doses of Pemoline.

    EUPHORIA - Well, someone took Pemoline, twisted it around a little bit and put a whole lot of pleasure into the equation. This might be a Dangerous drug! There are lot of different things that seem to happen with Euphoria. The first time I took it (40 milligrams - I've learned since that 25 mg. is considered your basic dose) I got really charged up. This is definitely a High and it comes on suddenly (about 45 minutes after ingestion). My first response upon coming on to it was an experience of an intense rush of perceived personal power. I found myself goosestepping down the busy Berkeley streets thinking about how good I felt, how successful I was destined to be, and knowing that the world was my oyster. After about 15 minutes of this as I found myself leaping down the BART escalator, I had to tell myself to slow down for fear that I would be completely drained later on. Although I didn't really slow down at all during this experience, I did bring myself into a somewhat more humane mindset and I spent the subway ride having an almost methoxylated amphetamine (MDMA, MDA, etc.)-type ideations. In other words, I wasn't just feeling good about myself, I was feeling good about most everybody else. The world was everybody's oyster.

    Arriving at my office, I immediately found myself doing organizational work at about three times the normal rate with far more self-assurance and fewer mistakes than usual. Simultaneously, I was entertaining perspectives on the nature of my true will and making important phonecalls which I had put off for some time. I did about thirty hours worth of work in about ten hours. I literally could not stop. I tried to make myself take a break for about ten minutes. Within a minute, I found my hand going into a drawer to pull out another file which needed reorganizing. Believe me, this is very unusual behavior. I hate organizational work.

    This all might sound like the first blushes of an amphetamine high, but he emotional overtones and the mentation under this substance is of a softer and more inwardly whole (less alienated) quality. As I've already indicated, the Euphoria high seems to have a slight methoxylated amphetamine quality to it. All in all, this was a very powerful experiencing of clarity, self-assurance and cognitive ability. The following day, I experienced the same sort of effects at about one-third the intensity. There was no burnout at all in aftermath.

    Subsequent experiments have shown Euphoria to be predictable as an effective tool for organizing binges, brainstorming sessions and radio talk-show appearances. It also seems to induce ongoing personal growth in terms of clarity of personal will. (I've received three other testimonies in this same direction.) As a writing tool, I've found Euphoria to be variable. It seems that verbal acuity comes on strong but the verbal circuits burn out quickly from intensity of use and one has to move on to less verbally oriented tasks. In other words, this is generally good for creative flashes and outlining grand syntheses but not too good for actual completion of written work. It gives one an impatience for minutiae and the kind of careful faceting that it takes to bring a work to completion. In terms of appreciation and comprehension of aesthetics and information, this seems the opposite of its close cousin Pemoline. The accessing mode favored is visual. One wants to explore a painting or photograph or watch a movie rather than read a book.

    My only complaint about Euphoria is that it lasts 16 hours, which feels about 4 hours too long. In two of my five experiences, the last four hours were spent feeling slightly "headachy" and weary, although there was still no burnout following sleep. I would say, at this point, that Euphoria should not be used more often than once a week since it is so powerful and so much energy is expended in the experience. This is easily the most Fun of the intelligence increasers and, as such, is probably the most likely to be abused.

    PRL-8-53 - Untried by your reviewer at this time. However, Durk Pearson is quoted in 'High Frontiers' as saying that "PRL-8-53 is a terrific memory enhancer. Normally you can memorize about seven or eight digits just by looking at them for a second. PRL-8-53 gives the average person a memory span of about 21 to 22 digits." He also reported that one amnesia victim was cured with one dose.

    THA - Untried by your reviewer at this time. Again, Durk Pearson, this time in 'High Frontiers/Reality Hackers Newsletter:' "In combination with arecoline, THA has been found to be remarkably effective as a memory improver ... it's important that the dosage be individualized ... too much will actually impair memory and produce sweating, excessive muscle tone and mouth-watering." The standard dosage is "1 to 2 mg." however, Durk recommends that you start with a quarter of that every two to four hours and work up - if you get those side effects, back off.

    ======================================== ===

    Letter to the Editor in response to the R.U.Sirius article above.

    From the Summer 1988 issue of "Whole Earth Review"

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    IF THESE DRUGS HAD BOTTLES, HERE'S WHAT THE WARNING LABELS WOULD SAY

    I have been a big fan of your magazine for many years now, and I am a firm believer in the principle that the free exchange of information is a necessity to the survival and progress of our species. I commend you for your efforts in this area.

    Unfortunately, when it comes to psychopharmacology the old saying, that a little knowledge is far more dangerous than none at all, is quite often true. Specifically I am referring to the article of winter '87 on page 56, "Cognitive Enhancers." I am not upset that you would print this sort of information; there is both interesting and important research going on in this field right now. What I object to is the uncritical, inaccurate, and incomplete information given in an area that has Serious implications on your reader's health. Here are some errata and addenda for that article, most of this information is available in the "Physician's Desk Reference" and the "Merck Index".

    VASOPRESSIN - It is a naturally occurring peptide that can cause a wide variety of effects beyond those mentioned in the article. It strains the heart by reducing the heart's food and oxygen supply and increasing the heart's workload by increasing blood pressure. In individuals with hidden or overt heart problems, this can mean a heart attack. In addition vasopressin can cause a dangerous elevation in brain fluid pressure, leading to stroke, coma, or death. Also it can produce vertigo, circumoral pallor, pounding headaches, cramps, diarrhea, gas, nausea, vomiting, urticaria, difficulty breathing, anaphylactic shock, and normal shock. It is dangerous to use in people with a history of epilepsy, migraine, asthma, heart failure, or poor kidney function. Vasopressin can have dangerous interactions with most stimulants, including pemoline, caffeine, diet pills, and cold medications. Overall vasopressin is a real Pandora's Box, but fortunately there is ongoing research to develop safer and more effective alternatives.

    CHOLINE, INOSITOL, VITAMIN B6, PHENYLALANINE, and DEANER - These compounds are both basically safe and effective if not spectacular. I would add a few notes though. Use caution with these if you have a history of epilepsy. Choline may be more effective when taken with inositol. B6 is more effective and better for you when taken in wide-spectrum mega-B vitamin supplements. PHENYLALANINE is neurotoxic and can cause brain damage in about 2% of the population [uploader's note: the 2% with the metabolic disorder PKU, that is], and it's probably not good in large doses for anyone. TYROSINE on the other hand is not toxic and is a more effective substitute. DEANER can be made more effective by combining it with METHIONINE, but be cautious of large doses of methionine if you have a history of psychosis. In addition, there are other nutrients that are save and effective in increasing psychological energy in most people, INOSINE, CYTOCHROME C, LYSINE, and GINSENG.

    HYDERGINE - It is an ergot alkaloid, the same chemical class as LSD, but with no psychedelic or immediate effects. It is currently prescribed to help alleviate some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, but, despite the tremendous numbers of people with this affliction, Hydergine is not widely used, mainly because it is only effective in about 1/3 of the people using it. As a matter of fact it worsens cognition in about 1/3 of people. It is dangerous to use in individuals with any history of psychosis, low or high blood pressure, heart disease, pregnant women (at any point in pregnancy), or a history of migraines. Hydergine has caused rashes, drug fever, headaches, dizziness, vision problems, appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fainting, sluggishness, drowsiness, emotional withdrawal, apathy, nervousness, hostility, confusion, depression, weakness, collapse, and coma.

    EUPHORIA - The section on Euphoria is really in a muddle. First of all it is not clear what Euphoria is. The chemical structure shown is the article is MDA (methylenedioxy amphetamine), a drug rejected long ago by both psychologists and users as inferior to MDMA (XTC); it is also Highly Illegal. The other name given for Euphoria was 3,4-Methylenedimethoxy Methamphetamine. This is an impossible chemical structure. Technically speaking, a chemical structure can contain a methylenedioxy group or have 2 methoxy groups; there is no such thing as a methylenedimethoxy group. None the less I can guess about Euphoria's toxicology from the effects R.U.Sirius describes and the class of drugs to which he claims it belongs. Like crystal methedrine it is almost certainly capable of precipitating paranoid psychosis, even in psychologically stable people. Though Sirius noticed no crash, he may have just been lucky. Amphetamines almost always have a crash. In general they also create tremendously large egos, and over confidence, so No judgement on mental improvement made by people under their influence can be trusted. Finally Euphoria is relatively untested, both scientifically and on the street. Its long and short term health effects are unknown by based on its chemical structure it would not be unreasonable to expect it to cause heart damage, brain damage, or cancer. I do not expect Euphoria to be any better than Coke or Speed, in the long run. I don't mean to sound cruel or cynical, but let some lab rats die before you put your neck on the line.

    PEMOLINE is an interesting drug at the center of some current research. Unfortunately, it is not known how the drug works. If it was, a safer alternative could be found. Pemoline has caused fatal liver failure, still births, La Tourette's Syndrome, seizures, hallucinations, uncontrollable movements of the tongue, lips, face, eyes, and extremities, depression, delirium, dizziness, irritability, headaches, drowsiness, insomnia, anorexia, nausea, and cramps. Caution should be used when combining it with any other drug because it is known to have strong dangerous interactions with many drugs. Finally, pemoline, a controlled substance, is recognized by the government as having an abuse/addiction liability.

    PRL-8-53 - I could find no information on this, even in the most up to date references. The fact that it still is referred to by its code number probably means that it is still highly experimental; they may not even know what its structure is yet. It might be safe, but you are playing neurochemical roulette.

    THA - This is potentially very dangerous. It is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor making its actions closely related to Nerve Gas, Pesticides and Strychnine. BE CAREFUL!

    I wish you all good luck in your quest for personal growth. I am sure in the near future science will come up with many things to help you. Please do not let enthusiasm interfere with accuracy and safety

    Name withheld upon request

    ======================================== ========== ========================

    Uploader's Notes:

    The previous letter is interesting in that the writer makes an erroneous assumption about the structure of Euphoria based on an erroneous and mislabeled diagram in the original R.U.Sirius article. Euphoria is NOT related to the methamphetamine class of drugs as this writer assumes! Euphoria IS however related to Pemoline (as R.U.Sirius implies in the text of his article), so the warnings above about Pemoline may well apply to Euphoria.

    The writer of this letter also makes a wrong assumption about PRL-8-53; namely, that it is so new that there's no info about it available yet. At the end of this file, there's an article out of "The Daily Breeze" Newspaper (which I don't have a date for, but it was published in either 1980 or 1981) that explains the origin of PRL-8-53.

    Strangely, R.U.Sirius didn't identify the chemical structure of PRL-8-53 either, even though he knew it was being investigated by Durk Pearson!

    ======================================== ========== ======================

    Yet More Letters to the Editor in response to the R.U.Sirius article above.

    From the Winter 1988 issue of "Whole Earth Review"

    ---

    NO EUPHORIA ABOUT CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

    In your Winter '87 issue, you ran an article by 'R.U.Sirius' entitled: "May You Never Sleep" dealing with personal use(s) of experimental or FDA licensed materials which your article collectively termed 'cognitive enhancers.' Some of these are prescription only drugs, others come from underground chemistry. Psychedelics generally have continued to receive erroneous, confused & even hysterical press stemming from the LSD chromosome scare of the mid-sixties through & into today's supposedly better informed press & reporters having, among other things, computer technology to aid in getting the facts straight. Or so one would think. Or at least hope.

    However, I'm sorry to say that 'Whole Earth Review' has perpetuated this same disregard for the facts of the matter not in one issue (Winter 1987) but again in your Summer 1988 issue, surrounding the same subject - U4Euh (Euphoria). In Sirius' original piece, he presented a completely False chemical identification diagram re: U4Euh, showing instead that if MDA, a completely different substance altogether. We all make mistakes, but Sirius AGAIN put his foot in his mouth, appearing in the June issue of 'Whole Mind" & calling U4Euh N-Methyl Aminorex, which is again false.

    In the Summer WER there is a letter of rebuttal to Sirius' article which attempted to once & for all (I suppose) set the facts straight, particularly about U4Euh. Here again, an attempt at correction dis-information IN ACTUALITY ends up spreading further myths surrounding U4Euh & psychedelics.

    The letter writer states: "finally, U4Euh is relatively untested, both scientifically & on the street, etc...."

    OK. Let's get some facts straight & clear up a lot of confusion about this substance U4Euh. U4Euh (4-Methyl Aminorex) was 1st discovered by a research group headed by Georde Poos at McNeil Laboratory in Ft. Walsh, PA. in the early 1960's. The 1st published report appeared in 'The Journal of Med. Chem." in 1963 [1] & several other patents were issued in Belgium, France & the US [2,3,4]. Three other papers were published regarding U4Euh in 1963 & 1966 [5,6,7].

    In the mid 1980's, U4Euh was resurrected within the underground & noncontrolled experiments were carried out on humans. The substance's new spokesman was named The Friendly Stranger & samples were studied at, among other places, the Continental Rainbow Gatherings. Both instructional manuals as WELL as ongoing research results were distributed to those having interest & concern about U4Euh & its effects.

    There are two forms of U4Euh currently available via the underground - the free-base & the hydrochloride. Prices range from $75 pre gram for the hydrochloride upwards to $150 per gram for the most powerful free-base.

    This substance (4-Methyl Aminorex) was placed on schedule I by the DEA & the FDA in 1987. The resultant scheduling report presented by the DEA shows a Death associated with its use (or abuse).

    Unfortunately psychedelics or 'cognitive enhancers' remain the legendary, obscurely attractive sources for 'bad press' - & are kept illegal - BECAUSE false, misleading, obtuse or hysterical reporting (like that perpetuated in your WER) outweighs the true facts of the matter.

    I hope that author R.U.Sirius & WER continue to provide insightful articles in the area(s) of drug use/abuse. However, some attempt must be made to provide accurate reporting, especially in areas already worked over by too much of the same.

    Best wishes, Thomas Lyttle, Publisher, Psychedelic Monographs and Essays

    References:

    [1] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 6, 266 (1963) [2] Belgian Patent 628,803, June 16, 1963 [3] French Patent M2448, May 4, 1964 [4] U.S.Patents 3,161,650 Dec 15, 1964 and 3,278,382 Oct 11,1966 [5] Archives Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 164(2) 412-18 (1966) [6] Journal of Pharm. & Experim. Therapeutics 140: 367-374 (1963) [7] Ibid. 141:180-84 (1964) [8] Journ. Clin. Pharmacology 7:296-302 (1967) [9] Science 1982 218(457)487-490 [10] Annual Reviews of Med. Chemistry 1965 51-58 (1966)44-47

    The above mentioned references were provided by 'Psychedelic Monographs & Essays' from an upcoming piece entitled: "A Chemical and Pharmacological Review of Euphoria or Intellex" by 'The New Age Chemist'.

    This piece will appear in the Autumn 1988 (vol.4) issue of PM&E.

    ---

    ANOTHER ALCHEMIST WHO AGREES

    Dear Friends,

    I read with interest the article in issue #57 on intelligence drugs by "R.U.Sirius." I also read the same author's letter correcting the depicted structure and identification of "Euphoria" in issue #58.

    I too noticed that the chemical structure on page 58(#57) was that of 3,4-methylene dioxymethamphetamine (mistakenly spelled as "3,4-Methylene Dimethoxy Methamphetamine"). while it was incorrectly labeled as "EUPHORIA." The label was meant to say "chemically related to MDA." The label was however, correct in stating that it was "Ecstacy."

    In "Sirius's" letter (#58, page 140) correcting his article in issue #57, he (?) states that "Euphoria is N-Methyl Aminorex and looks like this -

    C6H5 O NH2 \/ \/ | || [uploader's note: THIS IS THE CORRECT U4EUH.] |___N / CH3

    Well, this structure is not that of N-Methyl Aminorex. It is correctly called 4-Methyl Aminorex.

    Aminorex has the structure:

    [Diagram of Aminorex]

    And the structure of N-Methyl Aminorex is as follows:

    [Diagram of N-Methyl Aminorex]

    I am not yet sure what the correct chemical structure of "Euphoria" is but I am sure of the above information. Perhaps this will help clear up the misunderstanding.

    "Sirius," maybe you could try again to enlighten us? What is the correct structure and name of "Euphoria"?

    Yours sincerely, The Alchemist Vashon, Washington

    Article from "The Daily Breeze" newspaper, published around 1980 or 1981

    Chemical Found to Improve Memory

    OMAHA (AP) - Creighton University researchers say they have discovered an organic chemical compound which apparently improves memory and intellectual performance that normally deteriorate with aging.

    Dr. Nikolaus Hansl, associate professor of medical chemistry and a member of the team of scientists, said the compound, known as PRL-8-53, counters the destruction of certain chemical pathways in the brain by "making up the slack chemically."

    In a clinical study at Creighton, Hansl said, 58 college students performed better on intellectual tasks when they were given the compound, which he described as similar to an amino acid.

    In another study published in 1978, researchers compared the compound's effects on performance of college students with that of persons who were over 30.

    The participants were asked to remember lists of "nonsense syllables," geometric objects and other tasks, Hansl said.

    "The older group showed a 130% to 140% improvement in memory over the college students," he said.

    He said the effect of the compound lasted about seven hours, and added that even after the effect faded, memory was better.

    "Experiences from the past that were fading were recalled better" with no detectable side effects, he said.

    Hansl said the compound could help "the geriatric population - anyone over 30 - such as the elderly man who forgets his glasses or loses a thought in midsentence. I would like to make them more self-sufficient."

    Another use, he said, could aid those "in intellectual stress situations, such as a businessman or student, to perform tasks better."

    But Hansl added there have been no indications that people with brain damage could benefit from the compound.

    He said the research team is working on a related compound which could produce even better results. They are now evaluating the clinical effects of the compound.

    Hansl, who had been involved in the research project for more than 15 years, said the chemical is one of a new group of compounds that were studied in the search for a new tranquilizer that would not slow down intellectual functions.

    ==============================

    Uploader's Note:

    On the back of the above news clipping I wrote:

    "PRL-8-53 is 3-(2-benzylmethylamino ethyl) benzoic acid methyl ester"

    I don't recall where I found that piece of info, but I suspect it was from an item in "Science News".

    The Reader's Guide to Periodic Literature lists the following reference to PRL-8-53:

    "Learning and Memory Improvment Through Chemistry: Dream or Reality in the Offing." (PRL-8-53) by Nicolas Hansl & A.B. Hansl in the "Phi Delta Kappan" 61:264-5 December 1979

    But I haven't been able to get a copy of that article yet.

    ---

    Finally, the magazine "Reality Hackers/High Frontiers" which R.U.Sirius edits is available from:

    Fun City MegaMedia/Mondo 2000 PO Box 49271, Berkeley, CA 94704 (415)845-9018

    And the "Whole Earth Review" is available from:

    Whole Earth Review PO Box 15187, Santa Ana, CA 92705-9913

    ---

    ======================================== ========== ======================= ENHANCER.TXT 14-JUL-90

    NEW DRUGS THAT MAKE YOU SMART by John Morgenthaler from MONDO 2000 - issue #2

    The term nootropic comes from the Greek word meaning "acting on the mind." Since the invention of Piracetam by UBC laboratories in Belgium, other drug companies have been scrambling to develop their own nootropics. Some of them being researched now include; Vinpocetine, Aniracetam, Pramiracetam, and Oxiracetam. As yet, there is no nootropic drug that is FDA approved for sale in the United States, but there is plenty of motivation on the part of the drug companies to get that approval - financial analysts expect the U.S. market for cognitive enhancers - smart pills - to soon be in excess of one billion dollars per year!

    Nootropics are very interesting because of their lack of any demonstrable toxicity. They are not, however, the only substances that increase intelligence. There are over 30 chemicals that have been shown to improve animal and/or human intelligence (learning and data processing of particular types of tasks.) Here I propose to present a practical, drug-by-drug guide to the use of the most interesting of these cognitive enhancement compounds, and where you can get them.

    Disclaimer: This article should not be interpreted as medical advice or an attempt to encourage the use of cognitive enhancement dru... uh, compounds. You must consult with a licensed physician for such medical advice. We don't even want you to EXPERIMENT WITH THESE COMPOUNDS. Nor do we wish to imply, in any way, that you should try to INCREASE YOUR INTELLIGENCE or MAKE YOURSELF INTO A SUPERBEING. Heaven forfend!

    --------------- CENTROPHENOXINE (Trade Name: Lucidril)

    Centrophenoxine is an intelligence booster and also an effective anti-aging therapy. It has been shown to cause improvements in various aspects of memory function and a 30% increase in lifespan of laboratory animals.

    One of the most widely recognized aspects of aging is the buildup of lipofuscin in brain cells (lipofuscin is the stuff that age spots are made of.) Centrophenoxine removes lipofuscin deposits from brain cells and reduces its rate of accumulation in young brain cells. It also rejuvenates the synaptic structure - the area where the actual transfer of information takes place between nerve cells.

    PRECAUTIONS: Centrophenoxine should not be used by persons who are easily excitable, people with severe arterial hypertension, or those subject to convulsions or involuntary musculoskeletal movements. The drug also should not be used by nursing mothers. Adverse effects are rare, but include hyperexcitability, insomnia, tremors, motion sickness, paradoxical drowsiness, and depression. There is no toxicity of Centrophenoxine at therapeutic doses.

    DOSAGE: Take 1000 to 3000mg per day. Centrophenoxine takes effect very quickly. You'll notice an increase in alertness and a slight stimulating quality.

    SOURCES: Centrophenoxine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from the address below. -------------- CHOLINE / LECITHIN:

    Choline can be found in several forms including choline bitartrate, choline chloride, or phosphatidyl choline. Phosphatidyl choline (PC) is the active ingredient of lecithin. All of these forms of choline will produce memory boosting effects, but PC has some unique effects as well.

    Choline compounds, including PC, are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier, where the brain utilizes the choline to make acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in memory). Thus, choline enhances memory by increasing the amount of acetylcholine available for memory and thought processes.

    PC has some other important health benefits. It functions as a source of structural material for every cell in the human body, particularly those of the brain and nerves. It also aids in the metabolism of fats, regulates blood cholesterol, and nourishes the fat-like sheathes of nerve fibers.

    PRECAUTIONS: Any compound that acts like a precursor to acetylcholine such as choline, PC, or DMAE should not be used by people who are manic depressive because it can deepen the depressive phase. Choline bitartrate and choline chloride can sometimes cause a fishy odor or diarrhea. PC, however, does not have either of these effects.

    DOSAGE: Take 3 grams of choline per day in three divided doses. If you're taking lecithin you need to take a lot more because only part of the lecithin is choline. Often the label will provide information on the quantity of choline per tablespoon. All forms of choline should be taken with one gram per day of vitamin B-5 so that the choline can be converted into acetylcholine.

    SOURCES: Choline and lecithin are considered nutritional supplements and can be found at health food or drug stores. Commercial lecithin usually contains other oils and phosphatides besides phosphatidyl choline. Look at the label before you buy and make sure the product contains more than 30% phosphatidyl choline. Also, you should taste your lecithin and make sure it does not taste bitter (this indicates rancidity). Much lecithin on the market is rancid. The best form of lecithin I know is Twin Labs brand "PC 55" - it contains 55% PC and is always very fresh.

    DHEA:

    Dehydroepiandosterone (pronounced dee-hi-dro-epp-ee-an-dro-ster-own) is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland. DHEA is the most abundant steroid in the human bloodstream. Research has found it to have significant anti-obesity, anti-tumor, anti-aging, and anti-cancer effects. DHEA levels naturally drop as people age and there is a good reason to think that taking a DHEA supplement may extend your life and make you more youthful while you're alive. Additionally, DHEA may be an important player in cognitive enhancement.

    DHEA is involved in protecting brain neurons from senility-associated degenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease. Not only does the neuronal degenerative condition occur most frequently at the time of lowest DHEA levels, but brain tissue contains more DHEA than is found in the bloodstream. In an experiment with brain cell tissue cultures, Dr. Eugene Roberts found that very low concentrations of DHEA were found to "increase the number of neurons, their ability to establish contacts, and their differentiation." DHEA also enhanced long-term memory in mice undergoing avoidance training. Perhaps it plays a similar role in human brain function.

    DOSAGE of DHEA ranges from 50 mg to 2000 mg per day. There is no solid information indicating an optimal dosage for humans, but, if you want to get serious, you can get your DHEA levels checked every few months (for about $65), each time raising the amount of DHEA you take. When your blood levels reach what is normal for a 20-year-old human, then you're taking enough.

    SOURCES: DHEA is now being used by many people with AIDS because of its immune enhancement and antiviral effects. DHEA is not FDA approved but AIDS buyers groups are able to sell it to members because the FDA has a policy of looking the other way when it comes to the activity of these groups.

    HYDERGINE (ERGOLOID MESYLATES):

    Research in other countries has shown that Hydergine improves mental function, prevents damage to brain cells, and may even be able to reverse existing damage to brain cells. Hydergine acts in several ways to enhance mental capabilities and slow down or reverse the aging processes in the brain. Its wide variety of effects include the following:

    1. Increases in blood supply to the brain.

    2. Increases the amount of oxygen delivered to the brain.

    3. Enhances metabolism in brain cells.

    4. Protects the brain from damage during periods of decreased and/or insufficient oxygen supply.

    5. Slows the deposit of age pigment (lipofuscin) in the brain.

    6. Prevents free radical damage to brain cells.

    7. Increases intelligence, memory, learning and recall.

    8. Normalizes systolic blood pressure.

    9. lowers abnormal high cholesterol levels in some cases.

    10. Reduces symptoms of tiredness, dizziness, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

    One way that Hydergine may enhance memory and learning is by mimicking the effect of a substance called nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF stimulates protein synthesis that results in the growth of dendrites in brain cells. Dendrites facilitate communication throughout the central nervous system and are necessary for memory and learning. New learning requires new dendritic growth.

    PRECAUTIONS: If too large a dose is used when first taking Hydergine. it may cause slight nausea, gastric disturbance, or headache. Overall, Hydergine does not produce any serious side effects, it is non-toxic even at very large doses, and it is contraindicated only for individuals who have chronic or acute psychosis.

    DOSAGE: The US recommended dosage is 3 mg per day; however, the European recommended dosage is 9 mg per day, taken in three divided doses. Most of the research has been done at levels of 9 to 12 mg per day. It may take several weeks before you notice the effects of hydergine.

    SOURCES: Hydergine is available in the United States and you can buy it if you have a doctor's prescription, but keep in mind that your doctor may not be familiar with the uses I have discussed. It can also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from overseas (see below).

    SULBUTIAMINE (ARCALION):

    Sulbutiamine is a new compound that has been described as being like Hydergine only better. It has been shown to facilitate wakefulness, improve long-term memory, speed up reaction time, decrease anxiety, and increase overall resistance to stress.

    DOSAGE: To combat fatigue take two 200mg tablets per day, always with breakfast or an AM meal, for a period of 20 days. Do not exceed three tablets at any time as this very powerful substance may cause severe headaches. Other than this, Sulbutiamine has no known adverse side effects.

    SOURCES: Sulbutiamine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased by mail order from the address below.

    VASOPRESSIN (DIAPID):

    Vasopressin is a brain hormone that is released by the pituitary gland. It improves attention, concentration, memory retention, and recall (both short-term and long-term). Vasopressin facilitates more effective learning by helping to "imprint" new information in the memory centers of the brain, a function which cannot be achieved without the action of vasopressin.

    Cocaine, LSD, amphetamines, Ritalin, and Cylert (pemoline) cause a release of vasopressin. Frequent use of these drugs can deplete levels of vasopressin with a result of making you slow and dopey. If you feel burnt out, a whiff of vasopressin can transform your experience in about 10 seconds because it is a direct application of the specific brain chemical that has been depleted.

    Alcohol and marijuana, however, inhibit the release of vasopressin. A whiff of vasopressin when using these drugs will compensate for much of the dopiness caused by them.

    Vasopressin is very useful in situation where there is a large amount of new information to learn. It increases your ability to memorize and recall specific factual information.

    PRECAUTIONS: Vasopressin usually produces the following side effects: runny nose, nasal congestion, itch or irritation of the nasal passages, headache, abdominal cramps, and increased bowel movements. Vasopressin has not been proven safe for use during pregnancy.

    DOSAGE: Vasopressin usually comes in a nasal spray bottle. Most studies showing memory improvement have been done with a dose of 12 to 16 USP per day or about two whiffs three or four times per day. Vasopressin produces a noticeable effect within seconds.

    SOURCES: Vasopressin is available in the United States. You can buy it if you have a doctor's prescription, but keep in mind that your doctor may not be familiar with the uses I have discussed. It can also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from overseas (see below).

    VINPOCETINE (CAVINTON):

    Vinpocetine, like Piracetam, is a nootropic drug and a powerful memory enhancer. It facilitates cerebral metabolism by improving cerebral microcirculation (blood flow), stepping up brain cells' production of ATP (the cellular energy molecule), increasing the brain's use of glucose, and increasing the brain's oxygen utilization.

    Vinpocetine is often used for the treatment of cerebral circulatory disorders such as memory problems, aphasia, apraxia, motor disorders, dizziness, and headache.

    PRECAUTIONS: Adverse effects are rare, but include hypotension and tachycardia. It has no drug interactions, no toxicity, and is generally very safe.

    DOSAGE: One or two 5 mg. tablets per day.

    SOURCES: Vinpocetine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased by mail from the address below.

    MAIL ORDER:

    A little known FDA ruling now allows the importation of a three-month personal supply of drugs as long as they are regarded as safe in other countries. Ordering safe but unapproved drugs is now legal under the new FDA pilot guidelines, Chapter 971. This compromise was made under pressure from AIDS political action groups because the were being denied access to potentially life-saving substances.





    * Other cognitive enhancers include: xanthinol nicotinate, fenozolone (Ordinator), idebenone, Ginko biloba, acetyl-1-carnitine, DMAE, pyroglutamate, RNA (ribonucleic acid), isoprinosine, phenylalanine, phenytoin (Dilantin), pemoline, Ritalin, vitamin B-12, ACTH 4-10, L-prolyl L leucyl glycine amide, niacin, vitamin C, ginseng, GH3 (Gerovital), PRL-8-53, R-58-735, ISF-2522, THA, metrazol and strychnine (the last two are very dangerous). We will be reporting on some of the more exotic members of the tribe in upcoming issues.

    John Morgenthaler is the founder of the Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute (CERI). Send communications to John Morgenthaler, CERI, PO Box 483, Santa Cruz, CA 96061. If you would like a copy of the CERI newsletter, send $1 (for handling) along with a self-addressed, stamped envelope.







    shawn74797 Posted: Jan 23 2006, 10:19 AM
    Advanced Member


    Group: Advanced Members
    Posts: 316
    Member No.: 74797
    Joined: 21-May 05
    Warn: (10%)

    Piracetam
    pyrogluamate
    Vinpocetine
    Acetyl-L-carnitine
    Centrophenoxine (lucidril)
    Choline
    AL721 (egg lecithin)
    DHEA (alliance 7 San diego 619-291-5360, HAF San fran 415-626-2316 &
    PDA New York 212-532-0363 )
    Deaner (DMAE)
    GEROVITAL (GH-3)
    Hydergine
    Phenytoin (Dilantin)
    Propranolol Hydrochloride (Inderal)
    Vasopressin (Diapid) nasal spray only
    Vincamine
    Xanthinol Nicotinate
    L-tryptophan
    L-Phenylalanine

    And a host of Aminos, Vitamins and assorted goodies. GOOD LUCK!!

    PS - new book, "Smart drugs & nutrients" Ward Dean, M.D. & john Morgenthaler
    Addr - B&J Publication, P.O. Box 483, Santa Cruz, CA 95061-0483
    IF YOU SEND A SASE, THEY WILL SEND YOU A LIST OF PHYSICIANS KNOWLEDGEABLE
    ABOUT SMART DRUGS & NUTRIENTS !! PLUS THEY HAVE A NEWLETTER FOR FREE!!!

    ***************************** Article Separation ******************************

    Earlier, there were some questions about amino acids on alt.drugs.
    I posted a scanty summary of some of aminos I was interested in.
    More questions appeared after that, posted and in my mail box.
    This file is quite a bit more complete but still doesn't list
    many of the 22 or so anabolic steroids. (eg. alanine, histidine, idoleucine,
    proline, serine, threonine, valine... these are all common, but
    i haven't found much info on them).
    Documentation and sources are missing, so please don't take this
    file too seriously. I probably won't create another version of
    this for a while.

    (Note that this is a Folded file, for those with MSDOS machines and
    the shareware editor.)

    =============================
    AMINO ACIDS AND THEIR EFFECTS
    =============================
    Version 1.1
    Compiled by: Bj Krawchuk ([email protected])
    Several sources have been used and may be requested from above.

    (*@/// Phenylalanine *)
    (*@/// L-phenylalanine *)
    L-phenylalanine
    - converted into tyrosine which is
    precursor to noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine
    - like all amino acids best taken on empty stomach since it competes
    with proteins to cross the blood brain barrier.
    - requires vitamins C and B-6 for the conversion to NE.
    - Dosage: 500 - 1000mg along with 1g C, 30-50mg B-6
    - phenylalanine also stimulates the release of
    cholecystokinin, which is the body's own appetite-suppressant,
    - can increase sexual interest
    - improves memory and mental alertness
    - antidepressant
    - do not use L-phenylalanine or L-tyrosine if you are
    using MAO inhibitors for depression (it can cause a
    major elevation in blood pressure).
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// DL-phenylalanine *)
    DL-phenylalanine
    - combination of synthetic (D) and natural (L) phenylalanine
    - produces endorphins and stimulates their use
    - thus, effective painkiller, often better than the
    opiate derivatives such as morphine.
    - nonaddictive, nontoxic
    - reverse-tolerance effect (pain relief gets better)
    - strong anti-depressant effect
    - can be combined with other pain-killers
    with few bad interactions
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Tyrosine *)
    L-tyrosine
    - precursor to norepinephrine and dopamine
    - non-essential amino acid (since PA is converted into it first)
    - has been studied as an effective aid to cocaine withdrawal
    - (see L-phenylalanine)
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Tryptophan *)
    L-tryptophan
    - precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin along with
    B6, niacin, and magnesium.
    - (actually immediate precursor to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP)
    which is the precursor to serotonin (5HT))
    - prolongs slow-wave sleep
    - reduces pain sensitivity
    - no effect or increases REMS
    - has some hypnotic effects
    - useful for some types of endogenous depression
    (has been found as useful as imipramine and amitriptyline)
    - aids in reducing anxiety and tension
    - an appetite supressant
    - dosages have been studied up to 15g
    - Major Food Sources:
    Cottage cheese, milk, meat, fish, turkey, bananas,
    dried dates, peanuts, all protein-rich foods.
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Lysine *)

    L-lysine
    - needed for growth and enzyme, hormone, antibody production
    - aids concentration
    - treatment for some sterility problems
    - treatment and prevention for herpes infections
    - aids fatty acid -> energy conversion
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Arginine *)
    L-arginine
    - used to increase sperm counts
    (semen contains up to 80% of arginine)
    - aids immune response and healing of wounds
    - helps stored fat metabolism
    - helps to tone muscle tissue
    - used for weight-loss in combination with L-ornithine
    - one amino acid required for production of growth hormone
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Ornithine *)
    L-ornithine
    - similar to arginine
    - growth hormone (which acts as a fat metabolizer) is
    stimulated to be released by ornithine and arginine.
    - can be used as a slimming technique (while you sleep -
    GH is released by the pituitary gland then)
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Glutamine *)

    L-glutamine
    - converted to glutamic acid, the brain's emergency source of
    energy when glucose is in short supply.
    - precursor to the neurotransmitter GABA
    - neutralizes excess ammonia (which can inhibit proper
    brain function)
    - improves intelligence
    - helps to control alcoholism
    - helps to speed ulcer healing
    - alleviates fatigue, depression, impotence,
    schizophrenia, senility
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Aspartic Acid *)
    L-aspartic acid
    - ammonia neutralizer
    - a study showed improved stamina and endurance in atheletes
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Cysteine *)

    L-cysteine
    - cystine is its stable form
    - antioxidant
    - contains sulfur
    - protects cellular membranes from "free radical damage"
    - prevents alcohol and cigarette smoke damage to the brain
    - stimulant to immune system
    - believed to be good for antiaging
    - effective against copper toxicity (eg. Wilson's disease)
    - protects against X-ray and nuclear radiation
    - warning: may affect insulin effectiveness
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Methionine *)
    L-methionine
    - antioxidant
    - contains sulfur
    - prevents damage of brain cells from toxic heavy metals
    - important in producing neurotransmitters and energy
    - lowers blood level of histamine
    (this may help some types of schizophrenia)
    - combined with choline and folic acid, can prevent some
    types of tumors
    - deficiencies: hair loss, atherosclerosis, cholestorol deposits,
    edema, poor urine processing
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Glycine *)
    L-glycine
    - treatment for poor pituitary functioning
    - supplies creatine which is essential for muscle function
    (effective against muscular dystrophy)
    - treatment for hypoglycemia
    - stimulates glucagon which metabolizes glycogen into glucose
    - antacid
    - treatment for low blood pH
    - treatment for leucine imbalance-causing body odor and halitosis
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Leucine *)
    L-taurine
    - nonessential amino acid
    - aids efficient conduction of electrical impulses
    along nerve pathways
    - anticonvulsant (esp in combo with glutamic, aspartic acids)
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Glutathione *)
    L-Glutathione
    - tripeptide amino acid made of cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine
    - "triple threat" antiaging
    - antioxidant
    - anti-tumor agent
    - respiratory accelerator in the brain
    - used in the treatment of: allergies, cataracts, diabetes,
    hypoglycemia, arthritis
    - prevents some side effects of chemotherapy and X-ray radiation
    - protects against some harmful side-effects of cigarrette smoke
    and alcohol
    (*@\\\*)
    (*@/// Carnatine *)
    L-carnatine
    - newly discovered amino acid
    - aids stored fat -> energy conversion
    - helps: hypoglycemia, reduces angina attacks, diabetes,
    liver disease, kidney disease
    - deficiency causes heart tissue damage
    (*@\\\*)

    ***************************** Article Separation ******************************

    Tyrosine is available in a free form base . Suggestion
    would be to start with 100mg of tyrosine at first, then to increase (weekly)
    to 300mg. Overdose symptoms include irratibility. This will need to be taken
    with several precursor vitamins like C B-5,6,12, for uptake into the
    blood/brain barrier. This amino wil compete with protein uptake, so take it
    on an empty stomach - see the book 'Life Extension" D. Pearson & S. Shaw -

    ***************************** Article Separation ******************************

    A safe stimulant which is not caffiene does exist and it available as
    a non-prescription drug from many health food stores. It's called
    Dimethylaminoethanol, or DMAE. It works pretty well as a stimulant and
    also increases levels of acetylcholine (it's a precursor). It also
    makes rats perform significantly better on maze tests, because the
    increased acetylcholine assists in some aspects of memory.

    Another way to decrease need for sleep is to raise brain levels of
    dopamine, which can be done by taking phenylalanine. It should be
    taken on an empty stomach (500 mg to 1 gram is a reasonable dose)
    with 1g vitamin C and 50 mg vitamin B-6 to assist in the conversion of
    phenylalanine to dopamine. Another way to take the phenylalanine
    is to place a small amount between the upper lip and gum about halfway back
    in the mouth. There are blood vessels there which go directly to the brain.
    If you're using this method, you should try a smaller dose (100 mg), as it is
    more effective when taken in this manner.

    Using these and other "safe" (i.e. adjusting the body's own chemicals
    rather than introducing something new; not necessarily safe but a priori
    a better bet than most traditional stimulants) I have been able to
    cut my need for sleep by 4 hours per day without discomfort for weeks at a
    time. I have no reason to believe that they would not be effective if
    used longer, but circumstances of class work seldom required me to cut
    sleep for longer periods than this.

    Be advised, however, that these methods will not be as powerful as,
    say, amphetamines or even high-dose caffiene, but they are not likely to
    mess you up either. But if you are trying to stay up for two nights
    to finish some huge project, you might be better off sticking with
    caffiene and cold showers.

    ****************************** Article Separation *****************************

    Yes, aspartame is the methyl ester of phenylalanine and aspartic acid,
    two amino acids. According to Richard Wurtman of MIT, you can get
    increases in brain levels of phenylalanine if low-protein foods such
    as soft drinks are consumed on an empty stomach.

    The brain requires vitamins B-6 and C to convert phenylalanine into
    the natural stimulant noradrenaline and another important brain chemical,
    dopamine (which is also, among other things, a stimulant and euphoric)

    Thus even if you are taking no supplemental phenylalanine, you can
    still get beneficial effects on mood, etc., by taking C and B-6
    because your brain will become more efficient at converting the
    phenylalanine that is already present in your diet.

    Speaking of diets, phenylalanine also stimulates the release of
    cholecystokinin, which is the body's own appetite-suppressant,
    used to tell the brain when the stomach has had enough. So phenylalanine
    acts indirectly as an appetite-suppressant.

    Note that all of the effects of phenylalanine are greatly enhanced if
    it is taken either on an empty stomach or with low-protein foods,
    because various proteins compete with phenylalanine for transport
    across the blood-brain barrier.

    Dosage: 500mg to 1g phenylalanine, plus 1g C, 30 to 50mg B-6.

    WARNING: Do NOT use phenylalanine:
    *If you are using MAO inhibitors, unless they are the extremely
    selective types such as deprenyl (selegiline);
    *If you have a cardiac arrythmia;
    *If you have hypertension;
    *If you have phenylketonuria;
    *If you have a psychosis;
    *If you have a pigmented malignant melanoma-type cancer;
    *If you have a violent temper.

    If you are taking other stimulants such as phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine,
    or even, potentially, caffiene or theophylline, you should monitor your
    blood pressure carefully because there is a possiblity of blood pressure
    rise and other problems characteristic of adrenaline-like drug oversoda.

    ***************************** Article Separation ******************************

    Phenylalanine and many other amino acid supplements are available
    mail-order.
    Tryptophan is currently banned for sale in the US, due to the
    contamination scare of last year. The source of the contamination
    was found (an experimental genetically-engineered bacteria used by
    _one_ Japanese firm to manufacture the Tryptophan) but the FDA has
    still refused to lift the ban.

    ***************************** Article Separation ******************************

    A little-known FDA ruling now allows the importation af a 3 month personal
    supply of drugs as long as they are regarded as safe in other countries.

    All of the drugs briefly discuussed here can be pruchased without a
    prescription.

    Some Highly regarded Chemicals include:

    HYDERGINE (Ergoloid Mesylates)- Improves mental function, prevents
    hypoxia and other damage to brain cells,increases blood supply to brain,
    enhances brain metabolism, slows deposit of aging pigment and other
    posistive effects
    PRECAUTIONS- Too large inital dose may cause nausea, gastric
    disturbance or headache. Non-toxic even at very high dosages.
    Contraindicated for individuals with acute or chronic psychosis.
    DOSE- 9-12 mg/Day


    SULBUTIAMINE (Arcalion)- Described as being like hydergine only better.
    Facilitates wakefullness, inproves long-term memory, speeds reaction time
    .
    decreases anxiety.
    PRECAUTIONS- Do not exceed 3 x 200mg tablets at any time as may
    cause severe headaches. Other than this has no other adverse affects.
    DOSE- 2 x 200mg. tablets for 20 days.


    VASSOPRESSIN (Diapid)- A brain hormone released by the pituitary.
    Improve attention, concentration, memory and reacall.
    Cocaine, LSD, amphetamines, Ritalin, and Cylert(pemoline) cause depletion
    of
    vassopressin. Marijuana and alchohol inhibit the release of vassopressin.
    A
    Whiff of vassopressin can transform your experience in about 10 seconds
    when using these drugs as it is an application of the specific hormone
    being
    affected.
    PRECAUTIONS- Vassopressin occasionall produces the following side
    affects;
    runny nose, nasal congestion, itch or irritation of the nasal cavities,
    headach
    abdominal cramps and increased bowel movements. Safety during
    pregnancy unknown.
    DOSE- Comes in a nasal spray bottle. 2-4 whiffs 3-4 time2 a day will
    produce
    noticeable affects in seconds.



    ****************************** Article Separation *****************************

    Some friends of mine make a vitamin formula that they sell to drug treatment
    clinics to combat the neurotransmitter deficit caused by stimulant abuse...
    It really works,a lot of people have been helped off cocaine with it.

    There are two separate preparations, an AM and PM formula,
    The PM formula used to contain tryptophan,but now does not,obviously,
    However,they have had some sucess with a formula that maximizes the conversion
    of dietary tryptophan into serotonin.

    Here is the formula...

    AM......

    L-tyrosine 250 mg.
    D,L phenylalanine 125 mg.
    Pantothenic acid 25 mg.
    PABA 25 mg.
    DMAE 25 mg.
    Rubidium Cl 25 mg.
    Tocopherol acetate 12.5 mg.
    Beta carotene 2.5 mg.
    Manganese (gluconate) 2.5 mg.
    Folic acid 0.1 mg
    Copper gluconate .125 mg
    Selenium .25 mg.

    PM.......

    Niacinamide (ascorbate) 250 mg.
    Taurine 50 mg.
    Magnesium oxide 50 mg.
    Pyridoxine 25 mg.
    Niacin 12.5 mg.
    Riboflavin 12.5 mg
    Zinc 2.5 mg.
    Beta carotene 2.5 mg.
    Chromium (GTF) .025 mg.
    Vitamin B12 .0125 mg.


    This is basically a neurotransmitter boosting formula and benefits those
    who dont have a drug abuse problem too.

    *************************** Article Separation *********************************

    I was recently lucky enough to be given several ounces of pure DMAE
    (dimethylaminoethanol) and boy,is it ever a lot better than the Twinlab
    stuff,which I had previously been using...

    I use it in combination with tyrosine in the morning and it has dramatically
    improved my memory (and an interesting sideffect is the induction of lucid
    dreams...)

    A good source for DMAE are the AIDS buying clubs that have popped up in
    major cities..(although thats not where I got this..)

    For anyone interested in neurotransmitter precursor supplementation
    (DMAE,a relative of choline,is a precursor of acetylcholine)
    this one REALLY works..

    **************************** Article Separation *******************************

    ---------------------------------

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    This month's legal high is not a single substance, but a subject...
    SMART DRUGS. If you regularly read MONDO 2000 or alt.cyberpunk, just
    skip this posting because you already know it all... otherwise, read on!

    Many of you might have heard of Smart Drugs, via NPR, or the Nightly News
    (and also Nightline). Smart Drugs are a *new* breed of drugs termed
    *nootropic*. Nootropic comes from the Greek word meaning "acting on
    the mind". Nootropic drugs have in common.... (1) They all work on
    the brain and/or blood/brain barrier and (2) They all have *fairly* low
    toxicity levels.

    Smart Drugs can do things like:

    1) Improve mental functioning and even increase IQ (lots of arguments
    on the IQ increasing - but research is proving it true)
    2) Increase lifespan (30% or higher)
    3) Decrease some of the *bad* degenerative effects of aging
    4) Increase mental clarity
    5) Done in combination with *illegal drugs*, Smart Drugs can undo
    some of the less-desirable effects (eg., foggyness, dizzyness,
    tiredness etc..).

    On Toxicity:

    Many of the nootropic drugs are SO nontoxic that the PDR lists them as
    having no known overdose levels, and no known symptoms or contradictions.
    THIS IS NOT TO SAY that ALL smart drugs are safe. Certainly not... and
    you should be fairly knowledgable about them before you do them - especially
    in combination! A couple of the nootropic drugs do have contradictions
    so PLEASE be careful in experimentation. (Note, certain combinations of
    nootropic drugs, done together, will have unpleasant, if not dangerous
    effects - PLEASE BE CAREFUL - never experiment with them together, until
    you have experimented with them each, individually, over a period of time.
    Make SURE you read the PDR on each of them, because some of them do have
    contradictions, especially if you have other conditions (eg., angina, etc..)).

    What Do They Do?

    Here is a partial (very partial) list of some smart drugs. ALL these
    drugs are available, in the US, by prescription. ALL of these drugs
    are available, outside of the US, without prescription AND MAY LEGALLY
    BE BROUGHT INTO THE US by you (more on this at the end of the article).

    The following table lists SOME of the drugs, their use as smart drugs,
    the NORMAL dose, and their use in the US, as indicated by the FDA. Blank
    items are because I don't have all my reference material at my side. Note
    that most of this information came via Mondo 2000, and other books.

    Drug Name Trade Name Dose Remarks
    --------- ---------- ---- -------
    Centrophenoxine Lucidril 1000 to Intelligence Booster and
    3000 mg/day Antiaging. Improvements in
    memory function and 30% increase
    in lifespan of mice. Removes
    Lipofuscin deposits in the brain.
    * This drug has contradictions *
    Choline 3 g/day Helps the brain make acetylcholine
    (also Lecithin) DO NOT DO if manic depressive
    Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA 50 to Anti-tumor, Anti-aging, Anti-
    2000 mg/day obesity. Protects brain neurons
    from senility degenerative
    conditions. Naturally present
    in the body, but decreases with
    age.
    Ergoloid Mesylates Hydergine 3 to 9 Increases blood supply to brain.
    mg/day Increases oxygen to brain
    Protects brain from oxygen starv-
    ation. Reduces tiredness and
    dizziness. Normalizes systolic
    pressure. Increases intelligence.
    Gingko 20 mg Blood vessel dilators.
    Piracetam Nootropyl 2400 to Cognitive enhancer and memory
    8000 mg/day improver.
    Sulbutiamine Arcalion 400 mg/day Facilitate wakefulness and
    improve long term memory. Increase
    resistance to stress.
    Vasopressin Diapid A blast up Helps you learn new memories.
    each nose Improves attention, concentration
    and recall. Made by SANDOZ!
    Helps undo the foggyness of
    alcohol and marijuna, and can undo
    the 'slowness' of coke, lsd etc..
    Vincamine Oxicebral low dose Alertness / activity.
    Vinpocetine Cavinton 5 mg/day Memory enhancer.

    How To Get Them:

    Most of these drugs are available in the US, by prescription. They are
    usually approved by the FDA for uses NOT IN THE LIST ABOVE (for example,
    Vasopressin is used in the US for bladder control, but it has NOT been
    approved in the US for its memory functions, which require it to go through
    the multi-year cycle (and millions of dollars) for approval for that use).

    HOWEVER, due to the AIDS situation, the FDA has loosened the laws governing
    what you can bring in from other countries. It is now LEGAL to purchase
    a PERSONAL SUPPLY (not to exceed 3 months) of these (and other) drugs from
    firms in Europe, as long as they are regarded as safe in other countries.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Mar 22, 2010
    1. 4/5,
      unbelievable amount of extremely useful information
      Nov 14, 2012
    2. 3/5,
      Jun 17, 2012
    3. 5/5,
      nice compilation of info
      Sep 18, 2011
    4. 3/5,
      Best post on any forum, anywhere. Cheers, my good man!
      Aug 21, 2011
    5. 3/5,
      Great post!
      Feb 8, 2010
    6. 4/5,
      This post changed my life. I am cosmically moved. You are a gentleman and a scholar.
      Aug 6, 2009
    7. 5/5,
      Nice
      Nov 20, 2007
    8. 4/5,
      Wow, an incredible post, thanks for sharing
      Jun 19, 2007
    9. 5/5,
      nice overview
      Feb 27, 2007
    10. 3/5,
      usefull, compact info
      Feb 10, 2007
  2. blinkKDX

    blinkKDX Newbie

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    A little quick guide i found for those un-willing to read what i compiled.
    Nootropics - A Quick Guide
    Quick guide to the most popular nootropic supplements. All can be stacked, or taken alone. Neurostim +C is a good premade stack, though I like to add piracetam to it when I need to concentrate in order to learn (only 4 more months of grad school at night, yay). All of these typically take days to weeks to make a noticeable improvement on concentration and focus, and are best taken in longer periods (2-3 months) followed by down time of one month. As with all supplements, start with the basics, and move on from there.


    Piracetam (2-oxo-Pyrrolidine Acetamide) - is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). Chemically related to the amino acid Pyroglutamic Acid (Pyrrolidine Carboxylic acid), which occurs in cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in cognitive functioning.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    -Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow){Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation}
    -Increases Cerebral Phospholipids & Cellular Membrane Fluidity (By interacting with the polar head moieties of the phospholipid bilayer) {Supports healthy neuron communication & structure}.
    -Supports Cognitive Receptors (By amplifying the density of the Muscarinic Cholinergic {Frontal Cortex, Striatum, & Hippocampus}, NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) {Hippocampus}, & AMPA (Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-isoxazole-Propionic Acid) Cerebral Cortex Receptors {Strengthens neurotransmitter receptors involved in memory and neuroprotection}
    -Stimulates the Corpus Callosum, an area of the brain that controls communication between the left and right hemispheres (Increases communication between both hemispheres) {Involved in speech and creative thinking}.
    - Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) {Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory}
    -Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (By increasing Red-White blood cells & Platelet deformability, inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthetase or antagonism of thromboxane A2, reducing von Willebrand's factor & fibrinogen levels) {Supports Healthy Blood Flow}.
    -Decreases EEG complexity (Increases cooperatively of brain functional processing) {Positively effects Neuro-Electrical Functioning}.
    -Has a significant antioxidant effect.

    -Overview-
    Piracetam positively supports healthy cognitive & cardiovascular functioning by a multifaceted means of action.

    -Notes-
    Approved & used since 1970’s worldwide (Europe, Asia, and South American) for various health conditions. Recommended by many healthcare professionals and health organizations, such as the Life Extension Foundation, as a Nootropic.
    Piracetum is the first step in the use of nootropics, it also stacks nicely with all of the following.

    -Dose-
    2-6 grams daily.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within an hour to a few days.
    -------------------------------------------------------------

    Aniracetam - Aniracetam (1-Anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam.
    -Biochemical Effects-
    Similar to Piracetam, but due to its fat solubility its effects last longer and is far more potent.
    - Helps increase communication between your left and right sides of the brain, resulting in improved creatively, perception, and more.
    - Has an more potent AMPA receptor enhancing effect than Piracetam, resulting in better focus and concentration.
    - Been reported to be best ‘cetam for anti-anxiety effects

    -Dose-
    750-1,500 mg daily with meals.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within an hour to a few days.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Oxiracetam - (4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinacetamide) is a potent fast acting water soluble analog of Piracetam. Works faster than all other racetams.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    Similar to Piracetam, but much stronger than Aniracetam and far faster acting. The preferred premium Nootropic for the elite smart drug user.
    - Supports multiple aspects of Cognition
    - Boosts Brain ATP levels (Mental Energy)
    - Increase Choline Acetylcholinetranferase the neuro-enzyme that creates Acetylcholine (in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum) {Memory Support}

    -Dose-
    800-1,600 mg daily.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within an hour to a few days.
    --------------------------------------------------------------

    Pramiracetam
    (N-{2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl}-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine-acetamide) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam, the most potent Racetam compound being about 15 times stronger than Piracetam.

    -Dose-
    100-300mg daily

    Availability
    Sporadic due to customs issues.
    ---------------------------------------------------------

    L-Huperzine - A is a natural plant alkaloid (extracted from Huperzia serrata), which quickly and potently boosts memory, learning, and concentration. Used worldwide for decades in adults and high school students. Is considered the most potent short term memory enhancer available.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    - Potently raises Acetylcholine (main memory neurotransmitter) by inhibiting its breakdown from Acetylcholinesterase.
    - Strengthens the Brain's NMDA receptors (Enhances Focus, Learning, and Brain Functioning)

    -Dose-
    Take 200-400 mcg daily for best results with meals.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within an hour to a few days.
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Alpha GPC (Alpha L-GlycerylPhosphorylCholine), also known as choline alfoscerate, is an unique NeuroActive form of choline that rapidly penetrates the blood brain barrier, naturally found in small amounts in milk and soybeans.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    - A precursor for the neurotransmitter AcetylCholine [Supports Memory].
    - A precursor for PhosphatidylCholine [Supports Brain Structure]

    -Dose-
    300-2000 mg daily.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within a few days.
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    Vinpocetine (Ethyl Apovincamine) is a derivative of vincamine (a phytonootropic from periwinkle). While less potent as a mental stimulant than vincamine, Vinpocetine is the preferred nootropic for Enhancing blood flow to the Brain, Eyes, and Ears. Its effects on Cerebral Blood Flow far exceeds all other nootropics.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    -Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow) (Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation)
    - Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) (Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory)
    -Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (Reduces abnormal blood clots).
    -Has a significant antioxidant effect.

    -Dose-
    20-40 mg daily with meals.
    ------------------------------------------------------

    Theanine (gamma-ethylamino-L-glutamic acid) is an unique amino acid found in trace amounts in green tea. It converts in the brain into GABA, the neurochemical involved in inhibiting over active mental activities, such as stress, anxiety, worrying, and nervousness. Unlike herbs theanine protects & enhances Cognition, without causing sleepy or drowsiness.


    -Biochemical Effects-
    - Instant relaxation due to its potent effects on raising GABA
    - Unlike the supplement GABA it passes through the blood brain barrier readily and has superior GABA raising effects.
    - Has been studied compared to Paxil.

    -Notes-
    In Japan it is used in soft drinks much like caffeine is added in the US, but to relax rather than stimulate the mind.

    -Dose-
    200-1000mg daily.

    -When can I feel it?-
    Works within a few hours.
    -------------------------------------------------

    Acetyl-L-Carnitine (2-Acetoxy-3-(trimethylaminium)butanoic acid) is an amino acid-like compound related to Choline found in high levels in brain cells.

    -Biochemical Effects-
    - Increases Acetylation of Coenzyme A (a precursor to Acetylcholine) [Memory Enhancer]
    - Enhances transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria [Increased Cellular Energy Levels]

    -Dose-
    500-3000mg daily
    ------------------------------------------------------------------

    Choline supplements should be taken during the administration of all nootropics. Lecithin (caps and granules) is a cheap choline source. Lecithin should be taken in doses of 5-8 grams daily to support the nootropics. Alpha GPC (listed above) is another source for choline. It is more effective / more expensive, but only requires dosing in the 1-3 gram range to support choline levels in the brain.

    -------------------------------------------------------------------
    STACKS

    Simple Stack :
    1-2 grams piracetam every 8 hours with 5 grams lecithin daily.

    Study Stack - Simple :
    1-2 grams piracetam every 8 hours / 5 grams lecithin / 10mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours

    Advanced Stack :
    2 grams piracetam every 8 hours
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    1 gram Alpha GPC every 8 hours

    Study Stack - advanced :
    1.5 grams piracetam every 8 hours
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    1.5 grams Alpha GPC every 8 hours
    15 mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours
    150 mcg Huperzine every 8 hours

    Anxiety / Concentration Stack :
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    200 mg theanine every 8 hours (plan for one dose prior to a speech or presentation)

    After all test are done stack :
    500mg Theanine
    1.5 grams Phenibut (do not study on phenibut)
    5 grams lecithin
    ----------------------------------------------------

    Good premixed Nootropics Stacks
    Focus
    Nuerostim+C

    These are very useful for using as bases to homemade stacks and are pretty hard to beat for PreWO mixes. Add a little chocamine or AMP/HEAT and its a potent mix.
     
  3. blinkKDX

    blinkKDX Newbie

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    do any swi(ers) out there find this useful?
     
    1. 4/5,
      great guide
      Oct 4, 2007
    2. 4/5,
      Yes! Very useful thanks, good posts.
      Aug 25, 2007
  4. pr0zac

    pr0zac Newbie

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    from earth

    I've actually been researching nootropics for a while now trying to put together a good stack to use myself, so yeah, I really do find this useful. Hopefully I'll find time to read the whole thing soon.
     
  5. drbeer

    drbeer

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    SWIMN has been interessed in nootropics lately. It really is helpful! Great read. Thanks for your work.
     
  6. Fantasian

    Fantasian Gold Member

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    interesting thanks. I'd like to know if the effects that piracetam give are then perminant, after all if they cause new nerones to grow does that mean they perminantly enhance cognition etc
     
  7. Budwhite501

    Budwhite501 Newbie

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    Extremely helpful, thanks
     
  8. 0utrider

    0utrider Palladium Member

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    AW: Nootropic Guide

    thanks a lot!

    i can add one thing

     
    Last edited by a moderator: Mar 14, 2010
    1. 4/5,
      Bravo, excelemt wealth of info here.
      Aug 6, 2009
  9. Sippin40oz

    Sippin40oz Silver Member

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    Thanks for all the information blinkkdx made a very interesting read for a nootropics noob! :eek:)
     
  10. 0utrider

    0utrider Palladium Member

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    Chocamine:
    If you dont like stimulants that much, you could try adding a slightly less potent one like chocamine, its main energy component is theobromine which has a longer half life than caffeine (longer, smoother energy) but, its only about 70% as powerful (less jitters) and contains

    Chocamine is a proprietary cocoa extract meant to provide the stimulation and health benefits of chocolate without any of the unnecessary, potentially unhealthy ingredients (such as sugar and fat). It contains numerous constituents, including methylxanthines (theobromine, caffeine, and theophylline), biogenic amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and according to one source, synephrine), amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, others), minerals (with a high content of magnesium), numerous beneficial antioxidants, and possibly some non-psychoactive cannabanoid-related compounds. The combination of these multiple ingredients produces a unique effect. Promotional literature makes many positive claims about Chocamine, including increased energy, appetite suppression, increased lipolysis (fat burning), improved mood, improved concentration, increased alertness, improved physical performance, aphrodisiac properties, and health benefits. This article will examine the properties of some of the known constituents of Chocamine.

    The methylxanthines are a group of compounds that include caffeine and some related stimulants. Chocamine contains methylxanthines such as theobromine, caffeine, and theophylline. Each gram of Chocamine contains 120 mg theobromine and 80 mg caffeine.

    Theobromine is similar in both structure and function to caffeine, but it has a longer half-life, which may be one of the reasons chocamine has the reputation of being a "long-lasting stimulant." Theobromine also has a relative potency a few orders of magnitude lower than caffeine, but the amount in Chocamine (assuming a gram or more is taken) is still enough to have a psychoactive effect.


    If you put 500mg into the mix, you'd get 60mg theobromine and only 40mg caffeine which should give you a lift but not cuase any issues.


    DMAE

    1. What are they and where do they come from?

    DMAE - Dimethylaminoethanol - is an antioxidant and a precursor of the neurotransmitter Acetycholine (ACh). Acetycholine is responsible for feelings of well-being and relaxation.

    It plays an important role in the onset of a dreaming state. DMAE is available in supplement form. It can be consumed orally, or used as a cream topically.

    2. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?

    Although the science has not yet reached a conclusive, supportable, position on the exact function(s) of DMAE, anecdotal evidence suggests that DMAE supplementation is very beneficial. For example, anecdotal evidence indicates that DMAE may be appropriate for cosmetic purposes, due to its ability to reduce facial sag. DMAE may be helpful in improving memory and learning ability.

    DMAE supplementation has been known to increase energy levels, as well as alleviate the symptoms typically following the consumption of large quantities of alcohol. Supplementing with DMAE can also offset the symptoms associated with long-term use of antipsychotic drugs.1 It may also have positive benefits for dreaming and mood stabilization.2,3

    3. Who needs it and what are some symptoms of deficiency?

    There are no known symptoms of deficiency. Everyone can benefit from supplementing with DMAE. Populations that may benefit most from the supplementation of DMAE include: The Elderly, Athletes, persons on antipsychotic medication, children suffering from down syndrome and attention deficit disorder (ADD), and individuals who wish to use DMAE for its cosmetic applications.

    Elderly persons are at an increased risk of developing depression. The onset of depression in elderly populations can be caused by a number of factors. DMAE can help alleviate or prevent symptoms of depression because of its ability to stabilize emotions and increase energy.

    Increased energy levels are something that athletes require. High-intensity physical activity is very demanding. By supplementing with DMAE, athletes may notice shorter recovery times and improved athletic performance. DMAE also plays a role in muscle contractions (by being a precursor to ACh).4

    Person suffering from psychiatric conditions, children with attention deficit disorder and persons with down syndrome, may find that, due to its ability to stabilize moods and improve behavior, DMAE is a worthwhile substance to add to their treatment programs.

    DMAE, as mentioned, also has a cosmetic application. While it is not a "facelift in a bottle", DMAE can serve to tighten the skin when applied topically. This may reduce signs of aging. Individuals with a PABA (Para-Amino-benzoic-acid) allergy should avoid supplementing with DMAE because DMAE is a chemical relative of PABA.

    4. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?

    DMAE is non-toxic and is safe for human use. However, it is recommended that label directions always be followed. Overdosing with DMEA can result in insomnia, headaches and muscle tension. Persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease, depression, or other psychiatric conditions should consult a physician prior to supplementing with DMAE.

    5. Where can I get it?

    There are different brand names that manufacture supplemental DMAE



    Valerian Root


    Valerian Root has been used as a sleep aid for over 1,000 years. It's ability to help relax the central nervous system, promote feelings of calm, decrease levels of anxiety and stress, and enhance sleep are known to millions the world over. Valerian is not known to cause morning grogginess and is non-addictive.

    You can help your body and mind relax by taking Valerian Root which aids relaxation and promotes sleep.

    A Study Proves It

    The effect of an aqueous extract of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) root on subjectively rated sleep measures was studied on 128 people. Each person received 9 samples to test (3 containing placebo, 3 containing 400 mg valerian extract and 3 containing a proprietary over-the-counter valerian preparation). The samples, identified only by a code number, and presented in random order, were taken on non-consecutive nights.

    Valerian produced a significant decrease in subjectively evaluated sleep latency scores and a significant improvement in sleep quality: the latter was most notable among people who considered themselves poor or irregular sleepers, smokers, and people who thought they normally had long sleep latencies. Night awakenings, dream recall and somnolence the next morning were relatively unaffected by valerian.

    Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982 Jul;17(1):65-71.



    Aniracetam:

    Pharmaceutical Category: AMPAMET belongs to the category of psychostimulants and nootropics. AMPAMET 750 granules to be taken by mouth and AMPAMET 1500 granules to be taken by mouth.

    Therepeutical Indications: Attention and memory disorders of degenerative or vascular origin in the elderly.

    Contraindications: Proven individual hypersensitivity to the pharmaceutical product.

    Precautions: In the case of symptoms such as restlessness, anxiety, agitation at night or insomnia, it is preferable either to administer the second dose in the early afternoon, or opt for a single 1500-mg dose in the morning. Although studies on animals have not shown teratogenic effects, patients are nonetheless advised not to take this pharmaceutical product if pregnant or breast-feeding. Patients with serious renal failure (creatinine clearance < 10 mL/min) are advised to reduce the daily dosage by half.

    Interactions: Clinical experience concerning the interaction of AMPAMET with other pharmaceutical products has not been released.

    Special Warning: Pregnancy and breast-feeding. Studies on animals have not shown teratogenic effects. Although studies on animals have not shown teratogenic effects, patients are nonetheless advised not to take this pharmaceutical product if pregnant or breast-feeding. Driving or operating machinery. AMPAMET does not interfere with the patient’s capacity to drive or operate machinery.

    Directions For Use: The recommended complete daily dosage is 1,500 mg to be taken in 1-2 doses. Tablets are to be swallowed whole with a sip of water. The contents of the sachets are to be mixed in a glass of water and swallowed. The therapeutic effects of aniracetam are shown after some 60 days and become more noticeable after four months of treatment.

    Overdose: Cases of overdose of this pharmaceutical product have not been reported.

    Adverse Effects: AMPAMET is well tolerated by all patients, even the very elderly. Occasional cases have been reported of agitation, anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia. These adverse effects are reduced if the dosage is modified. See Precautions. Should symptoms occur that are not described in this leaflet, consult a doctor as soon as possible. Regarding patients who may be hypersensitive to this product: Any symptom other than those described should be reported to the patient’s doctor.


    Procaine:

    Procaine is a unique compound made from DEAE (DiEthylAminoEthanol) and B-Vitamin PABA (ParaAminoBenzoic Acid). DEAE is the active compound and is related to DMAE (DiMethylAminoEthanol).

    Biochemical Effects:

    - Boosts Mood (Elevates Serotonin)
    - Helps Memory (Increases Acetylcholine)
    - Protects Cells (Raises Phospholipids)
    - Increases Energy (Improves cellular metabolism)

    Procaine Hydrochloride was first synthesized in 1905 by a German chemist Albert Einhorn. He was looking for a compound that would act as an anesthetic, would be non-toxic, free of side effects, and would not be addictive. Dr. Einhorn was looking for a compound that could replace cocaine as an anesthetic. Cocaine was being used at the time as an anesthetic. However, because cocaine was toxic, addictive, and destructive to the central nervous system, its use was being outlawed. Dr. Einhorn was able to produce a compound that demonstrated the properties he was looking for. This new compound he named procaine. "Pro" means, in place of, and "caine" comes from the word cocaine. Because of the similarity of the names and because they are both anesthetics, there is much confusion as to the nature of procaine. Procaine when injected into the muscles acts as an anesthetic but when taken orally in a complexed form procaine acts as a vitamin. Procaine HCl solutions, used as anesthetics, are tradenamed Novocaine.

    Chemically procaine is the PABA ester of the amino alcohol DEAE. PABA (p-amino-benzoic acid), is a "B" vitamin. DEAE, (n,n diethylaminoethanol) is a biologically active precursor of the "B" vitamin choline. (Fig. 1) Procaine is usually used in the form of the hydrochloride salt (procaine HCl) because it is highly water soluble. Procaine hydrochloride, when taken orally, enters the body by being mainly absorbed through the villi in the small intestine. Experiments show that the bulk of the procaine HCl enters the bloodstream molecularly intact. In the blood stream procaine HCl is rapidly hydrolyzed by the enzyme pseudo-cholinesterase into PABA and DEAE the two components of the procaine molecule. These metabolites are removed by the liver, chemically changed, and excreted in the urine.

    In the late 1940's Dr. Ana Aslan a Romanian cardiologist found that adding a small amount of benzoic acid to the procaine solution stabilized some of the procaine enough to protect it from the blood enzymes. This protected procaine which Dr. Aslan named Gerovital H3 or GH-3 was found to be very helpful in supplying PABA and DEAE to damaged and\or diseased cells. Ana Aslan named the procaine vitamin H-3. GH-3 is listed under H-3 in the Merck index.

    Procaine HCl when combined with biologically active acids(1) such as folic acid, biotin,ascorbic acid, pantothenic acid, citric acid and many other acids such as amino acids etc., acts as a vitamin or food supplement. The vitamin acids and other biologically active acids when complexed with the procaine HCl molecule protect the procaine from the enzymes in the blood allowing the procaine to enter the cells. These vitamin complexes help the cells assimilate and utilize nutrients more efficiently. These complexed procaine compounds Dr. Koch named Vitacel (Vital Cell).

    Procaine HCl (procaine hydrochloride) is the active ingredient in Gerovital H3 (GH-3) and in the Vitacels 3 through 8. Procaine HCl is broken down rapidly by enzymes in the blood stream into PABA and DEAE. The PABA and DEAE are rapidly conjugated and removed from the blood and excreted from the body. Because of this procaine HCl and its breakdown products (metabolites) are unable to get into the cells in any great quantity to produce benefits. Procaine HCl will produce some benefits by itself, but they are very limited.

    However when procaine HCl is complexed properly (Koch process)(1) the procaine HCl is protected from the action of the enzymes in the blood and tissues this protection gives the procaine enough time to be transfered into the cells of the body where it helps the cells rebuild, repair, and detoxify. This action of the procaine HCl complex is responsible for the remarkable improvements in health that result from the use of GH-3.

    Whereas the DEAE (diethylaminoethanol) from the procaine HCl breaks down in the cells and is oxidized producing acetyl groups that are very valuable for producing acetylcholine and other materials necessary for cellular health.


    Deprenyl:

    Deprenyl (also called Selegiline or Juprenil) is a derivative of PhenylEthylAmine (PEA) (a neurotransmitter involved with Dopamine), which effects mood and mental alertness.

    Biochemical Effects:

    - Inhibits neuroenzyme MAO-B, which increases with age and breaks down Dopamine. (Boosts Dopamine levels, Mood/Mental Energy/Motivation Enhancer)

    -Boosts Neuro-PEA levels 1300-3500%. (Helps maintain focus, concentration, alertness and effortful attention.)

    - Has Potent NeuroAntioxidant & NeuroProtective effects.

    Kava Kava



    Latin name: Piper methysticum

    A Remedy For

    * Anxiety
    * Insomnia
    * Nervousness

    In the past, Kava Kava has been taken for a host of ailments on which it has no appreciable effect, including asthma, arthritis, indigestion, cystitis, syphilis, and gonorrhea. For tension and sleeplessness, however, it is now considered a proven remedy.

    What It Is; Why It Works
    One of the "new" herbs that have recently gained considerable media attention, Kava Kava has actually been around for centuries in the South Seas, where it's used as a ceremonial beverage. The plant's fleshy underground stem is mildly intoxicating when chewed. Prepared as a nonalcoholic drink, it is said to foster a sense of contentment and well-being, while sharpening the mind, memory, and senses.
    Research shows that the active ingredients in Kava Kava (kava pyrones) do in fact have a calming, sedative effect. They also appear to relax the muscles, relieve spasms, and prevent convulsions. At least two scientific studies have confirmed the herb's ability to significantly reduce symptoms of anxiety. In a third study, researchers rated it as effective as prescription tranquilizers.

    Avoid If...
    Do not use Kava Kava if you are pregnant or nursing. Also avoid it if you have a depressive disorder; it can deepen a depressed mood.

    Special Cautions
    When first taking Kava Kava, you may notice a slightly tired feeling in the mornings.
    In rare cases, Kava Kava can cause an allergic reaction, a slight yellowing of the skin, gastrointestinal complaints, impaired or abnormal movement, loss of balance, pupil dilation, and difficulty focusing. Because of the possibility of visual disturbances, drive with caution while using this herb.
    High doses of the herb have been known to trigger hepatitis. Heavy long-term use can also cause an unusual scaly rash, and may lead to unwanted weight loss. Do not take this herb for more than 3 months without consulting a physician.

    Possible Drug Interactions
    Do not take Kava Kava when using other substances that act on the brain, such as alcohol, barbiturates, or other mood-altering drugs. It may increase their effect. Be especially wary of taking it with the tranquilizer Xanax; the combination has caused coma.
    Kava Kava also has an antagonistic effect on dopamine. If you are taking a levodopa-based medication for Parkinson's disease, avoid this herb.

    Special Information If You Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding
    Remember, Kava Kava should be avoided during pregnancy and nursing.

    How To Prepare
    Commercial extracts are the predominant form of Kava Kava. The crushed root can also be used.

    Typical Dosage
    Daily doses delivering between 50 and 240 milligrams of the active ingredients are the customary recommendation. Commercial capsules containing between 150 and 300 milligrams of root extract may be taken twice a day. Because the potency of commercial preparations may vary, follow the manufacturer's directions whenever available.

    Overdosage
    An overdose is usually signaled by a lack of coordination, followed by tiredness and a tendency to sleep. If you suspect an overdose, seek medical attention immediately.
    1. What is it and where does it come from?

    Kava Kava is a member of the pepper family and is Native to several pacific islands. The herb has been used widely for over 3,000 years by pacific native populations, and has become popular in Europe and North America.

    Kava Kava (Piper methysticum) supplements are produced by using the underground stem of the plant, and the substance in Kava responsible for its effects are Kavalactones.

    Kava is also known as: Malohu, maluk, meruk, milik, kew, Rauschpfeffer, sakau, tonga, Wurzelstock, yagona, yangona, yaqona, yongona, ava, ava pepper, ava root, awa, gea, gi, intoxicating pepper, intoxicating long pepper, kao, Piper methysticum, Macropiper, Latifolium, Piper inebrians, kava, kava kava, kava-kava, kava root, kava-kava root, kavain, kava pepper, kavapipar, kawa, kawa kawa, kawa pepper, kawapfeffer, maori kava and rhizoma di kava-kava.

    It is important to note that Kava is produced according to certain standards. The standard of highest quality is WS 1490. Not all brand names may meet this standard. When purchasing Kava products, look for this certification.

    2. What does it do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?

    Kava is a diverse substance and performs many physiological actions. Kava is best known for its ability to induce relaxation. Kavalactones (the active ingredient), induce physical and mental relaxation, and feelings of well being. These Kava induced feelings of well being and relaxation relax muscles, and help induce sleep.

    Learn more about the benefits of Kava Kava on Clayton South's Health Facts.

    3. Who needs it and what are symptoms of deficiency?

    Anyone in good health can benefit from supplementing with Kava. Because of its sedative properties, Kava is often used by persons who have anxiety3,4,5.

    Bodybuilders may benefit from supplementing with Kava as it may offset overtraining. Bodybuilders using Kava should also supplement with Milk Thistle. Persons supplementing with Kava should be monitored by a qualified medical practitioner.

    4. How much should be taken? Are there any side effects?

    No rigid dosage procedures have yet been established, but it is recommended that dosage should not exceed 300mg daily.

    Side effects of overdose can include: difficulties focusing and temporary dilation of the pupils, skin rashes, hypertension, reduced protein levels, blood cell abnormalities, liver damage, muscle weakness, visual impairment, dizziness and drying or a yellowing of the skin6. Persons experiencing these side effects should immediately discontinue the use of kava products. This product should not be used continuously for a period exceeding three months. 7

    Because of its sedative effects kava should not be used by pregnant women or nursing women. Persons consuming alcohol should avoid Kava supplementation8 and, because of its sedative effect, Kava should not be consumed before driving or operating heavy machinery. 7

    There have been safety concerns associated with Kava use. Because of a series of deaths linked with kava, German officials are considering banning the supplement9, although a study done on the cases in question showed that of the seventeen persons supplementing kava, five of those persons were shown to have no problems resulting from kava, while the other twelve cases were shown to be complicated by other factors, thus calling kavas causational role into question. 10

    In addition, four case reports linking kava products to liver toxcitity have appeared in scientific literature. 11,12,13It should be noted, however, that all of the case study subjects were also taking other medications that have been linked to liver damage. 15 Thus, no conclusions can be reasonably reached based on the four case studies cited. In the United Kingdom there have been three cases of liver toxicity suspected to be due to kava, but as of this time further data is needed. 16

    Breaking research (resulting from unfounded claims that kava is harmfull) has determined that persons suffering side effects from kava (about two in thirty-six) have immunologically mediated idiosyncratic mechanisms and that direct toxic mechanism is much less likely. 17 This suggests that the problems experienced from kava use by a very small segment of the population is due to an immune system dysfunction rather than the kava itself.

    Evidence shows that toxicity can be eliminated if the product is manufactured correctly. 18 Further research established that kava rarely causes liver injury. 19 A study done on rats showed that kava extracts had no effect on liver function and were not at all harmfull. 20

    The breaking scientific evidence on this product shows that it is safe. Persons considering using kava as a supplement should consult with a physican prior to use.

    Nicergoline- the latest ergot derivative

    Nicergoline (pronounced nice-er-go-lean) is perhaps the latest commercially available variation of all the ergot preparations. It has become most popular in Japan and indeed many of its clinical trials have been performed there.

    Nicergoline appears to be a potent vasodilator (improving brain blood flow). On the cerebral level it prompts a lowering of vascular resistance, an increase in arterial flow and stimulates the use of oxygen and glucose. However, clinical trials confirm that nicergoline also improves blood circulation in the lungs and limbs and that blood platelet aggregation is inhibited.

    Studies also indicate that nicergoline does not affect arterial tension and that in cases of patients suffering from hypertension, it may induce a gradual lowering of the tension.

    Its approved uses to date have therefore included all of the following:

    1. Migraines (of vascular origin).
    2. Platelet aggregability and arterial hypertension.
    3. Eye disorders (retinal thromboses, diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration).
    4. Problems of a vascular nature (dizziness, auditory problems, hypoacusis).
    5. Treatment of senile dementias.

    One interesting Japanese clinical study on rats showed that nicergoline increases nerve growth factor in the brains of aged animals, but it shows no statistical affect upon the brains of young animals!

    Further studies indicate that nicergoline can enhance glutamate re-uptake and protect the brain against ischaemia (lack of blood flow). This appears to be the main action of nicergoline and it presents itself as a mild stimulant and enhancer with long-term protection against brain disorders that may be due to blood, glucose or oxygen deprivation.
    Nicergoline- dosages, side effects and contraindications

    Side effects are usually limited to nausea, hot flushes, mild gastric upset, hypotension and dizziness. At high dosages bradycardia, increased appetite, agitation, diarrhea and perspiration have been known to present themselves.

    Persons suffering from acute bleeding, myocardial infarction or bradycardia should avoid nicergoline use. Persons using alpha or beta receptor agonists (such as propranolol/ Inderal) should not take nicergoline concurrently as nicergoline is known to enhance the cardiac depressive effects. Nicergoline is also known to heighten the effects of pharmaceutical products that produce hypotension, such as other ergot preparations in high doses (i.e. Hydergine and bromocriptine).

    Although not stated by the manufacturer, other potent vasodilatation agents such as vinpocetine, xanthinol nicotinate or picamilone should only be used concurrently under the guidance of a physician.

    Dosages for known conditions are usually administered at 5-10mg three times a day, however anti-aging preventative purposes may want to consider 5mg once or twice a day more adequate.
    Conclusion

    These three ergot preparations are all related and yet we can see their differences in the results of their various clinical studies. Each have differing strengths of reaction and indeed different effects.

    Fungi’s from rye were used by our ancestors for many different reasons, some of them as rites of passage into adulthood, most were considered to be “mind-expanding.” Now we know many of the pharmacological actions and roles they play in mental and memory enhancement and in the slowing of age-related brain disorders.

    Today, we understand that brain protection and enhancement is a most important factor- if not the most important factor for anti-aging medicine and successful longevity.

    References

    Bernd Saletu, et al, “Nicergoline in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia: A double blind, placebo controlled, clinical and EEG/ ERP mapping study.” Pharmacia & Upjohn
    Nicergoline drug insert, Pharmacia & Upjohn, October 2000.

    Asai S, Zhao H, Yamashita A, Jike T, Kunimatsu T, Nagata T, Kohno T, Ishikawa K, “Nicergoline enhances glutamate re-uptake and protects against brain damage in rat global brain ischaemia.” European Journal Pharmacology 1999 Nov 3: 3;383(3):267-74.

    Takeshi N, Nobuhiko S, Shoei F, Ichiro A, Yukitsuka K, “Repeated injections of nicergoline increase the nerve growth factor level in the aged rat brain.” Japanese Journal Pharmacology, 76 (3), 321-323 (1998).

    Iliff L, DuBoulay GH, Marshall J, et al, “Effect of nicergoline on cerebral blood flow.” Journal Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1977, 40:746-7.


    Hydergine:


    The substance, whose generic name is ergoloid mesylates, is made from a natural, organic source: the ergot fungus of rye plants (it was discovered at Sandoz laboratories by the visionary chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann, also known for his discovery of another ergot derivative, LSD 25). It increases mental abilities, prevents damage to brain cells, and may even be able to reverse existing damage to brain cells. Hydergine acts in several ways to enhance mental capabilities and to slow down or reverse the aging processes in the brain.

    A few of the huge number of beneficial effects scientists have attributed to Hydergine include: increased protein syntheses in the brain; reduced accumulation of lipofuscin in the brain; increased quantities of blood and oxygen delivered to the brain; improvement of memory, learning and intelligence; beneficial improvements in brainwave activity; increased metabolism in brain cells; normalization of blood pressure; and increased production of such neurotransmitters as dopamine and norepinephrine (neurochemical messengers essential to the formation of memory, and also associated with arousal, alertness, elation and pleasure). Hydergine also functions as a powerful antioxidant and thus protects the brain against the damage caused by those infamous rascally free radicals (unstable and extremely reactive molecules produced by normal metabolism, which cause damage associated with aging, cancer and cardiovascular disease).

    One way that Hydergine may enhance brain functioning is by mimicking the effect of a substance called nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF promotes the growth of dendrites--the long branching fibers by which neurons receive information from other neurons. Scientists studying the effects of learning on the brain have found it is directly related to dendritic growth. Hydergine seems to work by the same neurochemical pathway as NGF to produce neural growth. While Hydergine is widely used for the treatment of senility, scientists have also studied its effects, both short term and long term, in normal healthy humans; these studies noted significant improvements in a variety of cognitive function, including alertness, memory, reaction time, abstract reasoning and cognitive processing ability.

    PRECAUTIONS: If too large a dose is used when first taking Hydergine, it may cause slight nausea, gastric disturbance, or headache. Overall, Hydergine does not produce and serious side effects, it is non-toxic even at very large doses and it is contraindicated only for individuals who have chronic or acute psychosis.

    DOSAGE: The US recommended dosage is 3mg per day, however, the European recommended dosage is 9 mg per day taken in three divided doses. Most of the research has been done at levels of 9 to 12 mg per day or higher, and there is some evidence that 3 mg per day is simply insufficient for significant cognition- enhancement effects. It may take several weeks or even months before Hydergine produces noticeable effects. Hydergine (though not its generic counterpart) is available in a sublingual form, and there is evidence that sublingual doses reach the brain in greater quantity.

    SOURCES: Hydergine is available in the USA with a doctor's prescription, and approved by the FDA for the treatment of senile dementia and insufficient blood circulation to the brain--your doctor may not be familiar with the uses discussed.
    A statistical analysis of studies showing efficacy in the treatment of cognitively impaired elderly

    The pharmacologic treatment of dementia has received much attention in recent years. Hydergine, one of only two drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of dementia, was largely abandoned in the 1980's due to the uncertainty of its degree of clinical efficacy. The purpose of our study was to more precisely define the effect of Hydergine on cognitive function in elderly demented patients by combining the results of multiple weighted studies using similar methodology. All data came from randomized placebo controlled trials on a total of 271 subjects. Our results show that Hydergine had a statistically significant effect on global functional status compared to placebo, with the most significant improvement demonstrated on symptoms of depression, emotional lability, and indifference to surroundings. Further studies using Hydergine in the treatment of dementia appear to be justified.

    Pyroglutamic acid improves the age associated memory impairment.
    Cattedra di Patologia Neurologica II dell'Universita di Catania, Italy.
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1990;4(2):169-73
    Pyroglutamic acid (PCA) was compared with placebo in a randomized, double blind trial for assessing its efficacy in treating memory deficits in 40 aged subjects. Twenty subjects were treated with pyroglutamic acid and 20 with placebo over a period of 60 d. Memory functions were evaluated at baseline and after 60 d of treatment by means of a battery made up of 6 memory tasks. The results suggest that pyroglutamate is effective in improving some verbal memory functions in subjects affected by age-related memory decline

    Rhodiola rosea: A Possible Plant Adaptogen
    Gregory S. Kelly, ND

    Rhodiola rosea is a popular plant in traditional medical systems in Eastern Europe and Asia with a reputation for stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high altitude sickness. Rhodiola rosea has been categorized as an adaptogen by Russian researchers due to its observed ability to increase resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors. Its claimed benefits include antidepressant, anticancer, cardioprotective, and central nervous system enhancement. Research also indicates great utility in asthenic conditions (decline in work performance, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, irritability, hypertension, headaches, and fatigue) developing subsequent to intense physical or intellectual strain. The adaptogenic, cardiopulmonary protective, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins.
    (Altern Med Rev 2001;6(3):293-302)

    Introduction

    Rhodiola rosea ("golden root" or "Arctic root") is widely distributed at high altitudes in Arctic and mountainous regions throughout Europe and Asia. It is a popular plant in traditional medical systems in Eastern Europe and Asia, with a reputation for stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high altitude sickness.1 In addition to Rhodiola rosea, over 200 different species of Rhodiola have been identified and at least 20 are used in traditional medical systems in Asia, including R. alterna, R. brevipetiolata, R. crenulata, R. kirilowii, R. quadrifida, R. sachalinensis, and R. sacra.

    Rhodiola rosea has been intensively studied in Russia and Scandinavia for more than 35 years. Although the majority of this research on Rhodiola rosea is unavailable for review, available literature is supportive of its adaptogenic properties. Similar to other plant adaptogens investigated by Russian researchers, such as Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng), extracts of this plant produce favorable changes in a variety of diverse areas of physiological function, including neurotransmitter levels, central nervous system activity, and cardiovascular function.

    Rhodiola rosea has been categorized as an adaptogen by Russian researchers due to its observed ability to increase resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors. Origination of the term adaptogen has been dated to 1947 and credited to a Russian scientist, Lazarev. He defined an "adaptogen" as an agent that allows an organism to counteract adverse physical, chemical, or biological stressors by generating non-specific resistance. Inherent in his definition is the concept that administration of the adaptogenic agent allows an organism to pre-adapt itself in a manner that allows it to be more capable of responding appropriately when diverse demands are eventually placed on it. In 1969, Brekhman and Dardymov proposed specific criteria that need to be fulfilled in order for a substance to qualify as an adaptogen.

    Subjecting animals and humans to a period of stress produces characteristic changes in several hormones and parameters associated with the central nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). HPA changes include an increase in cortisol, a reduced sensitivity of the HPA to feedback down-regulation, and a disruption in the circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. Central nervous system changes include the stress-induced depletion of catecholamine neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine. An acute increase in beta-endorphin levels is also observed under stressful conditions.

    To successfully combat stress and stressful situations, adaptation is required. Adaptation might be best thought of as the ability to be exposed to a stressor, while responding with either decreased or no characteristic hormonal perturbations. Adaptation also implies being prepared to and capable of rapidly reassuming homeostasis after the stressor is withdrawn. As an example, a well-trained athlete can participate in an event that would induce a large HPA perturbation (stress response) in a sedentary person, and yet the athlete will be relatively unaffected. This is a result of adaptation that has occurred during the athlete's training process. Additionally, if athletes are exposed to stressors they were not trained for, hormonal perturbations characteristic of a stress response would be expected; however, this response might not be as great as that found in less fit individuals. Furthermore, after the stress ended, their physiology would be expected to re-establish homeostasis rapidly. This is a result of non-specific resistance to stress gained by virtue of a training-induced higher level of fitness.

    The utility of plant adaptogens is analogous to the training an athlete undergoes in order to prepare for competition. Plant adaptogens cause our physiology to begin the adaptation process to stress. When a stressful situation occurs, consuming adaptogens generates a degree of generalized adaptation (or non-specific resistance) that allows our physiology to handle the stressful situation in a more resourceful manner.

    As an example of this process, Rhodiola rosea administration promotes a moderate increase in the amount of serum immunoreactive beta-endorphin in rats under basal conditions. This moderate increase is similar to that found when rats are adapted to exercise. When Rhodiola rosea-treated rats were subjected to a 4-hour period of non-specific stress, the expected elevation in beta-endorphin was either not observed or substantially decreased. Consequently, the characteristic perturbations of the HPA were decreased or totally prevented.3 In these rats administration of Rhodiola rosea appears to have generated non-specific resistance and prepared the rats to respond more appropriately to the eventual stressful situation.

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    Chemical Composition

    The chemical composition and physiological properties of Rhodiola species are to a degree species-dependent, although some overlap in constituents and physiological properties does exist in many Rhodiola species.

    Twenty-eight compounds have been isolated from the roots and above-ground parts of Rhodiola rosea, including 12 novel compounds. The roots contain a range of biologically active substances including organic acids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic glycosides. The stimulating and adaptogenic properties of Rhodiola rosea were originally attributed to two compounds isolated from its roots, identified as p-tyrosol and the phenolic glycoside rhodioloside. Rhodioloside was later determined to be structurally similar to the known glycoside salidroside found in several other plant species. Salidroside, rhodioloside, and occasionally rhodosin are used to describe this compound and are considered to be synonyms. Additional glycoside compounds isolated from the root include rhodioniside, rhodiolin, rosin, rosavin, rosarin, and rosiridin. These glycoside compounds are also thought to be critical for the plant's observed adaptogenic properties.1,4

    A range of antioxidant compounds have been identified in Rhodiola rosea and related species, including p-tyrosol, organic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid), and flavonoids (catechins and proanthocyanidins).5,6 Significant free-radical scavenging activity has been demonstrated for alcohol and water extracts of Rhodiola sp. and is attributed to the variety of antioxidant compounds.5,6 p-Tyrosol has been shown to be readily and dose-dependently absorbed after an oral dose,7,8 and appears to produce a significant antioxidant8 and modest 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity9 in vivo.

    Salidroside (rhodioloside), the additional salidroside-like glycoside compounds (rhodiolin, rosin, rosavin, rosarin, and rosiridin), and p-tyrosol are thought to be the most critical plant constituents needed for therapeutic activity.1,2 The contents of salidroside and p-tyrosol in root samples gathered from various areas in China have been shown to range from 1.3-11.1 mg/g and 0.3-2.2 mg/g, respectively.4 These two compounds have been found in all studied species of Rhodiola; however, the other active glycosides, including rosavin, rosin, and rosarin, have not been found in all examined Rhodiola species.5,6 Because of this variation within the Rhodiola genus, verification of Rhodiola rosea by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is dependent on the content of the additional glycosides (rather than salidroside and p-tyrosol); rosavin is the constituent currently selected for standardization of extracts.10

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    Proposed Mechanisms of Action

    The adaptogenic properties, cardio-pulmonary protective effects, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins. Oral administration of a water extract of Rhodiola rosea to rats for 10 days modulated biogenic monoamines in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and hypothalamus. In the cerebral cortex and brain stem, levels of nor-epinephrine and dopamine decreased, while the amount of serotonin increased substantially. In the hypothalamus, the results were reversed with a 3-fold increase in the amount of norepinephrine and dopamine, and a trend toward reduced serotonin levels. It is believed these changes in monoamine levels are a result of Rhodiola rosea inhibiting the activity of the enzymes responsible for monoamine degradation, monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase. It is also believed Rhodiola rosea facilitates the transport of neurotransmitters within the brain.11 In addition to these central effects on monoamines, Rhodiola rosea has been reported to prevent both catecholamine release and subsequent cAMP elevation in the myocardium, and the depletion of adrenal catecholamines induced by acute stress.12

    Abstracts of untranslated Russian research indicate that a great deal of the activity of Rhodiola rosea might be secondary to an ability to induce opioid peptide biosynthesis and through the activation of both central and peripheral opioid receptors.3,13-15 Lack of current availability of the complete text of these articles make verification of these effects impossible.

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    Experimental Studies

    Adaptogenic Activity

    Rhodiola rosea appears to offer generalized resistance against physical, chemical, and biological stressors in rats and other animals studied. Evidence also suggests cardioprotective and anticancer benefits in animals.

    In the test of swimming "to the limit," Rhodiola rosea administration increased the swimming time of rats 135-159 percent. Working capacity of the rats consistently improved throughout the supplementation period.16

    Eggs from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis were incubated in water extracts of Rhodiola rosea and subsequently exposed to a variety of environmental stressors, including heat shock (43°C for four minutes), oxidative stress (600 µM menadione for two hours), and heavy metal-induced stress (one-hour exposure to 150 µM copper sulphate or 20 µM cadmium chloride). Exposure to these environmental stressors kills 80-90 percent of larvae within four days post-exposure. Pre-incubation with Rhodiola rosea extract afforded a significant degree of non-specific resistance against each of these environmental stressors as measured by rate of survival. While only nine percent of the control population survived exposure to heat shock, approximately 90 percent of snail larvae pre-incubated with Rhodiola rosea (40.5 µg/ml) survived. Pre-incubation with Rhodiola resulted in non-specific resistance to oxidative stress (survival of approximately 68 percent) and heavy metal stress (approximately 28-35 percent of larvae survived depending on the metal exposure).10

    Two experiments have suggested possible benefit on various aspects of learning and memory in rats under certain experimental conditions. Rhodiola rosea extract administered orally at a dose of 0.1 mL/day for 10 days resulted in a non-significant trend toward protection against impairments in memory, as assessed by step-down passive avoidance, induced by electroshock in rats.17 Rhodiola rosea extract was administered in a single dose of 0.10 mL. Improvements in both learning and memory retention, as determined by using a maze test with negative reinforcement, were observed. Repeated dosing with the same quantity of the extract over a 10-day period generated significant improvement in long-term memory as assessed by the maze test with negative enforcement and the "staircase" method with positive enforcement. However, in this experiment two other doses were tested (0.02 and 1.0 mL) and were found to have no substantial effect on learning and memory.1

    This suggests the possibility of an efficacious dose of Rhodiola rosea administration, above and below which beneficial physiological effects might be less likely. In the other experimental conditions investigated (active avoidance with negative reinforcement using a "shuttle box" and passive avoidance using "step down" and "step through") no beneficial effects on either learning or memory were observed with any of the administered doses of Rhodiola rosea.1

    Cardioprotective Activity

    Rhodiola rosea has been shown to moderate against stress-induced damage and dysfunction in cardiovascular tissue. Treatment with Rhodiola rosea extract prevents the decrease in cardiac contractile force secondary to environmental stress in the form of acute cooling and contributes to stable contractility. In animals, acute cooling leads to a decrease in myocardial contractile activity that partially recovers during the first 18 hours after the cold-stress is removed. This recovery is viewed as only partial, since the heart tissue is incapable of stable contractility during perfusion. Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extracts appears to create a beneficial adaptive response in this type of stress. When Rhodiola pretreated rats were exposed to acute cooling, the decrease in contractility was prevented and stable contractility of heart tissue occurred during perfusion.18

    Other reports suggest administration of Rhodiola rosea protects cardiovascular tissue from stress-induced catecholamine release12 and mitigates against adrenaline-induced arrhythmias in rats.13,14,19 The antiarrhythmic effect of Rhodiola rosea is suggested to be secondary to an ability to induce opioid peptide biosynthesis13 and related to the stimulation of peripheral kappa-opioid receptors.14

    Anticancer Activity

    Administration of Rhodiola rosea appears to have potential as an anticancer agent, and might be useful in conjunction with some pharmaceutical antitumor agents. In rats with transplanted solid Ehrlich adenocarcinoma and metastasizing rat Pliss lymphosarcoma, supplementation with Rhodiola rosea extract inhibited the growth of both tumor types, decreased metastasis to the liver, and extended survival times.20 Administration of Rhodiola rosea extract also directly suppressed the growth of and the extent of metastasis from transplanted Lewis lung carcinomas.21 When Rhodiola rosea extract was combined with the antitumor agent cyclophosphamide in these same tumor models, the antitumor and antimetastatic efficacy of drug treatment was enhanced. The authors also commented that, "complete abrogation of the haematotoxicity of cyclophosphamide" was observed.21 The chemotherapeutic drug Adriamycin is known to induce pronounced liver dysfunction, generally reflected by an increase in transaminase levels. In animal experiments, adding Rhodiola rosea extract to a protocol with Adriamycin resulted in an improved inhibition of tumor dissemination (as compared to that found with Adriamycin alone), and the combined protocol prevented liver toxicity.22

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    Clinical Studies

    Although Rhodiola rosea has been studied in the former Soviet Union for more than 35 years, this research is presently unavailable for review. This makes it impossible to verify the Russian claims of its antidepressant, anticancer, cardioprotective, and central nervous system enhancing properties.23 Available animal evidence seems supportive of a possible role for this plant adaptogen in many of these conditions. Table 2 outlines the conditions suggested to benefit from Rhodiola supplementation.

    amenorrhea
    asthenia
    cancer
    colds and flu
    depression
    fatigue
    headaches
    hypertension
    insomnia
    schizophrenia
    sexual dysfunction (male)

    There have also been claims that this plant has great utility as a therapy in asthenic conditions (decline in work performance, sleep disturbances, poor appetite, irritability, hypertension, headaches, and fatigue) developing subsequent to intense physical or intellectual strain, influenza and other viral exposures, and other illness. 23 Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of the standardized extract of Rhodiola rosea root (SHR-5) provide a degree of support for these claimed adaptogenic properties and indicate possible utility in asthenic conditions induced by overwork or over study. SHR-5 is standardized to contain rosavin (3.6%), salidroside (1.6%), and p-tyrosol (<0.1%).10

    Darbinyan et al evaluated the effect of chronic administration of 170 mg of SHR-5 for 14 days on aspects of mental performance and fatigue on 56 healthy male and female physicians (age 24-35) on night duty. Mental performance was evaluated using tests to determine speed of visual and auditory perception, attention capacity, and short-term memory. Based on the results of the battery of tests used, a Fatigue Index was calculated. The trial was divided into three periods: (1) a two-week test period of one SHR-5 or placebo tablet daily; (2) a two-week washout period; and (3) a third two-week cross-over period of one placebo or SHR-5 tablet daily. A statistically significant improvement in Fatigue Index was observed during the first two-week period in the SHR-5 group, and the improved mental performance reverted toward baseline values during the washout period. Administration of SHR-5 for the final two weeks of the six-week night duty period was unable to significantly offset declines in mental performance.24
    Spasov et al investigated the effects of SHR-5 on male medical students during an exam period. Forty students were randomized to receive either 50 mg SHR-5 or placebo twice daily for a period of 20 days. The students receiving the standardized extract of Rhodiola rosea demonstrated significant improvements in physical fitness, psychomotor function, mental performance, and general wellbeing. Subjects receiving the Rhodiola rosea extract also reported statistically significant reductions in mental fatigue, improved sleep patterns, a reduced need for sleep, greater mood stability, and a greater motivation to study. The average exam scores between students receiving the Rhodiola rosea extract and placebo were 3.47 and 3.20, respectively. 25

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    Dosage and Toxicity

    In the two double-blind clinical trials, the dose of a standardized Rhodiola rosea extract ranged from 100-170 mg per day. The content of rosavin consumed in these daily doses is approximately 3.6-6.14 mg. The therapeutic dose of available Rhodiola rosea preparations will vary depending on degree of standardization; however, for chronic administration rosavin content within the above range seems prudent. This would suggest a dose of approximately 360-600 mg Rhodiola rosea daily of an extract standardized for one-percent rosavin, 180-300 mg of an extract standardized for two-percent rosavin, or the dose of between 100-170 mg for an extract standardized for 3.6-percent rosavin. As an adaptogen, chronic administration is normally begun several weeks prior to a period of expected increased physiological, chemical, or biological strain, and continued throughout the duration of the challenging event or activity. When using Rhodiola rosea as a single dose for acute purposes (e.g., for an exam or athletic competition), the suggested dose is three times the dose used for chronic supplementation.

    The Russian approach to long-term supplementation with adaptogens generally calls for repeating cycles characterized by short periods of adaptogen administration, followed by an interval with no supplementation.26 Rhodiola rosea has been administered for periods ranging from as little as one day (acute administration) up to four months. Until more specific information is available, a dosing regime following the established patterns used with other plant adaptogens, with periodic intervals of abstinence, seems warranted when Rhodiola rosea is being used chronically.

    At the doses administered in the clinical trials, a complete absence of all side effects has been reported. However, preliminary clinical feedback indicates that at doses of 1.5-2.0 grams and above of Rhodiola rosea extract standardized for two-percent rosavin, some individuals might experience an increase in irritability and insomnia within several days. It is possible that other physiological parameters that benefit from a lower dose of Rhodiola rosea extract might be exacerbated by a dose that is inappropriately high and/or sustained for prolonged periods of time.

    Evidence on the safety and appropriateness of Rhodiola rosea supplementation during pregnancy and lactation is currently unavailable.

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    Conclusion

    Consistent with benefits found with other adaptogenic substances, Rhodiola rosea appears to offer generalized resistance to physical, chemical, and biological stressors. Available evidence suggests it can be a suitable substitute in conditions where other adaptogens might be considered. However, Rhodiola rosea also appears to be unique among the currently available adaptogenic herbs and might offer an advantage in some clinical conditions and stressful circumstances. Unlike Korean and Siberian ginseng, which are thought to exert their adaptogenic activity primarily at the level of HPA function,27-29 Rhodiola rosea appears to exert its adaptogenic effects by working centrally and peripherally on monoamine and opioid synthesis, transport, and receptor activity. If this is in fact the case in humans, it suggests the potential for therapeutic utility of Rhodiola rosea in conditions not particularly responsive to administration of ginseng products. It also suggests the possibility of potential synergistic interactions among Rhodiola rosea and other plant adaptogens.

    Based on the proposed mechanism of action and available experimental data, Rhodiola rosea appears to offer an advantage over other adaptogens in circumstances of acute stress. A single dose of Rhodiola rosea prior to acute stress produces favorable results and prevents stress-induced disruptions in function and performance. Acute stress tends to initially impact monoamine levels and endorphins, while chronic stress places greater demands on the HPA axis. While this is a generalization and there is obvious overlap in the stress response, Rhodiola does seem to exert a pronounced effect on aspects of the acute stress response. Since many stressful situations are acute in nature, and sometimes unexpected, an adaptogen that can be taken acutely in these circumstances, rather than requiring chronic advance supplementation, could be very useful.

    Rhodiola rosea also offers some cardioprotective benefits not associated with other adaptogens. Its proposed ability to moderate stress-induced damage and dysfunction in cardiovascular tissue might make Rhodiola rosea the adaptogen of choice among patients at higher risk for cardiovascular disease.

    Since Rhodiola rosea administration appears to impact central monoamine levels, it might also provide benefits and be the adaptogen of choice in clinical conditions characterized by an imbalance of central nervous system monoamines. This is consistent with Russian claims for improvements in depression and schizophrenia. It also suggests that research in areas such as seasonal affective disorder, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome, to name a few clinical conditions, is warranted.

    Administration of Rhodiola rosea appears to have potential as an anticancer agent, and might be useful in conjunction with some pharmaceutical antitumor agents. While available evidence is limited to animal models, results appear promising. This is an area that would benefit from additional research.

    The clearest indication for Rhodiola rosea administration is for the asthenic condition resulting from acute or chronic overwork, which may manifest as decline in work performance, sleep disturbances, poor appetite, irritability, hypertension, headaches, and fatigue.

    Some animal and preliminary clinical evidence suggests the need for a narrow range of therapeutic dosage of Rhodiola rosea, above and below which beneficial physiological effects might be less likely. Because of this, it seems prudent to keep doses at a moderate level both in terms of the quantity and duration of supplementation. While Rhodiola rosea appears to be a promising plant medicine, and has been investigated intensively in Russia, additional research is required before any conclusions with respect to its therapeutic utility can be made.
    References

    1. Petkov VD, Yonkov D, Mosharoff A, et al. Effects of alcohol aqueous extract from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on learning and memory. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 1986;12:3-16.

    2. Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Ann Rev Pharmacol 1969;9:419-430.

    3. Lishmanov IB, Trifonova ZV, Tsibin AN, et al. Plasma beta-endorphin and stress hormones in stress and adaptation. Biull Eksp Biol Med 1987;103:422-424. [Article in Russian]

    4. Linh PT, Kim YH, Hong SP, et al. Quantitative determination of salidroside and tyrosol from the underground part of Rhodiola rosea by high performance liquid chromatography. Arch Pharm Res 2000;23:349-352.

    5. Lee MW, Lee YA, Park HM, et al. Antioxidative phenolic compounds from the roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis A. Bor. Arch Pharm Res 2000;23:455-458.

    6. Ohsugi M, Fan W, Hase K, et al. Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:111-119.

    7. Visioli F, Galli C, Bornet F, et al. Olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed in humans. FEBS Lett 2000;468:159-160.

    8. Bonanome A, Pagnan A, Caruso D, et al. Evidence of postprandial absorption of olive oil phenols in humans. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2000;10:111-120.

    9. de la Puerta R, Ruiz Gutierrez V, Hoult JR. Inhibition of leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase by phenolics from virgin olive oil. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;57:445-449.

    10. Boon-Niermeijer EK, van den Berg A, Wikman G, Wiegant FA. Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-induced death of embryos from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Phytomedicine 2000;7:389-399.

    11. Stancheva SL, Mosharrof A. Effect of the extract of Rhodiola rosea L. on the content of the brain biogenic monamines. Med Physiol 1987;40:85-87.

    12. Maslova LV, Kondrat'ev BI, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IB. The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1994;57:61-63. [Article in Russian]

    13. Lishmanov IB, Maslova LV, Maslov LN, Dan'shina EN. The anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea and its possible mechanism. Biull Eksp Biol Med 1993;116:175-176. [Article in Russian]

    14. Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IB, Krasnov EA. The participation of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in the realization of the anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997;60:38-39. [Article in Russian]

    15. Lishmanov IB, Naumova AV, Afanas'ev SA, Maslov LN. Contribution of the opioid system to realization of inotropic effects of Rhodiola rosea extracts in ischemic and reperfusion heart damage in vitro. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997;60:34-36. [Article in Russian]

    16. Azizov AP, Seifulla RD. The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1998;61:61-63. [Article in Russian]

    17. Lazarova MB, Petkov VD, Markovska VL, et al. Effects of meclofenoxate and Extr. Rhodiolae roseae L. on electroconvulsive shock-impaired learning and memory in rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1986;8:547-552.

    18. Afanas'ev SA, Alekseeva ED, Bardamova IB, et al. Cardiac contractile function following acute cooling of the body and the adaptogenic correction of its disorders. Biull Eksp Biol Med 1993;116:480-483. [Article in Russian]

    19. Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN. The anti-arrhythmia action of an extract of Rhodiola rosea and of n-tyrosol in models of experimental arrhythmias. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1998;61:37-40. [Article in Russian]

    20. Udintsev SN, Shakhov VP. The role of humoral factors of regenerating liver in the development of experimental tumors and the effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on this process. Neoplasma 1991;38:323-331.

    21. Udintsev SN, Schakhov VP. Decrease of cyclophosphamide haematotoxicity by Rhodiola rosea root extract in mice with Ehrlich and Lewis transplantable tumors. Eur J Cancer 1991;27:1182.

    22. Udintsev SN, Krylova SG, Fomina TI. The enhancement of the efficacy of adriamycin by using hepatoprotectors of plant origin in metastases of Ehrlich's adenocarcinoma to the liver in mice. Vopr Onkol 1992;38:1217-1222. [Article in Russian]

    23. Germano C, Ramazanov Z, Bernal Suarez M. Arctic Root (Rhodiola Rosea): The Powerful New Ginseng Alternative. New York, NY: Kensington Publishing Corp; 1999.

    24. Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, et al. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue * a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine 2000;7:365-371.

    25. Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine 2000;7:85-89.

    26. Baranov AI. Medicinal uses of ginseng and related plants in the Soviet Union: recent trends in the Soviet literature. J Ethnopharmacol 1982;6:339-353.

    27. Hiai S, Yokoyama H, Oura H, Yano S. Stimulation of pituitary-adrenocortical system by ginseng saponin. Endocrinol Jpn 1979;26:661-665.

    28. Fulder SJ. Ginseng and the hypothalamic-pituitary control of stress. Am J Chin Med 1981;9:112-118.

    29. Golotin VG, Gonenko VA, Zimina VV, et al. Effect of ionol and eleutherococcus on changes of the hypophyseo-adrenal system in rats under extreme conditions. Vopr Med Khim 1989;35:35-37. [Article in Russian]

    Scopoletin

    Synonyms:

    7-Hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin
    gelseminic acid
    chrysatropic acid
    esculetin-6-methyl ether

    Description: Pure scopoletin is a yellow to beige crystalline powder. Scopoletin belongs to the group of coumarins (this group also includes umbelliferone and esculetin).

    Distribution: Noni, manaca, passion flower, stevia

    Action of Scopoletin: Scopoletin seems to regulate the blood pressure: when the blood pressure is high, scopoletin helps to lower it and when it is too low it can help raise it.
    Scopoletin has bacteriostatic activity against various species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Scopoletin has anti-inflammatory activity and can be used to treat bronchial illnesses and asthma. Scopoletin regulates the hormone serotonin, which helps to reduce anxiety and depression.

    Inositol

    Inositol is a simple polyol precursor in a second messenger system important in the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid inositol has been reported as decreased in depression. A double-blind controlled trial of 12 g daily of inositol in 28 depressed patients for four weeks was performed. Significant overall benefit for inositol compared to placebo was found at week 4 on the Hamilton Depression Scale. No changes were noted in hematology, kidney or liver function. Since many antidepressants are effective in panic disorder, twenty-one patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four week, random-assignment crossover treatment trial of inositol 12 g per day. Frequency and severity of panic attacks and severity of agoraphobia declined significantly with inositol compared to placebo. Side-effects were minimal. Since serotonin re-uptake inhibitors benefit obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and inositol is reported to reverse desensitization of serotonin receptors, thirteen patients with OCD completed a double-blind controlled crossover trial of 18 g inositol or placebo for six weeks each. Inositol significantly reduced scores of OCD symptoms compared with placebo[/b]. A controlled double-blind crossover trial of 12 g daily of inositol for a month in twelve anergic schizophrenic patients, did not show any beneficial effects. A double-blind controlled crossover trial of 6 g of inositol daily vs. glucose for one month each was carried out in eleven Alzheimer patients, with on clearly significant therapeutic effects. Antidepressant drugs have been reported to improve attention deficit disorder (ADDH) with hyperactivity symptomatology. We studied oral inositol in children with ADDH in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled manner. Eleven children, mean age 8.9 +/- 3.6 years were enrolled in an eight week trial of inositol or placebo at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Results show a trend for aggravation of the syndrome with myo-inositol as compared to placebo. Recent studies suggest that serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are helpful in at least some symptoms of autism. However a controlled double-blind crossover trial of inositol 200 mg/kg per day showed no benefit in nine children with autism. Cholinergic agonists have been reported to ameliorate electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced memory impairment. Inositol metabolism is involved in the second messenger system for several muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Inositol 6 g daily was given in a crossover-double-blind manner for five days before the fifth or sixth ECT to a series of twelve patients, without effect. These results suggest that inositol has therapeutic effects in the spectrum of illness responsive to serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors, including depression, panic and OCD, and is not beneficial in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's ADDH, autism or ECT-induced cognitive impairment.

    Citicoline (CDP-Choline)

    Neurons, the principal cells of our brain, along with glial cells, are the doorways to memory. These amazing elements of cerebral life are responsible for orchestrating all the functions of cognition. Out of these brain cells arise our diverse abilities to contemplate the sum total of the universe or investigate the very nature of how our neurons actually perform their incredible tasks. Yet without a lot of healthy neurons we would not be able to store, access, or recall the detailed and extensive information that our brains process into thoughts, ideas and even into wisdom. Neurons help make us what we are. They can wake us up or put us to sleep. They can bring us to full mental readiness or render us unconscious. They can bring us into the light or keep us in the dark.

    When our brains are working properly, it is like the spontaneous order of a great city, a city of light and energy. Imagine viewing a sped-up film of the taillights of automobiles moving rapidly through the streets of a city -- in building after building, you see flickering light as the energy is exchanged from the human neurons that fuel creativity and growth. Like the city, our brains burn bright with energy.

    Responsibility to Our Brain

    There is no inevitability that the biochemical energy that electrically paints the cityscape of our brains will continue to flow. When our brains falter and the lights dim and start to go out, we can bemoan this fact or take matters into our own hands by preparing in advance. After all, it is our responsibility to take care of our own brain, to pamper it, and to feed its cells the choicest of raw materials. No one else will do that for us. Without adequate attention to brain nutrition, our neurons and glial cells will fail to live up to their potential and die premature deaths.

    Fortunately, neuroscience is progressively discovering the secrets of how the brain operates and what it requires to function optimally. One of the principal areas of scientific study has been the research on the membrane that surrounds the neuronal cell and the role that this membrane plays in ensuring proper function of the neuron. Above all, the function of this membrane is to protect the cell; but it also entails the coordination of a high level of communication and much, much more.

    It has become increasingly clear that phospholipids -- the various fatty-acid mineral molecules that comprise a significant portion of the membrane -- play key roles in maintaining brain cell efficiency. Phospholipids are the attendants at the entry gates into our neural cells (and indeed into all the cells of our body) helping to transport substrates as fuel needed for healthy and efficient operation. Phospholipids help maintain and regulate cell membrane integrity, strength, permeability, elasticity, and resistance to stress, among other functions. Without sufficient nutrients to properly maintain phospholipids, we would not be able to think very well. Our lights would grow dim.

    The Membrane Donor

    More than 30 years of brain research has resulted in a convergence of knowledge about citicoline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine; a.k.a. CDP-Choline), a naturally occurring precursor to one of the most important phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine. In addition to its role in neuron membrane structural function, phosphatidylcholine is thought to play a major role in lipid turnover (utilization of fatty acids) and communication signaling. It also acts as a neuroprotector. Citicoline donates the components choline and cytidine (both of which are precursors to the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine), required to form, repair, and even restore function to nerve cell membranes. Cytidine is involved in the synthesis of other phospholipids. In addition, choline promotes the synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter intimately associated with cognition. As an information-transmitting molecule, acetylcholine is necessary for proper memory function and is especially important for aging brains.

    To summarize, orally supplied citicoline has beneficial physiological actions on cellular function that have been extensively studied and characterized by mechanism. Citicoline has been found to support membrane integrity, enhance acetylcholine formation, and to contribute to such critical metabolic functions as nucleic acids (e.g., RNA and DNA) and protein synthesis. In the brain, in addition to promoting phospholipid synthesis, citicoline also inhibits phospholipid degradation.

    Turn on Your City's Lights with Citicoline

    As we age, our quality of life diminishes across the board with declining vision, hearing, and memory, for example. It is characteristic of our advancing years to find ourselves struggling to recall details, facts, and names that were once at our mind's fingertips. It is as if our mind's city lights are going out. This is where citicoline can be particularly valuable. Indeed, citicoline induces bioelectrical changes in the brain (that have been measured using a spectral electroencephalogram) showing increased alpha activity. Researchers who have studied the effects of citicoline on electrical activity, specifically regarding mapping and mental performance, have observed that it lights up certain maps of the brain. Areas of the brain, found to be affected by citicoline include the cortex, hypothalamus, and the Purkinje's cells of the cerebellum.

    Citicoline was found to significantly improve memory at the EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center in La Coruna, Spain. When citicoline was given to 24 elderly subjects with memory deficits and without dementia, the results were remarkable. Over a course of four weeks, subjects taking citicoline in oral doses of either 500 or 1,000 mg were found to have improved memory when compared to those taking placebo. Word recall, immediate object recall, and delayed object recall were all significantly improved after citicoline supplementation. When the 24 were divided into groups of eight and tested again, citicoline was found to possess impressive memory-enhancing activity at doses of 300-1,000 mg/day.

    Additional benefits included reduction in blood pressure and positive changes in lymphocyte cell count, reflecting immune readiness. The researchers concluded that citicoline improves memory performance in elderly subjects, and that it is suitable to help prevent age-related memory deficits. Citicoline's mechanism of action is thought to entail cerebrovascular (blood circulation of the brain) regulation and neuroimmune (immune function of the nervous system) actions in the brain. Neuroimmune decline has been reported to occur with advancing Alzheimer's disease.

    As we age, alterations in membrane function may occur because our ability to synthesize phosphatidylcholine decreases at the same time that catabolism (the breaking down) of choline and other related phospholipids increases. The result is impairment of our cognitive function. Experimental studies have shown that citicoline helps increase the total amounts of phosphatidylcholine and other related phospholipids in the brain. Moreover, in some instances citicoline may enhance nerve transmission.

    In a surveillance study that took place in Spain, citicoline was given to 2,817 subjects of all ages, but predominantly in the age range of 60 to 80 years old. The subjects were suffering from various neurological problems, mainly insufficient blood circulation to the brain and volume shrinkage of the brain. When they were clinically assessed and neuropsychologically tested after citicoline use, the conclusions strongly suggested that as a choline and cytidine donor, citicoline may improve some of the deficits associated with aging, including dizziness, headaches, insomnia, depression, and memory shortage. The safety of the citicoline was excellent with side effects observed in only about 5% of the subjects, and among the most frequent were digestive complaints in 3.6% of the cases.

    Retarding and Preventing Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, 95 older volunteers identified to have relatively inefficient memories, were given citicoline at a level of 1,000 mg/day for three months. The same subjects -- consisting of 47 female and 48 male volunteers, 50 to 85 years old -- were recruited for a second study that used a crossover design. In the crossover study, subjects took both placebo and citicoline, 2,000 mg/day, each for two months. In the initial study, at 30, 60 and 90 days, the subjects were screened for dementia, memory disorders, and other neurological problems. The crossover subjects were tested at 90 days. While citicoline improved delayed recall on logical memory in both the initial and the crossover study, the lower dose (1,000 mg/day) benefited only those with relatively inefficient memories. In the crossover study, the higher dose (2,000 mg/day) was clearly associated with improved immediate and delayed logical memory. This was true even for those who weren't memory deficient. The conclusions found citicoline to be of benefit not only for those with pronounced memory problems but also for those older individuals with little-to-no perceivable decline. Thus citicoline may prove effective for helping to prevent age-related cognitive decline, which may be the predecessor of dementia.

    A three-month study examined the use of citicoline on 150 aging subjects with primary memory deficits. When administered in repeated cycles of four weeks, with an interval of one week between cycles, citicoline was found to improve cognitive and behavioral efficiency while stabilizing cognitive decline. The subjects were reported to have better memory recall and increased attention span. Citicoline demonstrated this as a long-lasting effect on cognition and behavior of these patients, with improved activation levels and attention responsiveness.

    More Independence and Autonomy of Life

    The efficacy of citicoline (1,000 mg/day) administered for two 21-day treatment cycles, with a one-week wash-out (after stopping the treatment) period between them, was evaluated for 237 subjects experiencing moderate brain aging. Using a geriatric measurement scale, the study demonstrated that the positive effects of citicoline persisted through the wash-out period with an even further decrease in measurable symptoms of cognitive decline. The most statistically significant improvement was in the area of the ability to achieve an independent and an autonomous life. Also positively affected were human relations and social life as measured by increased interest and attentive capacity with other people. The study concluded citicoline could thus be recommended for functional and social recovery of the elderly who socially withdraw due to age-related
    cognitive decline.

    Citicoline Increases Vigilance

    When rats were deprived of oxygen by reducing the quantity available over a period of 103 days, their behavior was observed at each increment of oxygen deficiency. Twenty-four of the animals were given citicoline by adding it to their food. Citicoline showed a protective effect, increasing vigilance under mild hypoxia (oxygen deficiency), while those not receiving the citicoline lost vigilance, which indicated the possible use of citicoline for cerebral syndromes due to deficient oxygen supply.

    Citicoline Helps Level of Consciousness

    A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of citicoline was conducted to evaluate its effect in patients with acute, moderate-to-severe cerebral infarction (brain tissue that dies due to lack of blood supply, as in a stroke). The patients subsequently suffered moderate to mild disturbances of consciousness, and all were admitted to the hospital within 14 days of these cerebral incidents. One hundred-thirty-three subjects received 1,000 mg/day i.v. of citicoline for 14 days while 139 received placebo. The group treated with choline showed significant improvements in level of consciousness compared with the placebo-treated group. And choline was an entirely safe treatment.

    Citicoline Enhances Mechanisms of Memory

    Researchers have isolated several mechanisms by which citicoline might work to improve cognitive function, at least in dementia-type disease.
    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were given a 1,000 mg daily dose of citicoline for a period of one month and were found to have slight improvements in mental performance. The scientists noted reduced brain theta activity and increased alpha activity in specific regions of the brain. Theta activity is associated with mental sluggishness while alpha activity is connected to mental acuteness. There were also indications of citicoline's favorable effects on the immune system. Malfunctioning immune response mechanisms are believed to be responsible for age-related dementia-type mental decline.

    In another study, researchers correlated citicoline's effects on cerebral blood flow to changes in cognitive function in demented subjects after daily administration for one week. The study group consisted of seven patients with dementia of vascular origin and three patients with dementia of non-vascular origin. The average age of the subjects was 65 years. Cognitive function increased significantly after one week but only for the vascular group, indicating that the mechanism of action involved cerebral blood flow enhancement. These influences were not found in the brains of the subjects with a non-vascular origin of dementia.

    Much of the work done with citicoline and age-related degenerative disease has been done by scientists working at the Basic/Clinical Neuroscience Research Center in La Coruna, Spain. In assessing the results of one study, the scientists detected a significant improvement in mental performance after one month of treatment with citicoline in patients with early-onset AD. In these patients, they correlated brain electrical activity data with cognitive decline. Citicoline produced positive bioelectrical changes indirectly as a result of its effect on immunogenic (immune function producing) and/or neurotrophic (growthful nervous system) activity which, in turn, resulted from improvement of the vascular microenvironment. What is remarkable about their conclusion is that it represents a kind of grand theory correlation suggesting: Citicoline enhances vascular function in the brain resulting in strengthened immune function which, in turn, improves bioelectrical activity -- all of which translated into cognitive benefits.

    Staying Out of Harm's Way

    A passive avoidance procedure was used to measure the ability "to remember to avoid" a noxious and therefore potentially harmful stimulus. The test used 13-month-old mice in order to test the effects that citicoline had on these processes. Half of the mice received 500 mg/kg per day of citicoline orally for four months. The two groups were compared with a third group of younger animals (four-month-old mice). The older mice showed marked impairment in avoiding harm's way; however, the older mice (treated with citicoline) had significant improvement in their performance 24 hours after learning the task. This study did not examine the effects of citicoline on younger mice.

    Young rats, however, were shown to benefit from citicoline in an active avoidance test. Using a maze method of memory measurement, old and young rats with existing memory deficits were given both positive feedback (rewards) and negative feedback (punishment) reinforcement. The old rats (22 months), which were administered 10 mg/kg of citicoline, were tested for retention at 24 hours and seven days after training.

    They were found to be able to retain more of what they learned and able to increase the number of correct responses to the adverse condition.

    When the same test given to older rats was given to younger ones (five-months old) the results were similar. Other studies, as well, have borne out that citicoline's memory-enhancing effects are particularly pronounced in animals with memory deficits whether they are old or young, especially when they have pre-existing memory deficits.

    Citicoline Matchs Piracetam

    Water maze experiments were carried out on 104 male white rats measuring the effects of four nootropic (affecting cognitive function) drugs and citicoline. All investigated substances were administered immediately after morning training with an oral 100 mg/kg dose for a period of five days. The length of time in the water maze and the number of mistakes (entering blind canals) were measured. Only one of the four nootropics, piracetam had any measurable effect, as did citicoline. Piracetam and citicoline both improved rat memory while the other three nootropics showed no effect. In this study, citicoline improved spatial memory as well as the best nootropic.

    In one other study, the memory effects of citicoline surpassed that of the premier nootropic drug, piracetam Mice given citicoline in single doses of 25, 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg, one hour prior to training, were found to have significantly enhanced memory retention both at 24 hours and seven days after the memory session. At a dose of 500 mg/kg, piracetam improved the retention in memory tests 24 hours after training, but had no significant effect during the tests performed seven days after the training. In amnesia induced by the drug scopolamine, 100 mg/kg of citicoline not only prevented memory loss but increased memory as well. In preventing loss of memory from induced amnesia, the amount of citicoline found to be effective was only 20% that of piracetam (500 mg/kg). Yet even five times the level of piracetam did not increase memory retention at the same time as citicoline was able to do.

    Citicoline Enhances Cognition and Coordination in Animals and Humans

    Another interesting benefit of citicoline is its apparent ability to help with cognitive and motor deficits. When injected at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg/day for 20 days, 24-month-old male rats showed enhanced learning memory capacity. Only one injection was needed to protect against behavioral alterations caused by an amnesia-producing drug. An improvement in motor performance and coordination were also observed in aged rats.

    A double-blind random block trial was carried out on 58 patients suffering from chronic cerebrovascular diseases in order to evaluate the effects of citicoline. The researchers found that citicoline treatment brought about an improvement in awareness and coordination faculties. This effect can be attributed to overall drug action on neural energy metabolism.

    Head Injury

    Not surprisingly, citicoline has found a role in treating postconcussional symptoms after mild-to-moderate closed-head injury. In one study, 14 young men (admitted to the neurosurgery service with such injuries) were randomized and given 1,000 mg citicoline or placebo. Control groups were matched for age, education, and severity of impaired consciousness. Citicoline produced a greater reduction of postconcussional symptoms than placebo and further analysis revealed a significantly greater improvement in recognition memory for designs. Other areas tested found no differences between placebo and citicoline.

    In another study, also blind and randomized, 216 patients with severe or moderate head injury were treated with citicoline. Results found improved general outcome including a trend toward better motor (coordination), cognitive and psychic function for those treated with citicoline. Patients also had shorter hospital stays than those not receiving citicoline.

    Free of Side Effects

    Interestingly, citicoline is absorbed almost completely, and its bioavailability is approximately the same as when administered intravenously. Once absorbed, citicoline breaks down into cytidine and choline, which are dispersed widely throughout the body. They cross the blood-brain barrier and reach the central nervous system (CNS), where they are incorporated into the phospholipid fraction of the membrane and microsomes. No serious side effects have been found in any of the groups of patients treated with citicoline, which demonstrates the safety of the treatment.

    Curiously, citicoline acts to enhance levels of various neurotransmitters including noradrenaline and dopamine levels in the CNS. The heightened activities of these brain molecules have a neuroprotective effect in situations of hypoxia and ischemia, as well as improved learning and memory performance in animal models of brain aging.

    Citicoline appears to improve functional outcome and reduce neurologic deficit with 500 mg of citicoline appearing to be the optimal dose. In rat studies no essential differences in the effects of citicoline were established upon oral and intraperitoneal administration.

    Citicoline Summary

    Many studies have shown that citicoline prevents, reduces, or reverses the negative effects of a deficient blood supply in most human, animal and cellular models studied. Citicoline acts in head trauma models to decrease and limit nerve cell membrane damage, restore intracellular regulatory enzyme sensitivity and function, and limit edema. Considerable accumulated evidence supports the use of citicoline to enhance membrane maintenance, membrane repair, and neuronal function in traumatic conditions that injure the brain.

    In rats with posttraumatic motor and spatial memory-performance deficits caused by traumatic brain injury, citicoline increased acetylcholine release in the dorsal hippocampus and neocortex. Eighteen days of citicoline administration resulted in significantly less cognitive deficits than injured saline-treated rats. Citicoline also lessened the memory-disrupting effects of scopolamine. Amazingly, a single-injected administration of citicoline increased extracellular levels of acetylcholine in dorsal hippocampus and neocortex in normal, awake, freely moving rats. It was concluded that spatial memory performance deficits are, at least partially, associated with deficits in central cholinergic neurotransmission and that treatments which enhance acetylcholine release (following traumatic brain injury) may lessen cholinergic-dependent neurobehavioral deficits.

    Beneficial effects of exogenous citicoline also have been postulated and/or reported in experimental models for dyskinesia, Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease, aging, Alzheimer's disease, learning and memory, and cholinergic stimulation.

    By activating the synthesis of critical components in cell membranes, citicoline boosts levels of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, and enhances cerebral energy metabolism. Citicoline can help preserve and protect proper memory structure and function. Thus, citicoline can be of significant value in helping to prevent age-associated cognitive impairment -- something we all naturally suffer . . . or soon will. It even boosts mitochondrial energy production, causing the re-absorption of cerebral edema, which can be caused by trauma or even stroke.

    Octopamine Science
    By David Tolson

    Introduction

    Octopamine is a trace amine, a class of molecules that naturally occur in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. Octopamine was first identified 50 years ago in the octopus [1], and while the biological role it plays in many invertebrate species is well established, the physiological role octopamine plays in mammals is not well known. Octopamine is derived from tyramine, another trace amine that is derived from tyrosine or from tyramine-containing food. Octopamine can also be further metabolized into synephrine via the enzyme pheylethanolamine N-methyltransferase [2]. In invertebrates, the role of octopamine is analogous to that of norepinephrine (NE) in vertebrates, and it is responsible for the "fight or flight" effect and fat mobilizing [1].

    In mammals, octopamine exists in low concentrations in the central and sympethatic nervous systems [3]. The two isomers para-octopamine (p-octopamine) and meta-octopamine (m-octopamine) tend to be found together in the same tissues [4]. Levels of octopamine and other trace amines can become elevated in certain pathological states, and are also elevated by inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) [2]. Until recently, the primary role of trace amines was assumed to be as "false neurotransmitters," as they can concentrate in nerve terminals containing neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA), NE, and serotonin, thus changing receptor function or neurotransmitter uptake. However, a class of receptors called trace amine receptors (TARs) was recently discovered, but the relevance of these receptors has not yet been established [2]. Because of this, the known actions of octopamine on the better understood receptors will be the focus of this article.

    Alpha adrenoceptors

    Octopamine has numerous effects on the adrenergic system, as it shares structural and functional similarities with NE [5]. Octopamine can have effects that are both similar to and that oppose those of NE [3]. In vivo animal studies indicate that octopamine can stimulate both alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors [6]. Inhibition of MAO also amplifies the effect of octopamine [3].

    In vitro, octopamine has alpha(1) agonist properties. Under certain conditions, p-Octopamine is a full alpha(1A) and partial alpha(1B) agonist, while m-octopamine is a partial alpha(1A) and full alpha(1B) agonist [7]. The alpha(1) agonist properties of octopamine appear to have little if any relevance in vivo [3, 8].

    Octopamine also has alpha(2) agonist properties, with a greater effect at the alpha(2C) receptor [9]. The m- isomer appears to be the active one in this case, while p-octopamine is devoid of activity at alpha(2)-adrenoceptors under physiological conditions [5, 8]. In vitro, the alpha(2) agonist properties have been established in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, Syrian hamster adipocytes, and human adipocytes [10]. However, the effects of octopamine at alpha(2)-adrenoceptors do not parallel those of catecholamines [9]. Whereas epinephrine inhibits lipolysis in human adipocytes via alpha(2) agonism, octopamine does not share this effect, and it causes only a weak antilipolytic response in Syrian hamster adipocytes [10]. However, the alpha(2) agonist properties of octopamine may be relevant in vivo, as administration of octopamine to chicks and other animals significantly increases food intake, an effect which can be prevented by administration of the alpha(2) antagonist yohimbine [3, 8].

    Beta adrenoceptors

    Although octopamine may have some beta(2) agonist properties [5], the majority of the literature reports that it is a highly selective beta(3) agonist [10-12]. This is based primarily on in vitro studies. Octopamine has the highest lipolytic potency in tissues of animals such as hibernators, which have high sensitivity to beta(3) agonists. In rat fat cells, octopamine reduced insulin-dependent glucose transport, a property common in beta(3) agonists [10]. In human fat cells, the response to beta(3) agonists is limited compared to other animals, and studies with octopamine find it to have little or no effect in human adipocytes [5, 10]. On the other hand, this may not necessarily reflect the effectiveness of beta(3) agonists in vivo, as beta(3) agonism can change the functional characteristics of fat cells with chronic treatment, resulting in a greater rate of lipolysis [13]. In humans, administration of beta(3) antagonists can result in hyperlipidaemia [14]. Also, other selective beta(3) agonists cause lipolysis in human white fat cells [13].

    With octopamine specifically, other effects may confound the picture. Octopamine is readily destroyed by MAO and SSAO, which are present in fat cells [5, 10]. This is also the case with NE [10], but this is also lipolytic through multiple mechanisms other than beta(3) activation. The oxidation of octopamine by these enzymes results in the production of hydrogen peroxide, which in turn results in increased glucose uptake by fat cells. So, while octopamine can cause lipolysis in tissues where beta(3) receptors play a major role, in human adipose tissue the effects of these two competing factors basically cancel each other out [5].

    Dopamine & acetylcholine

    Octopamine may have effects outside of the adrenergic system in mammals, primarily related to the dopaminergic system. Octopamine is a selective antagonist at the D1 receptor [15-16]. It also inhibits reuptake in vitro, leading to higher concentrations of dopamine [17-18]. In turn, one of these effects may be responsible for the reduction of prolactin secretion seen with octopamine [18]. There is also a report of octopamine decreasing acetylcholine release by rat peripheral nerves. This effect seems to be downward of the effects at alpha(2) and/or D1 receptors [19].

    Practical implications

    There are few studies on the responses to octopamine supplementation in vivo. Other than those finding increased food intake mentioned above, animal studies indicate that octopamine increases blood pressure, locomotor activity, and may have an antidepressant effect (although this is commonly loosely defined) [5, 20-21]. Octopamine has reportedly been used to treat low blood pressure in humans [22].

    Whether or not octopamine will lead to fat loss is still up in the air. There is evidence for a possible weak lipolytic effect on balance from beta(3) agonism. However, there are also studies indicating that it increases food intake via alpha(2) agonism, which would not be helpful on a diet. Although the in vitro studies would indicate otherwise, an antilipolytic effect from alpha(2) agonism cannot be ruled out, especially in tissues with high amounts of alpha(2) receptors. It is possible that these effects may be partly prevented by taking yohimbine and potent antioxidants. However, if one is looking for a beta(3) agonist, ephedrine is a much better choice, as it has been shown to cause fat loss (especially when coadministered with caffeine) in numerous clinical trials. Ephedrine can also directly or indirectly (via release of NE) stimulate other adrenoceptors.

    In addition to the problems above, octopamine has low oral bioavailability. Not only is it readily broken down by MAOI, it is extensively metabolized by the gut wall [23]. This does not mean it is completely ineffective orally, only that large doses are required for an effect (probably much larger than those found in most supplements). In conclusion, there are reasons for and against octopamine use which could only be fully resolved by further research in humans. There are other agents that are preferable to octopamine.
    Vincamine
    Vincamine is a PhytoNootropic from Periwinkle in use since 1959. It is a potent mental stimulant, similar to Pyritinol, but with far greater effects on CBF.

    -Biochemical Effects-

    -Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow) [Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation].

    - Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) [Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory]

    -Has a significant antioxidant effect.

    -Dose-

    20-100 mg daily with meals.


    Attached PDF about Adaptogens:
    .PDF format
    Contents:

    I. Introduction 1-2
    A). The Story Behind Adaptogenic Products 1
    B). Soviets ‘Discover’ Adaptogens 2
    C). Important Actions of Adaptogens 2
    II. Oxyfresh Develops Breakthrough Stress-Relief Tonic 2-4
    A). Adaptogens: Nature’s Answer to Stress 3
    B). Developing the Breakthrough Primorye Formula 3
    C). A Stress-Free Crusade 4
    D). Primorye’s 7 Adaptogens 4
    III. What Distinguishes Primorye From Other Adaptogenic Formulas 4-5
    A). Biologically Active Compounds in Primorye 5
    B). The Effects of Stress on Our Bodies 5
    IV. Special Biological Properties of Adaptogens in Primorye 6-9
    A). Eleutherococcus Senticosus (Siberian Ginseng) 6
    B). Rhodiola Rosea (Golden Root) 6
    C). Rhaponticum CarthaMoides (Maral Root) 7
    D). Schizandra Chinensis (Chinese Magnolia Vine) 7
    E). Glycyrrhiza Uralensis (Licorice Root) 8
    F). Aralia Mandshurica (Manchurian Thorn Tree) 8
    G). Avena Sativa (Fresh Wild Oat Seed) 9
    V. Primorye Adaptogens Studies, Use and Safety 9-11
    A). Common Questions about Primorye 9-10
    B). Russian Studies on Adaptogens 10
    C). Why People Love Primorye 11
    VI. Adaptogens and their Applications 12-16
    A). Myths and Realities About Adaptogens 12-13
    B). Who Can Benefit From Adaptogens 13-14
    C). How Adaptogens Work Against Stress 14
    D). Regulating Effects of Adaptogens 15
    E). Overview of the Beneficial Effects and Actions of Adaptogens 15-16
    VII. Understanding Herbs as Adaptogenic ‘Healing’ Agents 16-18
    A). ‘Medicinal’ Properties of Adaptogens 16-17
    B). Adaptogens as Herbal Medicine 17-18
    VIII. Categories of Adaptogens 18-19
    A). Primary Adaptogens 18
    B). Secondary Adaptogens 18-19
    C). Companion Adaptogens 19
    IX. Stress Research and Adaptogens 19-21
    A). Biological Considerations 19
    B). Specific Results of Adaptogens 19-20
    C). Cellular Adaptation 20-21
    D). Adaptogens and Aging 21
    X. Adaptogens for a Healthy, Long and Disease-Free Life 22-23
    A). Building Red Blood Cells While Under Stress 22
    B). Combating Oxidative Stress 22-23
    C). Summarizing the Studied Benefits of Adaptogens 23

    And another PDF about nootropics
     

    Attached Files:

    1. 5/5,
      Excellent post. Really. Very informative, great sources. Thank you for your contributions.
      Dec 30, 2008
  11. Lukeoca

    Lukeoca Titanium Member

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    I'm feeling quite motivated. Would you like me to reformat this sticky post for improved readability?
     
  12. NeuroChi

    NeuroChi is not his mind Platinum Member & Advisor

    Reputation Points:
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    from earth
    I assume you mean using headline tags?
    Sure, please post it in a reply and then it will be moved to the top.
     
  13. Lukeoca

    Lukeoca Titanium Member

    Reputation Points:
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    Alot of the original post is articles, I will leave them out and just compile the list of nootropics and their effects. Perhaps articles would be better kept separate


    Smoolio added 192 Minutes and 44 Seconds later...

    Well it has been done..*breathes* I have only included the Nootropic descriptions and omitted the articles to keep it simple. I hope this proves helpful for all interested in nootropics.
    _______________________

    Nootropics : An Introductory Guide
    _______________________

    Note from editor: The Nootropics listed in this article have been compiled as described by various different authors. Therefore some are repeated but with different information. Some of the information is based on individuals experience or research and should not be regarded as being from a legitimate medical resource.
    Edited by: Smoolio
    _______________________

    Author Key: Sections are colour coded to differentiate between different sources/authors.
    Green: Unknown Author
    Orange: R.U. Sirius
    Purple: John Morgenthaler
    Blue: Bj Krawchuk ([email protected])
    Red: Misc. or Unknown Authors
    (If you are the original author of part or part(s) of this guide, please contact editor/admin to be referenced.)
    _______________________

    Introduction

    Quick guide to the most popular nootropic supplements. All can be stacked, or taken alone. Neurostim +C is a good premade stack, though I like to add piracetam to it when I need to concentrate in order to learn (only 4 more months of grad school at night, yay). All of these typically take days to weeks to make a noticeable improvement on concentration and focus, and are best taken in longer periods (2-3 months) followed by down time of one month. As with all supplements, start with the basics, and move on from there.

    _________________________________________________________

    Piracetam
    (2-oxo-Pyrrolidine Acetamide) - is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). Chemically related to the amino acid Pyroglutamic Acid (Pyrrolidine Carboxylic acid), which occurs in cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in cognitive functioning.

    Biochemical Effects

    • Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow){Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation}

    • Increases Cerebral Phospholipids & Cellular Membrane Fluidity (By interacting with the polar head moieties of the phospholipid bilayer) {Supports healthy neuron communication & structure}.

    • Supports Cognitive Receptors (By amplifying the density of the Muscarinic Cholinergic {Frontal Cortex, Striatum, & Hippocampus}, NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) {Hippocampus}, & AMPA (Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-isoxazole-Propionic Acid) Cerebral Cortex Receptors {Strengthens neurotransmitter receptors involved in memory and neuroprotection}

    • Stimulates the Corpus Callosum, an area of the brain that controls communication between the left and right hemispheres (Increases communication between both hemispheres) {Involved in speech and creative thinking}.

    • Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) {Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory}

    • Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (By increasing Red-White blood cells & Platelet deformability, inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthetase or antagonism of thromboxane A2, reducing von Willebrand's factor & fibrinogen levels) {Supports Healthy Blood Flow}.

    • Decreases EEG complexity (Increases cooperatively of brain functional processing) {Positively effects Neuro-Electrical Functioning}.

    • Has a significant antioxidant effect.

    • Piracetam positively supports healthy cognitive & cardiovascular functioning by a multifaceted means of action.
    Notes
    Approved & used since 1970’s worldwide (Europe, Asia, and South American) for various health conditions. Recommended by many healthcare professionals and health organizations, such as the Life Extension Foundation, as a Nootropic.
    Piracetum is the first step in the use of nootropics, it also stacks nicely with all of the following.

    Dose
    2-6 grams daily

    When can I feel it?
    Works within an hour to a few days.

    _____________________________________


    [COLOR=#00b050]Aniracetam[/COLOR]
    Aniracetam (1-Anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam.

    Biochemical Effects
    Similar to Piracetam, but due to its fat solubility its effects last longer and is far more potent.

    • Helps increase communication between your left and right sides of the brain, resulting in improved creatively, perception, and more.

    • Has an more potent AMPA receptor enhancing effect than Piracetam, resulting in better focus and concentration.

    • Been reported to be best ‘cetam for anti-anxiety effects
    Dose
    750-1500 mg Daily with meals

    When can I feel it?
    Works within an hour to a few days.

    _____________________________________

    [U][B]Oxiracetam[/B][/U]
    (4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinacetamide) is a potent fast acting water soluble analog of Piracetam. Works faster than all other racetams.

    [B] Biochemical Effects[/B]
    Similar to Piracetam, but much stronger than Aniracetam and far faster acting. The preferred premium Nootropic for the elite smart drug user.

    [LIST]
    [*]Supports multiple aspects of Cognition


    [*]Boosts Brain ATP levels (Mental Energy)


    [*]Increase Choline Acetylcholinetranferase the neuro-enzyme that creates Acetylcholine (in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum) {Memory Support}
    [/LIST]
    [B]Dose[/B]
    800-1600 mg Daily

    [B]When can I feel it?[/B]
    Works within an hour to a few days.

    _____________________________________

    [U][B][COLOR=#00b050]Pramiracetam[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#00b050][/color][/U][COLOR=#00b050]
    Pramiracetam (N-{2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl}-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine-acetamide) is a fat soluble potent analog of Piracetam, the most potent Racetam compound being about 15 times stronger than Piracetam.

    [B]Dose[/B]
    100-300mg daily

    [B]Availability[/B]
    Sporadic due to customs issues.

    _____________________________________

    [U][B][COLOR=#00b050]L-Huperzine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#00b050][/color][/U][COLOR=#00b050]
    A is a natural plant alkaloid (extracted from Huperzia serrata), which quickly and potently boosts memory, learning, and concentration. Used worldwide for decades in adults and high school students. Is considered the most potent short term memory enhancer available.

    [B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

    [LIST]
    [*]Potently raises Acetylcholine (main memory neurotransmitter) by inhibiting its breakdown from Acetylcholinesterase.


    [*]Strengthens the Brain's NMDA receptors (Enhances Focus, Learning, and Brain Functioning)
    [/LIST]
    [B]Dose[/B]
    Take 200-400 mcg daily for best results with meals.

    [B] When can I feel it?[/B]
    Works within an hour to a few days.

    _____________________________________

    [U][B][COLOR=#00b050]Alpha GPC[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#00b050][/color][/U][COLOR=#00b050]
    (Alpha L-GlycerylPhosphorylCholine), also known as choline alfoscerate, is an unique NeuroActive form of choline that rapidly penetrates the blood brain barrier, naturally found in small amounts in milk and soybeans.

    [B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

    [LIST]
    [*]A precursor for the neurotransmitter AcetylCholine [Supports Memory]


    [*]A precursor for PhosphatidylCholine [Supports Brain Structure]
    [/LIST]
    [B]Dose[/B]
    300-2000 mg daily.

    [B]When can I feel it?[/B]
    Works within a few days.

    _____________________________________


    [U][B][COLOR=#00b050]Vinpocetine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#00b050][/color][/U][COLOR=#00b050]
    (Ethyl Apovincamine) is a derivative of vincamine (a phytonootropic from periwinkle). While less potent as a mental stimulant than vincamine, Vinpocetine is the preferred nootropic for Enhancing blood flow to the Brain, Eyes, and Ears. Its effects on Cerebral Blood Flow far exceeds all other nootropics.

    [B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

    [LIST]
    [*]Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow) (Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation)


    [*]Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) (Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory)


    [*]Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (Reduces abnormal blood clots).


    [*]Has a significant antioxidant effect.

    [/LIST]
    [B]Dose[/B]
    20-40 mg daily with meals.

    _____________________________________


    [U][B][COLOR=#00b050]Theanine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#00b050][/color][/U][COLOR=#00b050]
    (gamma-ethylamino-L-glutamic acid) is an unique amino acid found in trace amounts in green tea. It converts in the brain into GABA, the neurochemical involved in inhibiting over active mental activities, such as stress, anxiety, worrying, and nervousness. Unlike herbs theanine protects & enhances Cognition, without causing sleepy or drowsiness.

    [B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

    [LIST]
    [*]Instant relaxation due to its potent effects on raising GABA


    [*]Unlike the supplement GABA it passes through the blood brain barrier readily and has superior GABA raising effects.


    [*]Has been studied compared to Paxil.
    [/LIST]
    [B]Notes[/B]
    In Japan it is used in soft drinks much like caffeine is added in the US, but to relax rather than stimulate the mind.

    [B]Dose[/B]
    200-1000mg daily.

    [B]When can I feel it?[/B]
    Works within a few hours.

    _____________________________________


    [COLOR=#00b050][U][B]Acetyl-L-Carnitine[/B][/U]

    (2-Acetoxy-3-(trimethylaminium)butanoic acid) is an amino acid-like compound related to Choline found in high levels in brain cells.

    [B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

    [LIST]
    [*]Increases Acetylation of Coenzyme A (a precursor to Acetylcholine) [Memory Enhancer]


    [*]Enhances transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria [Increased Cellular Energy Levels]
    [/LIST]
    [B]Dose[/B]
    500-3000mg daily

    _____________________________________


    [U][B][COLOR=#00b050]Choline[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#00b050][/color][/U][COLOR=#00b050]
    Choline supplements should be taken during the administration of all nootropics. Lecithin (caps and granules) is a cheap choline source. Lecithin should be taken in doses of 5-8 grams daily to support the nootropics. Alpha GPC (listed above) is another source for choline. It is more effective / more expensive, but only requires dosing in the 1-3 gram range to support choline levels in the brain.


    [/color][/COLOR][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color]
    [COLOR=#00b050][COLOR=#00b050][COLOR=#00b050][COLOR=#00b050][COLOR=#00b050][COLOR=#00b050] ==========================================
    [INDENT]

    [U][B][COLOR=#e36c0a]Vasopressin[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#e36c0a][/color][/U][COLOR=#e36c0a]
    [COLOR=#e36c0a] Definitely the most euphoric of the memory-enhancing intelligence-increase drugs outside of the one being called "Euphoria" (more on Euphoria later).
    Vasopressin is marketed as Diapid, a prescription drug made by our old friends Sandoz. It can also be ordered as Vasopressin through chemical supply houses by those who know the ropes. I had five squirts of Vasopressin out of a nasal inhaler. I was surprised by how strong the effects were. I had that charged-up hyperconfident rush that one experiences with cocaine, but combined with much clearer ideation and without the numbing and discomfort or the strange and disquieting hard edges which often accompany even the more euphoric coke highs. It didn't last very long, about two hours, most of which unfortunately spent riding the BART and walking. By the time I got home, the experience had pretty well dissipated.
    I did not have an opportunity to experience Vasopressin as a work/writing drug. It was clear, however, simply from reading (I was reading "Gravity's Rainbow" at the time and I consider that a fairly challenging test of comprehension) on the BART ride home, that Vasopressin is an excellent tool for rapid learning and comprehension of complex systems of thought.

    The only other time I had Vasopressin, it was in the form of Diapid. I had only two squirts at a party late at night on top of fairly substantial amounts of marijuana and alcohol. It didn't noticeably cut through the depressant effects of those drugs. However, I did experience an intensified and prolonged orgasm!

    [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
    [COLOR=Black]It is a naturally occurring peptide that can cause a wide variety of effects beyond those mentioned in the article. It strains the heart by reducing the heart's food and oxygen supply and increasing the heart's workload by increasing blood pressure. In individuals with hidden or overt heart problems, this can mean a heart attack. In addition vasopressin can cause a dangerous elevation in brain fluid pressure, leading to stroke, coma, or death.
    [COLOR=Black] Also it can produce vertigo, circumoral pallor, pounding headaches, cramps, diarrhea, gas, nausea, vomiting, urticaria, difficulty breathing, anaphylactic shock, and normal shock.
    [COLOR=Black] It is dangerous to use in people with a history of epilepsy, migraine, asthma, heart failure, or poor kidney function. Vasopressin can have dangerous interactions with most stimulants, including pemoline, caffeine, diet pills, and cold medications.
    [COLOR=Black]
    [COLOR=Black] Overall vasopressin is a real Pandora's Box, but fortunately there is ongoing research to develop safer and more effective alternatives.
    [COLOR=Black]
    [COLOR=Black] _____________________________________

    [U][B][COLOR=#e36c0a]Hydergine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#e36c0a][/color][/U][COLOR=#e36c0a]
    The invention of one Dr. Albert Hoffmann of Sandoz Laboratories. I know of many people who got their hands on buckets of this stuff and I know of nobody who continues to take it. The effects are said to be cumulative rather than immediate and everybody seems to lose interest. "I forgot to take my Hydergine" is a term which one often hears from chagrined "intelligence agents," fully cognizant (even without Hydergine) of the ironies involved. This probably says more about the people that I hang out with than about Hydergine as an intelligence increase agent.

    Incidentally, Dr. Hoffmann told a friend of mine that one can get exactly the same effects one gets from daily megadoses of Hydergine by using 25 micrograms of LSD daily. I have not experimented with subthreshold acid as an IQ substance, so I cannot comment.

    [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
    It is an ergot alkaloid, the same chemical class as LSD, but with no psychedelic or immediate effects. It is currently prescribed to help alleviate some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, but, despite the tremendous numbers of people with this affliction, Hydergine is not widely used, mainly because it is only effective in about 1/3 of the people using it. As a matter of fact it worsens cognition in about 1/3 of people.
    It is dangerous to use in individuals with any history of psychosis, low or high blood pressure, heart disease, pregnant women (at any point in pregnancy), or a history of migraines.
    Hydergine has caused rashes, drug fever, headaches, dizziness, vision problems, appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fainting, sluggishness, drowsiness, emotional withdrawal, apathy, nervousness, hostility, confusion, depression, weakness, collapse, and coma.

    _____________________________________

    [U][B][COLOR=#e36c0a]Lecithin, Choline[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#e36c0a][/color][/U][COLOR=#e36c0a]with [U][B][COLOR=#e36c0a]Insotol, Phenylalanine [/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#e36c0a][/color][/U][COLOR=#e36c0a](with Vitamin C and B6)
    While perhaps less intriguing and glamorous to technophilic reality hackers, most of these easily available cognitive enhancers have a substantially perceptible effect. LECITHIN seems to be the exception. Even at "Durk and Sandy" dosage levels there was no noticeable enhancement of focus, recall, etc. CHOLINE and INOSITOL, at about three grams each, produce mild but definite results with no discomfort and can be used daily. I did this once for about a month and found myself losing my sense of humor. However, if you're already humorless you might just as well give this a go. PHENYLALANINE is quite speedy. While it can be used for creativity and focus, it tends to make one irritable. For emergency use only.

    [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
    These compounds are both basically safe and effective if not spectacular. I would add a few notes though. Use caution with these if you have a history of epilepsy. Choline may be more effective when taken with inositol. B6 is more effective and better for you when taken in wide-spectrum mega-B vitamin supplements.
    PHENYLALANINE is neurotoxic and can cause brain damage in about 2% of the population [uploader's note: the 2% with the metabolic disorder PKU, that is], and it's probably not good in large doses for anyone. TYROSINE on the other hand is not toxic and is a more effective substitute.
    DEANER can be made more effective by combining it with METHIONINE, but be cautious of large doses of methionine if you have a history of psychosis. In addition, there are other nutrients that are save and effective in increasing psychological energy in most people, INOSINE, CYTOCHROME C, LYSINE, and GINSENG.

    _____________________________________

    [COLOR=#e36c0a][U][B]Deaner[/B][/U]
    [COLOR=#e36c0a] This is getting really popular with the "health food set." Experientially, the effect is very subtle but noticeable. I've tried this a few times and what I've found is that if I already have a task to do, I will do it and, in retrospect, I will realize that I sustained my attention for an unusually long time without flagging or needing a break. However, if I use this (as I often do with other cognitive enhancers) without a precise sense of what the task at hand is, it doesn't clarify and help to motivate activity. This is an important point.
    Drugs such as Vasopressin, Pemoline, Euphoria and THA can actually cut through confusion and ennui and help invoke will. My guess is that most of these substances also work, to varying degrees, on the pleasure centers of the brain, provoking one's natural 'joie di vivre' and thereby provoking enthusiasm for creative and organizational activities.

    _____________________________________

    [U][B][COLOR=#e36c0a]Pemoline[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#e36c0a][/color][/U][COLOR=#e36c0a]
    Usually combined with Magnesium. The information most frequently passed around in reference to MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE was published by the Church of the Tree of Life some years ago in their publication "Bark Leaf". It recommends taking "Mag-Pem" at 50-100 mgs. every day for two months in order to substantially increase your I.Q. OUCH! This program is a sure ticket to severe headaches and extreme nervousness. However, in the 20-30 milligram range, I've found that this can be used twice weekly with excellent results. The lift is very substantial and noticeable.

    I, and several of my friends, find it particularly good for writing, both creative and functional. For rapid-fire associations and grand synthesis just combine it with moderate amounts of Cannabis (Sativa, if possible). It lasts about twelve hours, coming on slowly and having its greatest effect at around the fifth through the tenth hours. Clarity and verbal acuity are the strong points here. At times, the sheer mass of information, new thoughts and connections can overwhelm and put one into a rather confused state, particularly if one is not applying oneself to something. When this occurs I find that I can slow down my thoughts to a point where there is coherence simply by verbalizing them or writing them down. Unlike its close cousin "EUPHORIA," Pemoline is emotionally bland.
    It is not a pleasure drug. WARNING: from my observations, approximately one in every ten people get nothin' but headaches from even small doses of Pemoline.

    [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
    PEMOLINE is an interesting drug at the center of some current research. Unfortunately, it is not known how the drug works. If it was, a safer alternative could be found. Pemoline has caused fatal liver failure, still births, La Tourette's Syndrome, seizures, hallucinations, uncontrollable movements of the tongue, lips, face, eyes, and extremities, depression, delirium, dizziness, irritability, headaches, drowsiness, insomnia, anorexia, nausea, and cramps. Caution should be used when combining it with any other drug because it is known to have strong dangerous interactions with many drugs. Finally, pemoline, a controlled substance, is recognized by the government as having an abuse/addiction liability.

    _____________________________________
    [U][B][COLOR=#e36c0a] [/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#e36c0a][/color][/U][COLOR=#e36c0a]
    [U][B][COLOR=#e36c0a] PRL-8-53[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#e36c0a][/color][/U][COLOR=#e36c0a]
    Untried by your reviewer at this time. However, Durk Pearson is quoted in 'High Frontiers' as saying that "PRL-8-53 is a terrific memory enhancer. Normally you can memorize about seven or eight digits just by looking at them for a second. PRL-8-53 gives the average person a memory span of about 21 to 22 digits." He also reported that one amnesia victim was cured with one dose.

    [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
    I could find no information on this, even in the most up to date references. The fact that it still is referred to by its code number probably means that it is still highly experimental; they may not even know what its structure is yet. It might be safe, but you are playing neurochemical roulette.

    _____________________________________
    [COLOR=#e36c0a]
    [COLOR=#e36c0a] [U][B][COLOR=#e36c0a]THA[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#e36c0a][/color][/U][COLOR=#e36c0a]
    Untried by your reviewer at this time. Again, Durk Pearson, this time in 'High Frontiers/Reality Hackers Newsletter:' "In combination with arecoline, THA has been found to be remarkably effective as a memory improver ... it's important that the dosage be individualized ... too much will actually impair memory and produce sweating, excessive muscle tone and mouth-watering." The standard dosage is "1 to 2 mg." however, Durk recommends that you start with a quarter of that every two to four hours and work up - if you get those side effects, back off.

    [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
    This is potentially very dangerous. It is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor making its actions closely related to Nerve Gas, Pesticides and Strychnine. BE CAREFUL!

    [/color][/COLOR][/COLOR][/color][/color][/color][/COLOR][/COLOR][/color][/color][/color][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR][/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=Black][COLOR=Black][COLOR=Black][COLOR=Black][COLOR=Black][COLOR=Black][COLOR=Black][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a] ==========================================
    [INDENT][COLOR=#e36c0a]
    [COLOR=#e36c0a] [U][B][COLOR=#7030a0]Centrophenoxine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#7030a0][/color][/U][COLOR=#7030a0]
    Centrophenoxine is an intelligence booster and also an effective anti-aging therapy. It has been shown to cause improvements in various aspects of memory function and a 30% increase in lifespan of laboratory animals.

    One of the most widely recognized aspects of aging is the buildup of lipofuscin in brain cells (lipofuscin is the stuff that age spots are made of.) Centrophenoxine removes lipofuscin deposits from brain cells and reduces its rate of accumulation in young brain cells. It also rejuvenates the synaptic structure - the area where the actual transfer of information takes place between nerve cells.

    [B] PRECAUTIONS:[/B] Centrophenoxine should not be used by persons who are easily excitable, people with severe arterial hypertension, or those subject to convulsions or involuntary musculoskeletal movements. The drug also should not be used by nursing mothers. Adverse effects are rare, but include hyperexcitability, insomnia, tremors, motion sickness, paradoxical drowsiness, and depression. There is no toxicity of Centrophenoxine at therapeutic doses.

    [B] DOSAGE:[/B] Take 1000 to 3000mg per day. Centrophenoxine takes effect very quickly. You'll notice an increase in alertness and a slight stimulating quality.

    [B]SOURCES:[/B] Centrophenoxine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from the address below.

    _____________________________________


    [U][B][COLOR=#7030a0]Choline:[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#7030a0][/color][/U][COLOR=#7030a0]
    Choline can be found in several forms including choline bitartrate, choline chloride, or phosphatidyl choline. Phosphatidyl choline (PC) is the active ingredient of lecithin. All of these forms of choline will produce memory boosting effects, but PC has some unique effects as well.

    Choline compounds, including PC, are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier, where the brain utilizes the choline to make acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in memory). Thus, choline enhances memory by increasing the amount of acetylcholine available for memory and thought processes.

    PC has some other important health benefits. It functions as a source of structural material for every cell in the human body, particularly those of the brain and nerves. It also aids in the metabolism of fats, regulates blood cholesterol, and nourishes the fat-like sheathes of nerve fibers.

    [B]PRECAUTIONS:[/B] Any compound that acts like a precursor to acetylcholine such as choline, PC, or DMAE should not be used by people who are manic depressive because it can deepen the depressive phase. Choline bitartrate and choline chloride can sometimes cause a fishy odor or diarrhea. PC, however, does not have either of these effects.

    [B]DOSAGE:[/B] Take 3 grams of choline per day in three divided doses. If you're taking lecithin you need to take a lot more because only part of the lecithin is choline. Often the label will provide information on the quantity of choline per tablespoon. All forms of choline should be taken with one gram per day of vitamin B-5 so that the choline can be converted into acetylcholine.

    [B]SOURCES:[/B] Choline and lecithin are considered nutritional supplements and can be found at health food or drug stores. Commercial lecithin usually contains other oils and phosphatides besides phosphatidyl choline. Look at the label before you buy and make sure the product contains more than 30% phosphatidyl choline. Also, you should taste your lecithin and make sure it does not taste bitter (this indicates rancidity). Much lecithin on the market is rancid. The best form of lecithin I know is Twin Labs brand "PC 55" - it contains 55% PC and is always very fresh.

    _____________________________________


    [U][B][COLOR=#7030a0]DHEA:[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#7030a0][/color][/U][COLOR=#7030a0]
    Dehydroepiandosterone (pronounced dee-hi-dro-epp-ee-an-dro-ster-own) is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland. DHEA is the most abundant steroid in the human bloodstream. Research has found it to have significant anti-obesity, anti-tumor, anti-aging, and anti-cancer effects. DHEA levels naturally drop as people age and there is a good reason to think that taking a DHEA supplement may extend your life and make you more youthful while you're alive. Additionally, DHEA may be an important player in cognitive enhancement.

    DHEA is involved in protecting brain neurons from senility-associated degenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease. Not only does the neuronal degenerative condition occur most frequently at the time of lowest DHEA levels, but brain tissue contains more DHEA than is found in the bloodstream. In an experiment with brain cell tissue cultures, Dr. Eugene Roberts found that very low concentrations of DHEA were found to "increase the number of neurons, their ability to establish contacts, and their differentiation." DHEA also enhanced long-term memory in mice undergoing avoidance training. Perhaps it plays a similar role in human brain function.

    [B]DOSAGE [/B]of DHEA ranges from 50 mg to 2000 mg per day. There is no solid information indicating an optimal dosage for humans, but, if you want to get serious, you can get your DHEA levels checked every few months (for about $65), each time raising the amount of DHEA you take. When your blood levels reach what is normal for a 20-year-old human, then you're taking enough.

    [B]SOURCES:[/B] DHEA is now being used by many people with AIDS because of its immune enhancement and antiviral effects. DHEA is not FDA approved but AIDS buyers groups are able to sell it to members because the FDA has a policy of looking the other way when it comes to the activity of these groups.

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    [B] [/B] [U][B][COLOR=#7030a0]Hydergine (Ergoloid Mesylates):[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#7030a0][/color][/U][COLOR=#7030a0]
    Research in other countries has shown that Hydergine improves mental function, prevents damage to brain cells, and may even be able to reverse existing damage to brain cells. Hydergine acts in several ways to enhance mental capabilities and slow down or reverse the aging processes in the brain. Its wide variety of effects include the following:

    1. Increases in blood supply to the brain.
    2. Increases the amount of oxygen delivered to the brain.
    3. Enhances metabolism in brain cells.
    4. Protects the brain from damage during periods of decreased and/or insufficient oxygen supply.
    5. Slows the deposit of age pigment (lipofuscin) in the brain.
    6. Prevents free radical damage to brain cells.
    7. Increases intelligence, memory, learning and recall.
    8. Normalizes systolic blood pressure.
    9. lowers abnormal high cholesterol levels in some cases.
    10. Reduces symptoms of tiredness, dizziness, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

    One way that Hydergine may enhance memory and learning is by mimicking the effect of a substance called nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF stimulates protein synthesis that results in the growth of dendrites in brain cells. Dendrites facilitate communication throughout the central nervous system and are necessary for memory and learning. New learning requires new dendritic growth.

    [B]PRECAUTIONS:[/B] If too large a dose is used when first taking Hydergine. it may cause slight nausea, gastric disturbance, or headache. Overall, Hydergine does not produce any serious side effects, it is non-toxic even at very large doses, and it is contraindicated only for individuals who have chronic or acute psychosis.

    [B]DOSAGE:[/B] The US recommended dosage is 3 mg per day; however, the European recommended dosage is 9 mg per day, taken in three divided doses. Most of the research has been done at levels of 9 to 12 mg per day. It may take several weeks before you notice the effects of hydergine.

    [B] SOURCES:[/B] Hydergine is available in the United States and you can buy it if you have a doctor's prescription, but keep in mind that your doctor may not be familiar with the uses I have discussed. It can also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from overseas (see below).

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    [U][B][COLOR=#7030a0]Sulbutiamine (Arcalion):[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#7030a0][/color][/U][COLOR=#7030a0]
    [COLOR=#7030a0] Sulbutiamine is a new compound that has been described as being like Hydergine only better. It has been shown to facilitate wakefulness, improve long-term memory, speed up reaction time, decrease anxiety, and increase overall resistance to stress.

    [B]DOSAGE:[/B] To combat fatigue take two 200mg tablets per day, always with breakfast or an AM meal, for a period of 20 days. Do not exceed three tablets at any time as this very powerful substance may cause severe headaches. Other than this, Sulbutiamine has no known adverse side effects.

    [B] SOURCES:[/B] Sulbutiamine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased by mail order from the address below.

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    [U][B][COLOR=#7030a0]Vasopressin (Diapid):[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#7030a0][/color][/U][COLOR=#7030a0]
    Vasopressin is a brain hormone that is released by the pituitary gland. It improves attention, concentration, memory retention, and recall (both short-term and long-term). Vasopressin facilitates more effective learning by helping to "imprint" new information in the memory centers of the brain, a function which cannot be achieved without the action of vasopressin.

    Cocaine, LSD, amphetamines, Ritalin, and Cylert (pemoline) cause a release of vasopressin. Frequent use of these drugs can deplete levels of vasopressin with a result of making you slow and dopey. If you feel burnt out, a whiff of vasopressin can transform your experience in about 10 seconds because it is a direct application of the specific brain chemical that has been depleted.

    Alcohol and marijuana, however, inhibit the release of vasopressin. A whiff of vasopressin when using these drugs will compensate for much of the dopiness caused by them.

    Vasopressin is very useful in situation where there is a large amount of new information to learn. It increases your ability to memorize and recall specific factual information.

    [B]PRECAUTIONS:[/B] Vasopressin usually produces the following side effects: runny nose, nasal congestion, itch or irritation of the nasal passages, headache, abdominal cramps, and increased bowel movements. Vasopressin has not been proven safe for use during pregnancy.

    [B]DOSAGE:[/B] Vasopressin usually comes in a nasal spray bottle. Most studies showing memory improvement have been done with a dose of 12 to 16 USP per day or about two whiffs three or four times per day. Vasopressin produces a noticeable effect within seconds.

    [B]SOURCES:[/B] Vasopressin is available in the United States. You can buy it if you have a doctor's prescription, but keep in mind that your doctor may not be familiar with the uses I have discussed. It can also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from overseas (see below).

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    [U][B][COLOR=#7030a0]Vinpocetine (Cavinton):[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#7030a0][/color][/U][COLOR=#7030a0]
    Vinpocetine, like Piracetam, is a nootropic drug and a powerful memory enhancer. It facilitates cerebral metabolism by improving cerebral microcirculation (blood flow), stepping up brain cells' production of ATP (the cellular energy molecule), increasing the brain's use of glucose, and increasing the brain's oxygen utilization.
    Vinpocetine is often used for the treatment of cerebral circulatory disorders such as memory problems, aphasia, apraxia, motor disorders, dizziness, and headache.

    [B]PRECAUTIONS:[/B] Adverse effects are rare, but include hypotension and tachycardia. It has no drug interactions, no toxicity, and is generally very safe.

    [B]DOSAGE:[/B] One or two 5 mg. tablets per day.

    [B]SOURCES:[/B] Vinpocetine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased by mail from the address below.

    [B]MAIL ORDER:[/B]
    A little known FDA ruling now allows the importation of a three-month personal supply of drugs as long as they are regarded as safe in other countries. Ordering safe but unapproved drugs is now legal under the new FDA pilot guidelines, Chapter 971. This compromise was made under pressure from AIDS political action groups because the were being denied access to potentially life-saving substances.
    [/color][/color][/COLOR][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/COLOR][/COLOR][/INDENT][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#e36c0a][COLOR=#7030a0][COLOR=#7030a0][COLOR=#7030a0][COLOR=#7030a0][COLOR=#7030a0][COLOR=#7030a0][COLOR=#7030a0][COLOR=#7030a0]
    ==========================================



    [U][B][COLOR=#0070c0]Amino Acids and their Effects[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0][/color][/U][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [COLOR=#0070c0]
    [INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0] [B]Phenylalanine / L-Phenylalanine[/B]
    [/COLOR][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]converted into tyrosine which is a precursor to noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine
    [*]like all amino acids best taken on empty stomach since it competes with proteins to cross the blood brain barrier.
    [*]requires vitamins C and B-6 for the conversion to NE.
    [*]Dosage: 500 - 1000mg along with 1g C, 30-50mg B-6
    [*]phenylalanine also stimulates the release of cholecystokinin, which is the body's own appetite-suppressant, can increase sexual interest
    [*]improves memory and mental alertness
    [*]antidepressant
    [*]do not use L-phenylalanine or L-tyrosine if you areusing MAO inhibitors for depression (it can cause amajor elevation in blood pressure).

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]DL-Phenylalanine (DLPA)[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]combination of synthetic (D) and natural (L) phenylalanine produces endorphins and stimulates their use thus, effective painkiller, often better than the opiate derivatives such as morphine.

    [*]nonaddictive, nontoxic

    [*]reverse-tolerance effect (pain relief gets better)

    [*]strong anti-depressant effect

    [*]can be combined with other pain-killers with few bad interactions

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Tyrosine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]precursor to norepinephrine and dopamine

    [*]non-essential amino acid (since PA is converted into it first)

    [*]has been studied as an effective aid to cocaine withdrawal
    [*](see L-phenylalanine)

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Tryptophan[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin along with
    B6, niacin, and magnesium

    [*](actually immediate precursor to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP)
    which is the precursor to serotonin (5HT))
    [*]prolongs slow-wave sleep

    [*]reduces pain sensitivity

    [*]no effect or increases REMS

    [*]has some hypnotic effects

    [*]useful for some types of endogenous depression
    (has been found as useful as imipramine and amitriptyline)

    [*]aids in reducing anxiety and tension
    [*]an appetite supressant
    [*]dosages have been studied up to 15g
    [*]Major Food Sources:
    Cottage cheese, milk, meat, fish, turkey, bananas,
    dried dates, peanuts, all protein-rich foods.

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Lysine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]needed for growth and enzyme, hormone, antibody production
    [*]aids concentration
    [*]treatment for some sterility problems
    [*]treatment and prevention for herpes infections
    [*]aids fatty acid -> energy conversion

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Arginine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]used to increase sperm counts
    [*](semen contains up to 80% of arginine)
    [*]aids immune response and healing of wounds
    [*]helps stored fat metabolism
    [*]helps to tone muscle tissue
    [*]used for weight-loss in combination with L-ornithine
    [*]one amino acid required for production of growth hormone

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Ornithine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]similar to arginine
    [*]growth hormone (which acts as a fat metabolizer) is
    stimulated to be released by ornithine and arginine.
    [*]can be used as a slimming technique (while you sleep -
    GH is released by the pituitary gland then)

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Glutamine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]converted to glutamic acid, the brain's emergency source of
    energy when glucose is in short supply.
    [*]precursor to the neurotransmitter GABA
    [*]neutralizes excess ammonia (which can inhibit proper
    brain function)
    [*]improves intelligence
    [*]helps to control alcoholism
    [*]helps to speed ulcer healing
    [*]alleviates fatigue, depression, impotence,
    schizophrenia, senility

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0] [B]L-Aspartic acid[/B]
    [/COLOR][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]ammonia neutralizer
    [*]a study showed improved stamina and endurance in atheletes

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Cysteine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]cystine is its stable form
    [*]antioxidant
    [*]contains sulfur
    [*]protects cellular membranes from "free radical damage"
    [*]prevents alcohol and cigarette smoke damage to the brain
    [*]stimulant to immune system
    [*]believed to be good for antiaging
    [*]effective against copper toxicity (eg. Wilson's disease)
    [*]protects against X-ray and nuclear radiation
    [*]warning: may affect insulin effectiveness

    _____________________________________


    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Methionine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]antioxidant
    [*]contains sulfur
    [*]prevents damage of brain cells from toxic heavy metals
    [*]important in producing neurotransmitters and energy
    [*]lowers blood level of histamine
    (this may help some types of schizophrenia)
    [*]combined with choline and folic acid, can prevent some
    types of tumor
    [*]deficiencies: hair loss, atherosclerosis, cholestorol deposits,
    edema, poor urine processing

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Glycine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]treatment for poor pituitary functioning
    [*]supplies creatine which is essential for muscle function
    (effective against muscular dystrophy)
    [*]treatment for hypoglycemia
    [*]stimulates glucagon which metabolizes glycogen into glucose
    [*]antacid
    [*]treatment for low blood pH
    [*]treatment for leucine imbalance-causing body odor and halitosis

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Taurine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]nonessential amino acid
    [*]aids efficient conduction of electrical impulses
    along nerve pathways
    [*]anticonvulsant (esp in combo with glutamic, aspartic acids)

    _____________________________________
    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Glutathione[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]tripeptide amino acid made of cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine
    [*]"triple threat" antiaging
    [*]antioxidant
    [*]anti-tumor agent
    [*]respiratory accelerator in the brain
    [*]used in the treatment of: allergies, cataracts, diabetes,
    hypoglycemia, arthritis
    [*]prevents some side effects of chemotherapy and X-ray radiation
    [*]protects against some harmful side-effects of cigarrette smoke
    and alcohol

    _____________________________________


    [/LIST]
    [INDENT][B][COLOR=#0070c0]L-Carnatine[/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [/color][/INDENT][COLOR=#0070c0]
    [LIST]
    [*]newly discovered amino acid
    [*]aids stored fat -> energy conversion
    [*]helps: hypoglycemia, reduces angina attacks, diabetes,
    liver disease, kidney disease
    [*]deficiency causes heart tissue damage


    [/LIST]

    ==========================================


    [B][COLOR=#c00000][U]Stacks[/U] [/COLOR][/B][COLOR=#c00000](Combinations)

    [INDENT] [B]Simple Stack :[/B]
    1-2 grams piracetam every 8 hours with 5 grams lecithin daily.


    [B]Study Stack - Simple :[/B]
    1-2 grams piracetam every 8 hours / 5 grams lecithin / 10mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours


    [B] Advanced Stack :[/B]
    2 grams piracetam every 8 hours
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    1 gram Alpha GPC every 8 hours


    [B]Study Stack - advanced :[/B]
    1.5 grams piracetam every 8 hours
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    1.5 grams Alpha GPC every 8 hours
    15 mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours
    150 mcg Huperzine every 8 hours


    [B] Anxiety / Concentration Stack :[/B]
    500 mg aniracetam every 8 hours
    200 mg theanine every 8 hours (plan for one dose prior to a speech or presentation)


    [B]After all test are done stack :[/B]
    500mg Theanine
    1.5 grams Phenibut (do not study on phenibut)
    5 grams lecithin


    [B]Neurotransmitter boosting Formula[/B] (AM & PM)
    [I]This is basically a neurotransmitter boosting formula and benefits those[/I]
    [I] who don't have a drug abuse problem too.[/I][INDENT][B]AM[/B]
    L-tyrosine 250 mg.
    D,L phenylalanine 125 mg.
    Pantothenic acid 25 mg.
    PABA 25 mg.
    DMAE 25 mg.
    Rubidium Cl 25 mg.
    Tocopherol acetate 12.5 mg.
    Beta carotene 2.5 mg.
    Manganese (gluconate) 2.5 mg.
    Folic acid 0.1 mg
    Copper gluconate .125 mg
    Selenium .25 mg.

    [B]PM[/B]
    Niacinamide (ascorbate) 250 mg.
    Taurine 50 mg.
    Magnesium oxide 50 mg.
    Pyridoxine 25 mg.
    Niacin 12.5 mg.
    Riboflavin 12.5 mg
    Zinc 2.5 mg.
    Beta carotene 2.5 mg.
    Chromium (GTF) .025 mg.
    Vitamin B12 .0125 mg.
    [/INDENT][/INDENT]
    ==========================================

    [/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/COLOR][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color][/color]
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Apr 30, 2017
    1. 4/5,
      Excellent markup! This really helps. Keep up the good work.
      Mar 15, 2010
    2. 4/5,
      nice work organizing and formatting this information
      Jan 28, 2010
  14. NeuroChi

    NeuroChi is not his mind Platinum Member & Advisor

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  15. GTI6R

    GTI6R Silver Member

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    The following are either antiapoptotic, synaptogenetic, neuroprotective (either directly or allosterically), upregulate endogenous neurotrophic factors, or directly stimulate the production of new neurons from stem cells. (and I'm sure they produce other effects, as well)



    nerve growth factor

    brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    neurotrophin 1/2/3/4

    pregnenolone sulfate, dhea

    aromatase

    estradiol via preg

    testosterone

    dihydrotestosterone

    pheromones

    long-term administration of NSAIDs

    curcumin (also conduces to apoptosis in cancerous cells)

    galanthamine

    protein kinase M zeta

    cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding protein (CREB)

    cypin & tubulin

    T-588

    l-acetylcarnitine

    l-creatine

    l-theanine, egcg (green tea)

    fluoxetine (and probably other SSRIs)

    sodium valproate

    AIT-082/Neotrofin

    alcar

    almitrine-raubasine

    phosphatidylserine

    phosphatidylcholine

    docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    weak cb2 receptor agonists

    docosahexaenoic acid + cytidine diphosphate choline (citicoline) + uridine 5' monophosphate (UMP)

    cytidine diphosphate choline (choline, acetylcholine precursors)

    carbenoxolone

    nimodipine (NIM)

    cysteamine

    cerebrolysin

    hyperforin

    erythropoietin

    lithium

    Idebenone

    dimebolin hydrochloride

    growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43)

    ghrelin

    GVS-111 / Noopept / DVD-111

    rolipram and other phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors

    ampakines (piracetam)

    selegiline

    rasagiline

    hydergine (ergoloids, lsd)

    5hta2/2c agonists (decrease bdnf in hippocampal area but raise other areas especially prefrontal cortex, 5hta2 antagonists only decrease bdnf by 30% so the formula is multi-neurotransmissional, hippocampal area is glutamine/dopamine/vasopressin)

    desferal

    VK-28

    ketamine, ghb (most gabaergics decrease like alchohol)

    moclobemide

    royal jelly

    glutathione (alpha lipoic acid- also regulates vit c and e)

    vinpocetine

    gotu kola

    magnolia bark

    MW01-5-188WH

    nobiltin (citrus)

    vitamin e

    zinc

    exercise

    flavoniods, polyphenols, some sterols

    omega 3 (modulation)

    small dose stimulants

    excitory environments (especially activating places where theres are alot of nerves, like the fingers, using opposite hand would increase plasticity between hemispheres, visual cortex, mostly the brain itself, etc)

    caloric restriction (Perhaps because of the high levels of ghrelin and low levels of cholecystokinin associated with caloric restriction?, but sugar is good for mitochondria)
     
  16. Tech House

    Tech House Titanium Member

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    Excellent info/thread. Something that would be useful is to update the availability info for various supplements. Vinpocetine is widely available in US stores now, and DHEA has been available in stores for as long as I can remember in the USA. Given that the info about availability is so out of date, I also wonder if some of the other info might have been superseded by more recent studies. Thanks for all the work on this!
     
  17. NeuroChi

    NeuroChi is not his mind Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Hi Tech House,

    Would you be able to update the availability? This would be very appreciated. Can reward with positive reputation of course.
     
  18. Tech House

    Tech House Titanium Member

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    USA availability update:
    piracetam available online (no legal issues whatsoever)
    vinpocetine available at larger health food grocers and perhaps vitamin shops
    DHEA has been available in stores for many years, even in traditional grocers
    DMAE in better health food groceries and maybe vitamin shops

    Will see about getting more info on the relatives of piracetam and some other chems mentioned in this thread. NeuroChi, I'm kinda answering my own question that I asked you in a PM.
     
  19. Lukeoca

    Lukeoca Titanium Member

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    Could anyone please shed a general light on what usefulness these substances - For example, for someone who has undergone brain injury through excessive use of drugs etc.?

    It may seem an obvious question, but are these potentially useful for 'regenerating' your brain?
     
  20. Tech House

    Tech House Titanium Member

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    Lukeoca: I had 2 serious concussions in 6 months, both injuring the same areas of my brain. No two brain injuries are alike and I can't compare blunt-force concussion to brain injury via drugs, but I'm gonna try. If the info on this page isn't enough for you to make decisions about what to try then use this info and do a search on the substances that sound the most promising for you. I take piracetam, vinpocetine, choline bitartrate (there are many other sources of choline), rhodiola, ginkgo, multi-vitamins, and a several supplements (mostly vitamins and amino acids) to help with mood.

    I also have prescriptions for a pair of anti-convulsants that both prevent seizures and act as mood stabilizers. You have probably noticed that your moods are screwed up, so it's good to at least get the right nutrients even if you aren't under the care of a doctor. When we take a lot of drugs or drink too much, odds are that we're self-medicating. We are trying to fix problems in our brains that were there before we ever abused drugs or alcohol. There are healthy ways to deal with our natural chemical imbalances.

    Exercise and mental challenges have been proven to help regenerate neuronal connections and to grow new neurons. They're also good (better than substances other than a healthy diet) for preventing or slowing down dementia, the natural process by which the mind deteriorates with age.

    There is a mistake I made when I used serotonin boosters (mainly 5-htp and a serotonin-releasing drug) along with rhodiola, ginkgo, green tea, and 3 other naturally occurring MAOIs, which keep serotonin active in the brain longer. On the night of the day when I took all this stuff, I started to develop serotonin syndrome, which is awful. Most people are not as sensitive as I am so in the small doses I was using of everything it probably wouldn't affect you, but be careful. There's a list on Wikipedia's page about MAOIs that tells you which herbs act as MAOIs, you should check that out so you can be careful about what you combine.

    Now I'm taking micro-doses of rhodiola and a normal dose of ginkgo; I stopped taking the other natural MAOIs, the serotonin-releasing drug, and the 5-HTP, so I've been doing fine. In fact, my mind is getting much sharper. It's impossible to know how much my supplement habit is helping me because I don't know how well I would have recovered without all this help, but I'm doing very well and my belief is that the supplements help.

    Nootropics rock. In the long run, I think they beat any drug because they can make you happier all day long instead of just getting you really happy for a short period of time and then dumping you in the gutter the way that recreational drugs do. Sure, occasionally I want to step my game up to go out to the clubs all night, but I never do that more than once or twice in one month and even then I only use small doses just to give enough of a boost to keep me smiling and dancing.

    I hope this helps. I don't have the knowledge of pharmacology and neurobiology that a lot of other people on this forum have but maybe what I'm saying is easier for you to relate to than all the technical info about HT1, HT2, and "XYZ" receptors. I have ADD ever since my concussions and can't follow complex articles like what some people post here, but I think it's awesome that such information is posted here for the education of people who are able to follow what has been written.
     
    1. 5/5,
      thanks for contributing to this thread!
      Dec 6, 2015
    2. 4/5,
      Very interesting advice based on personal understanding, helpful to the max!
      Jan 7, 2012