Culture - Sigmund Freud and Cocaine?

Discussion in 'Cocaine & Crack' started by TheMindIsADangerousThing, Sep 14, 2006.

  1. TheMindIsADangerousThing

    TheMindIsADangerousThing Newbie

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    swim happens to be someone whos fascinated by psychology, and well...fascinated by drugs as well, I am in the process of going to school with the hopes of one day obtaining a doctorate in psychology, and swim already has a doctorate in cocaine:snort: . I have heard a few things here and there about Sigmund Freud being a big time user of the drug, as well as having done many studies on it. I was wondering if You out there knew more about this, anything at all, then please post and fill swim in. xoxoxoxoxo
     
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  2. torr_aox

    torr_aox Newbie

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    #1 DON'T GET A DEGREE IN PSYCH unless you're planning on going for a Masters/Doctorate WITHOUT stopping. Take it from someone with a BA in psych and a job in the field. You don't make enough loot to support even a mild recreational habit.

    #2 Freud was a coke head. He used it in therapy sessions to get people to open up. It was effective, but the risks outweighed the benefits. Plus he got too high off his own supply. MDMA has also been used in therapy (primarily couples therapy) with some positive results.

    #3 There is a ton of info about Freud and his coke use on the web. Just do a little searching.
     
    1. 3/5,
      good advice: don't get a psych degree unless you are going to use it or like washing dishes
      Oct 16, 2009
    2. 3/5,
      telling someone to search on the web is the lazy approach. This forum is for assembling facts & knowledge.
      Sep 15, 2006
  3. Benga

    Benga Platinum Member & Advisor

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    from japan
    Freud was what we could call an experimental cocaine user. The substance was new, and people started experimenting with it. Freud started doing so, using it himself and testing its effects on patients etc...
    He first thought it was flawless and then finally denounced it for various reasons. He also wrote an essay, which if I can remember was pretty enthusiastic.
    b
     
  4. stoneinfocus

    stoneinfocus Silver Member

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    Yes, he thought it was great and gave it ot a cousin I think, to fight his alkohol abuse, or a mental illness, which worked well until the overuse/abuse of it caused the typical now known symptoms.

    I think it would work very, very well, but as ususal, it was used too much, like, if it helps then better give a littel more, than too little, like with steroids- anabolics and catabolics were used at 500mg to 1000mg / a day(!!!) and for over a year and longer, and we all know the bad reps they´re still having until now, althoug useful for many conditions, mental and physical, with in most cases no sides or harmless sides, or the worst sides subsiding immediately when the use is stopped.

    If one were to use cocaine, heroine and amphetaminesn/PhEt(oh)NH2, hallucinogens in alterartion and mostly to the acute symptomatic control it would be sooooo benefical not only for the sick, but to helathy ones, too, I assume.:)
     
  5. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Sigmund Freud about his Scientific Interest in Cocaine
    A side interest, though it was a deep one, had led me in 1884 to obtain from Merck some of what was then the little-known alkaloid cocaine and to study its physiological action. While I was in the middle of this work, an opportunity arose for making a journey to visit my fiancée, from whom I had been parted for two years. I hastily wound up my investigation of cocaine and contented myself in my monograph on the subject with prophesying that further uses for it would soon be found. I suggested, however, to my friend Königstein, the ophthalmologist, that he should investigate the question of how far the anaesthetizing properties of cocaine were applicable in diseases of the eye. When I returned from my holiday I found that not he, but another of my friends, Carl Koller (now in New York), whom I had also spoken to about cocaine, had made the decisive experiments upon animals' eyes and had demonstrated them at the Ophthalmological Congress at Heidelberg. Koller is therefore rightly regarded as the discoverer of local anaesthesia by cocaine, which has become so important in minor surgery; but I bore my fiancée no grudge for the interruption.(From An Autobiographical Study)
    *** ​
    The alkaloid of the coca plant which was described by Niemann received little attention for medical purposes at the time. My work included botanical and historical notes on the coca plant based on statements in the literature; it confirmed by experiments on normal subjects the remarkable stimulating effects of cocaine and its action in preventing hunger, thirst and sleep; and it endeavoured to lay down indications for the therapeutic use of the drug.
    Among these indications the reference to the possible employment of cocaine during withdrawal of morphine became of importance later. The expectation voiced at the end of the work that the property of cocaine for producing local anaesthesia would find further applications was soon afterwards fulfilled by K. Koller's experiments in anaesthetizing the cornea. (Abstracts from Scientific Writings of Dr. Sigm. Freud, 1877-1897).
     
    1. 5/5,
      Great articles on Freud & Cocaine, thanks for posting
      Sep 16, 2008
  6. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    [SIZE=+2]Freud and the "Cocaine Episode"
    by Jean Chiriac, President of AROPA
    There is a certain interest in the cocaine episode in Freud's life. The explanation lies in that cocaine belongs to the group of prohibited substances today and sensation mongers imagine Freud's association with cocaine might reveal outrageous private secrets!
    Freud's personality continues to exert it's fascination to this day, and even to a greater extent than his very work, but public interest is not so much determined by a justifiable desire to know as mostly by the hope to discover a few sensational elements in the master's biography. People imagine that the presence of a cocaine episode in Freud's life could be an indication of a drug addicted Freud. On the other hand, the need to demolish great personalities with a decisive influence on western culture seems to be irresistible. Hence the careful pursuit for biographical details that might prove an active support to this odd need. Freud's relationship with cocaine nevertheless does not satisfy either spicy biographical details mongers or slanderers. The following is an outline of this aspect. ​
    * ​
    The truth is that Freud was a cocaine user indeed. Only that cocaine was not prohibited during his time, but prescribed and used as an euphoric. The harmful side of the substance had not been discovered yet. The fact that famous beverages such Coca-Cola contained coke extract is quite telling! Cocaine addiction and its harmful effects were only discovered later. Freud therefore used cocaine as a stimulus, something to help him manage his depression, achieve a state of well being, and relax under tense circumstances.
    Cocaine also had medical advantages for Freud. He started his research in this field concerning the impact of cocaine on medicine, on minor surgery to be more precise. This is what he himself tells us about his endeavor: "In 1884, a side but deep interest" - Freud mentioned in his biography - "made me have the Merck company supply me with an alkaloid quite little known at the time, to study its physiological effects. While engrossed in this research, the opportunity for me then occurred to make a trip to see my fiancée, whom I had not seen for almost two years. I then quickly completed my investigation on cocaine and, in the short text I published, I included the notice that other uses of the substance will soon be revealed too. At the same time, I made an insistent recommendation to my friend L. Konigstein, an eye doctor, to check on the extent to which the anesthetic qualities of cocaine might also be used with sore eyes. On my return, I found that it was not him but another friend of mine, Carl Koller (now in New York), who, after hearing me talking about cocaine, had in fact made the decisive experiments on animals' eyes and had presented his findings at the Ophthalmology Congress in Heidelberg. That is why Koller has been rightfully considered as the discoverer of cocaine-based local anesthesia, which has become so important in minor surgery..."
    A Vienna magazine had indeed published Freud's technical article "On Cocaine" in 1884. The detail of Koller's becoming so reputed in the field is concerned with the following circumstance: Freud had run into a colleague of his who was complaining of intestinal pain and had recommended him a 5% cocaine solution which caused the "patient" a feeling of numbness in his tongue and lips. Koller had witnessed the event and Freud was certain it was then that Koller had found about the anesthetic qualities of the drug.
    The fact that Freud had so closely missed scientific celebrity with the publication of his findings about cocaine cannot shroud a tragic event he does not mention in his biography. His research of cocaine effects was also due to a personal reason. He hoped cocaine might help his friend von Fleischl-Marxow, who had become a morphine addict, as result of attempts to soothe the pains inflicted on him by an infection. Nevertheless, his friend's cocaine prescriptions proved fatal. "If only it had soothed his pain", Freud would exclaim in 1885. On the contrary, Fleischl-Marxow died a slow, painful death and the alleged remedy had done nothing but increase his suffering. He had become a cocaine addict, in the same way he had been a morphine addict, and ended in using very large quantities thereof. [SIZE=-1]*Translation by Mihaela Cristea.
     
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  7. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Freud's Cocaine Capers

    Time magazine Jan. 6, 1975

    Woe to you, my Princess ... I will kiss you quite red and feed you until you are plump. And if you are froward, you shall see who is stronger, a gentle little girl who doesn 't eat enough or a big wild man who has cocaine in his body. In my last severe depression I took coca again and a small dose lifted me to the heights. This lurid encomium to cocaine was not penned by an immature drug addict. It was written 90 years ago by Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, to his fiancee Martha Bernays. It is no secret that Freud frequently got his kicks from cocaine. But as is clear from his newly compiled Cocaine Papers, his interest in the drug was scientific, not sensual. Freud was searching for a miracle drug that would benefit his patients and make his reputation. He thought he had found it in cocaine.

    Freud's study of cocaine has long been shrouded in myths, half-truths and speculation. Cocaine Papers (Stonehill; $12.95), due in bookstores next March, should set the facts straight. Annotated by his daughter Anna, it presents for the first time in the U.S. the complete and authoritative versions of Freud's own writings on the drug, including several pieces never before published, along with the work of other early experimenters. Freud is revealed as not only a hard-driven and, ultimately, tragic seeker for a panacea, but also as one of the pioneers of psychopharmacology, the modern science of using drugs to treat mental illness.

    Wonder Drug.
    In 1884, before he began the studies that led to the development of psychoanalysis, Freud was 28, a fledgling physician with a fiancee but without the funds to marry. He had been searching for some time for a way to establish himself and gain the respect of his colleagues. A paper by a German physician named Theodor Aschen-brandt seemed to provide the way. Conquistadores had noted the stimulant effect of coca leaves on Andean Indians. Aschenbrandt tried the drug on Bavarian soldiers and cautiously reported that while suppressing their hunger, it also increased their mental powers and capacity to endure strain.

    Aschenbrandt's paper triggered Freud's own studies of cocaine. He obtained some samples of the drug and first tried it himself. It gave him an emotional lift, producing what he described as a "normal euphoria." After that he used cocaine frequently, always with the same results. Freud coolly summarized his experiences in his notes: "You perceive an increase of self-control, possess more vitality and capacity for work. This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant aftermaths which accompany exhilaration through alcoholic means."

    In the years that followed, Freud continued to study and analyze cocaine's effects, both on himself and on some patients. He found the drug not only useful in overcoming depression but impressively effective against some purely physiological complaints. He used it to treat stomach disorders and persistent coughing. He was careful not to administer it indiscriminately; although he initially believed that cocaine was not habit-forming, he found its effects on patients too unpredictable to justify widespread use.

    Though Freud and a number of American physicians reported some initial successes in treating morphine addicts with cocaine,* a fellow physician named Adolf Albrecht Erlenmeyer warned that cocaine was itself addictive and described it as the "third scourge of mankind"—after morphine and alcohol.


    Freud soon realized to his chagrin that Erlenmeyer was correct. Freud's friend and patient, Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow, became the first morphine addict in Europe to be cured by using cocaine; he was also one of the first to become dependent on the new drug. This unhappy development dampened Freud's interest in cocaine and helped turn his attention to the psychological theories that eventually won him fame.


    Freud's studies of cocaine are still considered basic to modern psychopharmacology. But they did not lead to the discovery of the most effective clinical use of the drug. In an ironic twist, Freud abandoned his interest in cocaine just after he suggested that a colleague, Karl ("Coca") Roller, begin experimenting with its use in easing the pain of eye surgery. So it was Koller and not Freud who invented local anesthesia.


    * Cocaine, which could be obtained legally, was widely used at the time. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes, who injects a "seven-per-cent solution" at the opening of The Sign of the Four, was supposedly a cocaine freak. A new book appropriately titled The Seven-Per-Cent Solution even has Holmes lured to Vienna, where Freud helps him kick the habit.
     
  8. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Freud thought that the then little-known drug cocaine might be of great use fighting morphine addiction and melancholy. Around the same time, an associate, Carl Koller, was experimenting successfully with the drug as a local anesthetic, especially for eye surgery. Freud envied the recognition Koller received, experimented with the drug himself and urged others to do so before realizing it could be addictive. (Cocaine ambitions)


    One famous fan of cocaine use was Sigmund Freud. In 1884 Freud was in search of fame as a struggling doctor and wanted a cure for nervous exhaustion and morphine addiction. He found that cocaine relieved his own chronic depression and wrote a series of papers on cocaine, praising its results as a "magical drug," superior to morphine. Years later he backed off from his former praises. Freud was also a catalyst for a great medical development; in 1884 he asked Dr. Karl Koller of Vienna to work with coca leaves. Koller was an ophthalmologist, and he was looking for something to use during eye operations. Freud recommended cocaine as a local anesthetic, because it could numb the tongue. Koller soon discovered that cocaine hydrochloride was a successful eye anesthetic and also fine for surgery of the ear, nose, and throat. In 1885 Wilhelm Filehne showed that atropine has a chemical structure close to that of cocaine, and atropine became the anesthesia of choice. Nonetheless, interest in cocaine had opened research on this class of medical chemicals.

    From Freuds magical drug.
     
  9. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs

    by Edward M. Brecher and the Editors of Consumer Reports Magazine, 1972
    Chapter 35. Cocaine
    The chief active ingredient in coca leaves, the alkaloid cocaine, was isolated in pure form in 1844.1 Little use was made of it in Europe, however, until 1883, when a German army physician, Dr. Theodor Aschenbrandt, secured a supply of pure cocaine from the pharmaceutical firm of Merck and issued it to Bavarian soldiers during their autumn maneuvers. He reported beneficial effects on their ability to endure fatigue.2

    Among those who read Dr. Aschenbrandt's account with fascination was a poverty-stricken twenty-eight-year-old Viennese neurologist, Dr. Sigmund Freud (whose subsequent ordeal with nicotine was recounted in Chapter 24). Young Freud at the time was suffering from depression, chronic fatigue, and other neurotic symptoms. "I have been reading about cocaine, the essential constituent of coca leaves, which some Indian tribes chew to enable them to resist privations and hardships," Freud wrote to his fianc6e, Martha Bernays, on April 21, 1884. "I am procuring some myself and will try it with cases of heart disease and also of nervous exhaustion. . . .`3 The account of Freud's experiences which follows is drawn largely from the three-volume Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, by Ernest Jones.

    Freud "tried the effect of a twentieth of a gram [50 milligrams] and found it turned the bad mood he was in into cheerfulness, giving him the feeling of having dined well 'so that there is nothing at all one need bother about,' but without robbing him of any energy for exercise or work." 4

    In addition to taking cocaine himself, Freud offered some to his friend and associate, Dr. Ernst von Flcischl-Marxow, who was suffering from an exceedingly painful disease of the nervous system (which was later to prove fatal), and who was addicted to morphine. Freud also prescribed cocaine for a patient with gastric catarrh. The initial results in all three cases were favorable. Freud decided cocaine was "a magical drug," and he wrote his fiancee, Martha:
    If it goes well I will write an essay on it and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphium and superior to it. I have other hopes and intentions about it. I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion, and with the most brilliant success.... In short it is only now that I feel I am a doctor, since I have helped one patient and hope to help more. If things go on in this way we need have no concern about being able to come together and to stay in Vienna.5

    Freud even sent some of his precious cocaine to Martha, "to make her strong and give her cheeks a red color." Indeed, Dr. Jones writes, "he pressed it on his friends and colleagues, both for themselves and their patients; he gave it to his sisters. In short, looked at from the vantage point of our present knowledge, he was rapidly becoming a public menace." 6

    In a subsequent letter to Martha, Freud wrote more on his personal experience with cocaine:
    Woe to you, my Princess, when I come. I will kiss you quite red and feed you till you are plump. And if you are froward you shall see who is the stronger, a gentle little girl who doesn't eat enough or a big wild man who has cocaine in his body. [Italics in original.] In my last severe depression I took coca again and a small dose lifted me to the heights in a wonderful fashion. I am just now busy collecting the literature for a song of praise to this magical substance. 7
    Freud's haste in publishing his findings may astonish twentieth-century readers. On April 21, 1884, he was still only planning to secure some cocaine. On June 18, his essay was completed; and the "Song of Praise" to cocaine was published in the July 1884 issue of the Centralblatt fur die gesammte Therapie.
    This essay, Dr. Jones writes, had "a tone that never recurred in Freud's writings, a remarkable combination of objectivity with a personal warmth as if he were in love with the content itself. He used expressions uncommon in a scientific paper such as 'the most gorgeous excitement' that animals display after an injection of cocaine, and administering an 'offering' of it rather than a 'dose'; he heatedly rebuffed the 'slander' that had been published about this precious drug. This artistic presentation must have contributed much to the interest the essay aroused in Viennese and other medical circles. . . . He even gave an account of the religious observances connected with its use, and mentioned the mythical saga of how Manco Capac, the Royal Son of the Sun-God, had sent it as 'a gift from the gods to satisfy the hungry, forify the weary, and make the unfortunate forget their sorrows.' " 8

    More to the point, Freud described in detail the effects of small doses of cocaine on his own depression. These included "exhilaration. and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. . . . You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work. . . . In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe that you are under the influence of any drug.... Long intensive mental or physical work is performed without any fatigue.... This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcohol. . . . Absolutely no craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug; one feels rather a certain curious aversion to it." 9 Cocaine, Freud concluded, was useful for "those functional states comprised under the name neurasthenia" "-Freud at this time had diagnosed his own depressions as neurasthenic-as well as for indigestion and for the withdrawal of morphine.
    Freud also sought to inject cocaine directly into the area of a nerve to block intractable pain. In this he failed, but others succeeded;' and until better agents became available, cocaine was often used as local anesthesia for surgery.

    Some of Freud's findings on cocaine as a psychoactive drug were amply confirmed by subsequent research. "The subjective effects of cocaine include an elevation of mood that often reaches proportions of euphoric excitement," Dr. Jaffe reported in Goodman and Gilman's textbook (1965). "It produces a marked decrease in hunger, an indifference to pain, and is reputed to be the most potent antifatigue agent known. The user enjoys a feeling of great muscular strength and increased mental capacity and greatly overestimates his capabilities. The euphoria is accompanied by generalized sympathetic stimulation. As is the case with amphetamine, a disturbed personality is not a prerequisite for cocaine-induced euphoria, and the drug is quite effective in relatively normal personalities." 11
    Freud's experience, however, proved to be only part of the story. In July 1885, a German authority on morphine addiction named Erlenmever launched the first of a series of attacks on cocaine as an addicting drug. In January 1886 Freud's friend Obersteiner, who had at first favored cocaine, reported that it produced severe mental disturbances similar to those seen in delirium tremens. Other attacks soon followed; and Freud himself was subjected to "grave reproaches." 12 Freud continued to praise cocaine as late as July 1887, when he published a final defense of the drug. But soon thereafter he discontinued all use of it both personally and professionally. Despite the fact that he had been taking cocaine periodically over a three-year span, he appears to have had no difficulty in stopping. His abandonment of cocaine was no doubt influenced in large part by the experience of Dr. von Fleischl-Marxow, the patient with whom Freud had shared his initial gram of cocaine.

    * Among those who succeeded, as noted in Chapter 5, was the voting American surgeon, Dr. W. S. Halsted.
    Fleischl suffered from multiple tumors of various peripheral nerves - netiromata-which gave him excruciating pain. He took morphine for this pain. At first Freud's cocaine proved a -welcome substitute for the morphine-but Fleischl found it necessary to escalate his cocaine dose.
    After a year on cocaine he was taking a full gram of it daily'-twenty times the dose Freud himself took from time to time. Indeed, Freud noted, Fleischl bad spent $428 for a three-month supply of cocaine, an enormous sum in Vienna in those days. On June 8, 1885, Dr. Jones adds, "Freud wrote that the frightful doses had harmed Fleischl greatly and, although he kept sending Martha cocaine, he warned her against acquiring the habit." Thereafter Fleischl developed' a full-fledged cocaine psychosis, "Nvith white snakes creeping over his skin." 13 Freud and other physician friends mirsed Fleischl faithfully, often throughout the long nights, but to little avail. In June 1885 Freud estimated that Fleischl could live six more months at most; he actually survived for six more painwracked years.

    Nor was Fleischl's experience unique; subsequent observations were to reveal that repeated use of large doses of cocaine produces a characteristic paranoid psychosis in all or almost all users, and that the tendency to overuse is widespread. A peculiar characteristic of this psychosis is "forinication"-the hallucination that ants, or insects, or (as in Fleischl's case) snakes, are crawling along the skin or under it.

    Why was Freud, unlike his friend Fleischl, able to use modest doses of cocaine-30 to 50 milligrams injected tinder the skin-from time to time for three years without developing either a craving for the drug or a need to escalate the dose? At least three alternative explanations are available. Dr. Jones, a psychoanalyst, believed that it requires an "addictive personality" to establish an addiction; Tricking an addictive personality, he declares, Freud did'not become a cocaine addict. (He did, however, become addicted to cigars, as described in Chapter 24.) The other two explanations are pharmacological.
    One holds that there must be some biochemical difference-perhaps a difference in enzymes-between people like Freud who can take a particular addicting drug without becoming addicted and people like Fleiscbl who escalate the dose and become addicted. This hypothetical difference in enzymes may (or may not) be hereditary. The third explanation relates the addiction (or lack of it) to dosages and frequency of use. Because Freud took cocaine only occasionally, according to this theory, be had no need to escalate his dose. And because lie did not escalate the dose, he did not become addicted. Some other explanation, of course, may ultimately prove true.

    By 1840, the addicting and psychosis-producing nature of cocaine was well understood in medical circles; yet for another twenty years it does not appear to have occurred to many people to demand a late against the drug.* In the United States, cocaine was widely used not only in Coca-Cola but also in "tonics" and other patent medicines, including very popular "catarrh cures"-for, like the amphetamines, cocaine has the effect of reducing mucous membrane swelling and thus enlarging the nasal and bronchial passages. This property no doubt first gave users the idea of sniffing cocaine, a common form of cocaine use even today. "Most of the cases of the cocaine habit have been admittedly created by the so-called catarrh cures," Dr. Charles B. Towns wrote in Century Magazine in. 1912, "and these contain only two to four percent of cocaine.* In the end, the snuffer of catarrh powders comes to demand undiluted cocaine." 15

    * Dr. Charles B. Towns wrote (1912): "When in overseer in the South will deliberately put cocaine into the rations of his Negro laborers in order to get more work out of them to meet a sudden emergency, it is time to have some policy of accounting for the sale of a drug like cocaine." 14
    * "Street cocaine" sold on the New York black market in 1970 was reported to contain about 6 percent pure cocaine.
    Cocaine addiction differs from opiate addiction, and from alcohol and barbiturate addiction, in at least two respects. A cocaine user, even after prolonged use of large doses, does not, if deprived of his drug, suffer from a dramatic withdrawal crisis like alcoholic delirium tremens or like the opiate withdrawal syndrome. The physical effects of cocaine withdrawal are minor. This has led many authorities, mistakenly, to classify cocaine as a nonaddicting drug. However, cocaine withdrawal is characterized by a profound psychological manifestation-depression-for which cocaine itself appears to the user to be the only remedy; cocaine addiction in this respect resembles tobacco addiction more closely than it resembles opiate addiction or alcoholism. The compulsion to resume cocaine is very strong.

    Moreover, cocaine addiction can lead to a severe psychosis while the user is still on the drug. This is in contradistinction to the opiate withdrawal syndrome and to the delirium tremens of alcoholism or barbiturate addiction, which set in hours or days after the drug is withdrawn.
    Decades ago, cocaine users discovered that a mixture of cocaine and morphine or heroin relieves the excess agitation and tension produced by large doses of pure cocaine. The users of morphine and heroin similarly discovered that the mixture increases both the "bang" or "rush" or "flash" and the mood elevation produced by their favorite drug. The combination came to be known as the "speedball," and it has long been popular among some addicts in Britain, the United States, and elsewhere.

    Since 1914, the possession, sale, and giving away of cocaine have been subject to the same dire federal penalties as those governing morphine and heroin; and most state laws similarly identify cocaine as a "narcotic."
    During the 1940s, 1950s, and most of the 1960s, the smuggling of cocaine into the United States was curtailed and the black market in cocaine was relatively small. The reduced use of cocaine, however, can hardly be attributed, even in part, to law-enforcement efforts. Neither was it the result of pharmacological research. Cocaine was replaced by a new group of synthetic drugs, the amphetamines, which were available far more cheaply than cocaine after 1932, and which had certain other advantages over the natural imported product. Late in the 1960s, when narcotics law-enforcement agencies began cracking down heavily on the amphetamine black market, cocaine smuggling and cocaine use enjoyed a renaissance.
     
    Last edited: Sep 9, 2017
  10. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Freud, Sherlock Holmes and Coca Cola — the cocaine connection
    The Pharmaceutical Journal Vol 265 No 7128 p915-917
    December 23/30, 2000

    By Ray Sturgess, MRPharmS

    The two most significant figures in the cocaine story are world renowned, but not for their connection with cocaine. The individual responsible for the introduction of cocaine into medicine, albeit indirectly, went on to other and greater things, his life work fundamentally changing our views of ourselves and the world. The other did not even exist, although there are plenty of devotees who behave as if he did

    If it is surprising how long it took for cocaine to find its way into medicine as an anaesthetic, the identity of the individual responsible for its introduction is startlingly more so. Even given the information that at the time — the late 1880s — he was a young, debt-ridden, Jewish doctor in Vienna, anxious to find some means of achieving fame and fortune. It is still something of a shock to learn that his name was Sigmund Freud.

    In 1883, when Freud, aged 27, first became interested in cocaine, he was struggling to make a living and repay his debts, and a future in psychiatry was the last thing on his mind. His curiosity about the drug was aroused by two reports on the stimulant action of cocaine, one published in 1859 by an Italian neurologist, Paolo Montegazza, who had himself experimented with coca leaves and believed that they improved digestion and increased mental alertness and physical vigour. The second report had just been published by a Dr Theodor Aschenbrandt describing how he had surreptitiously laced with cocaine the drinks of Bavarian soldiers on manoeuvres and shown that the drug increased physical endurance under strenuous conditions.
    Freud may also have seen reports from the United States claiming the successful use of cocaine in the treatment of morphine addiction. He was certainly interested in finding such a cure, since his friend Dr Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow was trying to rid himself of morphine addiction acquired when he had taken the drug to relieve the pain after a thumb amputation. Von Marxow had lent Freud money to embark on his medical career and Freud, not able to repay him, tried in return to help him by treating his addiction, and after less than a month of self-experimentation with cocaine, Freud put his friend on to the drug. Believing he was on to something big, Freud wrote to his fiancée, Martha Bernays, that he not only hoped to cure his friend, but, by demonstrating a novel use for cocaine in Europe, to gain fame and financial security so that they could marry.

    The result of the experiment was that von Marxow became addicted to cocaine and not long afterwards died in misery and pain. By this time, however, Freud had become a cocaine convert and, convinced that the drug had cured his own depression and stomach cramps, and still seeing it as the means to fame and fortune, preached its benefits for heart disease and nervous exhaustion, apparently unperturbed that these conditions had not been mentioned in the published reports nor were likely to have been encountered in Aschenbrandt’s strapping soldiery.

    It was after a visit to Martha and while he was still extolling the virtues of cocaine for a wide variety of conditions for which its value had not been — and never was — established, that Freud treated a colleague suffering from intestinal pain with a 5 per cent solution of the drug. When the friend reported to Freud that the solution had numbed his lips and tongue (it is not reported if it helped his bowel ache) a third colleague was present, ophthalmologist Carl Koller. Koller went straight back to his laboratory, prepared a solution of cocaine and instilled it into the eye of a frog, and found that after a short interval the animal’s eye was insensitive to touching with a probe or to the application of heat or electricity.

    Koller went on to try cocaine in his own and his assistant’s eyes and realised that he had found an agent that was not only an effective analgesic in painful eye conditions but, more importantly, would produce the local anaesthesia required for eye surgery. Koller, always with an eye to the main chance, straightaway carried out eye operations following anaesthetisation with cocaine, and after publishing an account of his successes became internationally famous, being dubbed, in a humorous reference to the American soft drink, Coca Koller.

    Freud’s enthusiasm for cocaine as a cure-all gradually waned, although he continued to take the drug himself, probably to blot out the twin frustrations of poverty and failure that had been made worse by the burgeoning international stature of Koller, exasperatingly based on the drug Freud felt that he had pioneered. There is evidence that Freud had noticed the numbing effect of cocaine and had wondered about its suitability as a local anaesthetic at about the time of his visit to Martha. Even if this was the case he quite unfairly blamed Martha for enticing him away, claiming that had he not been absent from Vienna at a critical time, he and not Koller would have gained the plaudits.

    Freud’s grievance may be put down to the frustrated ambition of a talented young man, but what is less understandable is that even after he had won an international reputation and many honours himself, he continued to let the cocaine episode rankle. Forty years later in his autobiographical study, after decades of marriage to Martha, he wrote: "I may here recount, looking back, that it was my fiancée’s fault if I did not become famous in those early years."Would Freud at the end really have preferred to be remembered as the discoverer of cocaine anaesthesia rather than as the author of ‘The interpretation of dreams’, the discoverer of the ego and the id, the founder of psychoanalysis? Such was Freud’s self-doubt and pessimistic view of man’s nature, that it is possible. Cocaine anaesthesia was an undisputed practical benefit. Only he could fully appreciate what a can of worms, in the form of the human psyche, his life’s work had opened up.

    As was to happen with nitrous oxide, it was entrepreneurs who discovered the benefits of cocaine before the medical profession realised its potential. In 1863 in Paris, Angelo Mariani began selling his Vin Mariani, a tonic wine containing coca leaf extract that was soon the rage in the capital’s artistic circles. The tonic’s fame spread quickly, and before long men eminent in many fields, including Thomas Edison, Robert Louis Stevenson and Jules Verne, were singing its praises and it even hit the papal bull’s-eye with Leo XIII.

    It is difficult to think of a pharmacist who has become a household name (who now remembers Jesse Boot?), but perhaps John Styth Pemberton came nearest when he concocted a soft drink based on an extract of coca leaf in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1885. He had settled in the Georgia capital in 1869, following service as a cavalry troop leader during the Civil War, and was soon producing Triplex Liver Pills and Globe of Flower Cough Syrup, but he had to wait for success until he formulated his coca leaf drink, which he at first called French Wine Coca. Within a few months of its launch, Pemberton — who favoured the title Doctor — formed the Pemberton Chemical Company and recruited the services of Frank M. Robinson as book-keeper. Robinson was efficient at his job and had another invaluable talent: he soon had a reputation for analysing the constituents of a batch of syrup merely by sniffing it. Before he put his French Wine Coca on widespread sale, Pemberton modified it by taking out the wine and adding a pinch of caffeine. The resulting tonic tasted less than pleasant and Pemberton added kola nut extract and some oils as flavouring before starting production in a three-legged iron pot in his back yard, stirring the concoction with an oar. He changed the name to Coca Cola and launched it in 1886, the year which, as the present Coca Cola company directors like to point out, saw the unveiling of Sherlock Holmes and the Statue of Liberty.

    Pemberton managed to sell only 25 gallons of Coca Cola syrup — distributed as a concentrate that was diluted and carbonated at the point of sale — in the first year, and in 1867 he sold a two thirds interest in the business to two druggists for $1,200, disposing of the remaining third (thereby forgoing his chance of really becoming a household name) the following year. Further changes of ownership led to the company being acquired by another pharmacist, Asa Griggs Candler, who in 1903 had second thoughts about selling a cocaine drink to millions of young Americans and decided that the cocaine had better be extracted from the coca leaves before they were put into the drink. It was more profitable too, since the extracted cocaine could be, and still is, sold to the pharmaceutical industry.

    The most famous cocaine user — some would say addict — never lived. He was of course the oddball with the pipe, deerstalker hat and uncanny intellect, Sherlock Holmes. Why Holmes was made to develop a cocaine habit, Arthur Conan Doyle never revealed, and it is not possible to suggest an explanation without taking a look at the character and life of his creator. There were two facets of Doyle’s character that fitted him for a career as a writer: a discontent with the established order of things and an unusually wide range of experience for the son of a poor family. He regarded with disfavour both his educational institutions, Stonyhurst College (how the family afforded to send him there has never been explained), with its Jesuitical austerity and aloof masters, and the faculty of medicine of Edinburgh university, which Doyle judged harshly considering it was there that he got a good medical education and also to know the character who would later serve as the model for Holmes. Nevertheless, he came out of medical school feeling something of an outsider.

    Doyle’s unusual travels also helped to set him apart from the run-of-the mill Victorian doctor. They were undertaken out of necessity: he needed the money. This incentive led him to take time off from his medical studies to embark on a whaling ship sailing for the Arctic, although unqualified, as ship’s doctor, and later, immediately after qualifying, signing on as ship’s surgeon on a boat bound on a port-hopping run with passengers and cargo along the coast of West Africa.

    Doyle had inherited creative genes. His father Charles was the only failure in the family, the other brothers’ artistic abilities securing them comfortable lives in London while Charles toiled away in a dull and poorly paid post in the civil service in Edinburgh, where his lack of ambition, a succession of children and addiction to the bottle kept the family impoverished. It was Conan’s mother Mary who kept the family afloat and who encouraged her talented son to get on, and although in later life the son made allowances for his father’s addiction, alcoholism remained repugnant to him, and several villains in the Holmes stories are alcoholics.

    Doyle seems to have been both born and shaped to become a writer, but how did he arrive at Holmes? The accepted version is that he became influenced by Auguste Dupin, the detective in several of Edgar Alan Poe’s stories. Having decided to write a detective novella, ‘A study in scarlet’ — it was meant to be a single tale, Doyle at that stage not envisaging a series — he based his investigator on Joseph Bell, the lecturer in clinical surgery whose dramatic style of observation and deduction had so impressed him at Edinburgh. Doyle had recorded several examples of Bell’s deductive reasoning in case notes, including this:


    Bell, questioning a civilian male patient: Well, my man, you’ve served in the army?
    Patient: Aye, sir.
    Bell: Not long discharged?
    Patient: Aye, sir.
    Bell: A Highland regiment?
    Patient: Aye, sir.
    Bell: A non-commissioned officer?
    Patient: Aye, sir.
    Bell: Stationed in Barbados?
    Patient: Aye, sir.

    Bell’s explanation had been that the man was respectful but did not remove his hat, an army habit that would have gone by the board unless the man had been recently discharged. The man had an air of authority but not superiority, which indicated his non-com rank, and he was obviously Scottish. As to Barbados, his complaint was elephantiasis, a disease found in the West Indies but not in Britain.

    There are some holes one could pick in this reasoning — neither elephantiasis nor the British army were confined to Barbados — but Bell was remarkable, perhaps unique, at a time when most hospital patients were regarded as mere bodies for examination, diagnosis and treatment. Bell’s style, together with his essential altruism, does seem to provide enough substance for the idea that he was the real-life precursor of Homes.

    There was another factor. Once Doyle had set up in practice in Southsea, away from the teeming streets of London he loved, he found his life constrained by the twin chains of poverty and boredom. He had only a few patients a week and had to sit through long hours with empty surgeries. He lived on a shilling a day and slept in his coat on a mattress made from the straw which his first consignment of drugs had been packed in, the only furniture he possessed being needed for the surgery and waiting room. After the freedom of student life and voyages at sea, being cooped up in this way was made tolerable by living in the imagination as the bachelor of 221B Baker Street, the eccentric intellectual who was free to pursue and bring to justice a series of sinister criminals.

    Doyle was instinctively a master story teller and sensed that Holmes must be unique and distinct from the other fictional detectives pouring from the pens of Victorian authors. He made Holmes superior to his fellow men, arrogant, a believer in scientific method, yet a Dionysian and an aesthete. To add to his uniqueness Holmes was to be a drug user, and opium must have crossed Doyle’s mind as a possibility. One or two highly creative individuals had been opium addicts, notably Thomas De Quincey, who had gained fame as well as notoriety in the 1820s on the strength of his best-selling ‘Confessions of an English opium eater’, and his more seriously addicted friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge. But opium had become the drug of the masses, found in most homes as the standard remedy for diarrhoea, and the only effective analgesic (aspirin did not appear until 1897). By contrast, cocaine was at that time the drug of the smart set, the artistic and intellectual elite, a mental stimulant untarnished by the images of low-life depravity in smoke-laden dens associated with opium. Holmes’ addiction served one other valuable function: it made him appear flawed and the reader less overawed by his superiority. Cocaine addiction may not have been a laudable aspect of Holmes’s character, but by choosing it as the detective’s prime weakness, Doyle played something of a masterstroke.

    Even when he had given up medicine for writing, Conan Doyle kept abreast of the developments in the medical profession and when, in the 1890s, the dangers of cocaine addiction began to receive publicity, Doyle responded by making Watson’s criticisms of Holmes’s habit, something he had always disapproved of, stronger and more reformist: "I gradually weaned him from that drug mania which had threatened once to check his remarkable career."Even Holmes, earlier having confessed his reliance on cocaine for stimulating and clarifying his mind, is made to say that he found his hypodermic syringe an instrument of evil. Not that the reading public were critical of Holmes’s addiction. All they wanted were more Holmes stories and when Doyle had Holmes killed off by Moriarty in ‘The adventure of the final problem’ there was a public outcry and 20,000 subscibers cancelled their orders for the Strand Magazine. When, eight years later, Doyle resurrected Holmes in ‘The hound of the Baskervilles’, the magazine’s circulation shot up by 30,000 and long queues formed outside the offices of the publishers and the nation’s newsagents. What mattered Holmes’s weakness for cocaine, the public reckoned, compared with the pleasure he gave?

    Now that the full facts of cocaine addiction are known, we allow Holmes his idiosyncrasy, but for the world at large we can no longer take such a tolerant view.


    Further reading
    1. Gay P. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: Dent; 1988.
    2. Booth M. The doctor, the detective and Arthur Conan Doyle. London: Hodder; 1997.
    3. Kahn EJ Jr. The big drink: an unofficial history of Coca Cola. London: Max Reinhardt; 1950.
    Ray Sturgess is a pharmacist from Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, with experience in the pharmaceutical industry and in community pharmacy. He has now retired and writes on health-related matters
     
    1. 5/5,
      thanks for all the research, Id been interested about this but never really sought out the info. this is handy
      Sep 16, 2006
  11. Alfa

    Alfa Productive Insomniac Staff Member Administrator

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    Freuds letters and papers on coaine:

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 24 January 1895

    Dearest Wilhelm,
    I must hurriedly write to you about something that greatly astonishes me; otherwise I would be truly ungrateful. In the last few days I have felt quite unbelievably well, as though everything had been erased – a feeling which in spite of better times I have not known for ten months. Last time I wrote you, after a good period which immediately succeeded the reaction, that a few viciously bad days had followed during which a cocainization of the left nostril had helped me to an amazing extent. I now continue my report. The next day I kept the nose under cocaine, which one should not really do; that is, I repeatedly painted it to prevent the renewed occurrence of swelling; during this time I discharged what in my experience is a copious amount of thick pus; and since then I have felt wonderful, as though there never had been anything wrong at all. Arrhythmia is still present, but rarely and not badly; the sensitivity to external pressure is slight, the sensations being between 0 and -0. I am postponing the full expression of my gratitude and the discussion of what share the operation had in this unprecedented improvement until we see what happens next.

    "Case History" to Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 4 March 1895

    On the last day you were here, I suddenly discharged several scabs from the right side, the one not operated on. As early as the next day there appeared thick, old pus in large clots, at first on the right side only and soon thereafter also on the left. Since then the nose has again been flooded; only today has the purulent secretion become somewhat less dense. Light but regular symptoms: in the morning a stuffed nose, vile head, not better until large amounts have been discharged; in the interval occasionally migraine; everything by the way, not very severe. During the first of these days, I noticed with pride that I can climb stairs without dyspnea; for the last three days pain in the heart region, atactic pulse, and beautiful insufficiency.
    ...
    Though not designed to make one feel at ease, this information affords some pleasure because it emphasizes once again that the condition of the heart depends upon the condition of the nose. I cannot regard the latter as a new infection; I have the impression that I really still have, as you surmised, a focal pus accumulation (right sphenoid bone), which now happens to feel inclined to produce eruptions like a private Etna, as it were.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, date at head 13 March 1895

    It is a shame that both of us suffer from so much illness when we have so much ahead of us.
    ...
    March 15.
    Yesterday Mrs. K again sent for me because of cramplike pains in her chest; generally it has been because of headaches. In her case I have invented a strange therapy of my own: I search for sensitive areas, press on them and thus provoke fits of shaking which free her. Formerly, these areas were supraorbital and ethmoid; now they are (for the breast cramps) two areas on the left chest wall, wholly identical with mine. When I press on a point in her axillar, she says she feels it along the entire arm into her fingers. She does not have these pains spontaneously, as I do.
    ...
    March 20.
    My confession of how bad I am feeling also interfered with my mailing of the letter. Now I can report to you that since the day before yesterday I suddenly feel very good again – about the level I was on while you were here. The suppuration stopped a few days ago.
    Poor Eckstein is doing less well. This was the second reason for my postponement. Ten days after the second operation, after a normal course, she suddenly had pain and swelling again, of unknown origin. The following day, a hemorrhage; she was quickly packed. At noon, when they lifted the packing to examine her, renewed hemorrhage, so that she almost died.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 20 April 1895

    With regard to my own ailment, I would like you to continue to be right – that the nose may have a large share in it and the heart a small one. Only a very strict judge will take it amiss that in view of the pulse and the insufficiency I frequently believe the opposite.
    ...
    Today I can write because I have more hope; I pulled myself out of a miserable attack with a cocaine application. I cannot guarantee that I shall not come for a day or two for a cauterization or galvanization, but at the moment that too is not possible.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 26 April 1895

    Dear magician,
    ...
    Something strange but not unpleasant has happened to me. I put a noticeable end to the last horrible attack with cocaine, since then things have been fine and a great amount of pus is coming out. Evidently I still have an empyema of the sphenoidal bone on the left, which naturally makes me very happy. She [Emma E.] too, my tormentor and yours, now appears to be doing well.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 27 April 1895

    Since the last cocainization three circumstances have continued to coincide: (1) I feel well; (2) I am discharging ample amounts of pus; (3) I am feeling very well.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 25 May 1895

    Now, to my ideas about the nose. I discharged exceedingly ample amounts of pus and all the while felt splendid; now the secretion has nearly dried up and I am still feeling very well. I propose the following to you: it is neither the congestion nor the flow of pus that determines the distant symptoms.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 12 June 1895

    Your kindheartedness is one of the reasons I love you.
    ...
    I am feeling I to IIa. I need a lot of cocaine.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 16 August 1895

    We can share quarters, live and take walks together, insofar as our noses permit it.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 8 October 1895

    By this time news from you had become a necessity for me because I had already drawn the conclusion, in which I am rarely wrong, that your silence meant headaches. I began to feel more comfortable again when – after a long time – I once more held a piece of your scientific material in my hands. So far I have merely glanced at it and fear that respect for so much honest and subtle material will put my theoretical fantasies to shame.
    I am putting together all sorts of things for you today – several debts, which remind me that I also owe you thanks, your case history of labor pains, and two notebooks of mine. Your notes reinforced my first impression that it would be desirable to make them into a full-fledged pamphlet on "The Nose and Female Sexuality."

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 15 October 1895

    Crazy, isn't it, my correspondence! For two weeks I was in the throes of writing fever, believed that I had found the secret, now I know that I still haven't, and have again dropped the whole business.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 20 October 1895

    Everything fine except the three-day migraine. Aside from that regret, this letter is devoted to science.
    I was of course terribly pleased with your opinion about the hysteria-obsessional neurosis solution. Now listen to this. During an industrious night last week, when I was suffering from that degree of pain which brings about the optimal condition for my mental activities, the barriers suddenly lifted, the veils dropped, and every thing became transparent – from the details of the neuroses to the determinants of consciousness. Everything seemed to fall into place, the cogs meshed, I had the impression that the thing now really was a machine that shortly would function on its own. The three systems of n; the free and bound states of Qn; the primary and secondary processes; the main tendency and the compromise tendency of the nervous system; the two biological rules of attention and defense; the characteristics of quality, reality, and thought; the state of the psychosexual group; the sexual determination of repression; finally, the factors determining consciousness, as a function of perception – all that was correct and still is today! Naturally, I can scarcely manage to contain my delight.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 31 October 1895

    Although I am dead tired, I feel obliged to write to you before the month is over. First, to your latest scientific reports which I also welcome as a measure of your headaches.
    First impression: amazement that there exists someone who is an even greater fantasist than I am and that he should be none other than my friend Wilhelm. Conclusion: I intend to return the pages to you so they will not get lost. Meanwhile, I found the matter quite plausible and said to myself that only an expert in all fields like you could have come up with it. I was singularly impressed with the sharp glance over all the roofs. I guess I was born to be your claque.

    To Wilhelm Fliess, from Vienna, 29 November 1895

    I feel really amazingly well, as I have not since the beginning of the whole business. Moreover, I no longer have any pus, just a lot of mucous secretion. I have, by the way, never doubted the success of your minor surgical interventions, and thus have earned my well-being.
     
    Last edited: Sep 9, 2017
    1. 5/5,
      Thanks for the freud stuff, I've been meaning to get round to posting something and now I don't have to!
      Sep 18, 2006
  12. TheMindIsADangerousThing

    TheMindIsADangerousThing Newbie

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    Much obliged Alfa, I tip my hat to ya.
     
  13. Starlight29

    Starlight29 Newbie

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    He was a couple months shy of being responsible for discovering (publishing) the medical uses of cocaine. He wrote a phenomenal paper called "On Coca," but was beat to the punch by someone else who wrote regarding its potential uses in Ocular Surgery. It's been said that much of his early Psychosexual and Psychodynamic theory was highly influenced by his cocaine use.
     
  14. fury

    fury Silver Member

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    Unfortunately, Freud and some of his family were very twisted people. In my opinion, his discoveries and research were used by those in power to effect damage on the lower classes, make them more manageable. One of his relatives, Edward Bernase was contracted to bring in Feminism (the bad kind!) and other "propaganda". You can watch and research this for yourself. There is a 4 part documentary called 'The Century of the Self' by the BBC.

    One thing I've noticed amongst Intelligent drug users and abusers, once they start going clean or getting their life together and desiring to be normal , I find people turn on these blinders to just how our establishment lies to us and manipulates us.

    Please watch the documentary - very Important people understand what's been done to society.

    Cheers,
     
  15. Black Cimurro

    Black Cimurro Newbie

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    Hi there. Just popping in to say that, regarding the topic, I'd strongly recommend this book I've been enjoying lately:

    "An anatomy of Addiction" by Howard Markel.

    I find it to be quite a masterpiece, but instead of speaking for myself, here's the NYT review: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/24/b...howard-markel-book-review.html?pagewanted=all

    (Hope this won't be considered advertising related; my intent was purely to share advice for good and informative literature's sake)
     
  16. RoboCodeine7610

    RoboCodeine7610 Silver Member

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    I was about to suggest the exact same book.It talks about the beggining of cocaine and how it affected two doctor's life: Dr. William Halsted and Dr. Sigmund Freud.

    It was hailed as a wonder drug, until it's addictive potential became well-known.

    Robo