I think that this forum needs more info on vitamins and smart drugs.There are two sides of the drug use:the actual drug (ab)use and the things you do to keep yourself healthy&sane.I hope more people will join this discussion. A nice source on the subject: http://www.smart-publications.com/books/5htp/toc.html Nutrient: Choline Summary Physiological functions of choline * Keeps cellular membranes functioning properly * Allows for proper communication between nerves and muscles * Helps prevent the build-up of homocysteine in the blood Physiological events that may signal a need for greater choline intake * Fatigue * Insomnia * Nerve-muscle problems * Inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine * Accumulation of fats in the blood Choline - background and overview Although choline has been the subject of nutritional research for almost 150 years, it is the newest official member of the B vitamin family, having its Adequate Intake levels (AIs) established for the first time by the National Academy of Sciences in 1998 In the late 1930s, scientists discovered that pancreatic tissue contained a substance that could prevent fat accumulation in the liver. This substance was named choline, derived from the Greek word chole, which means bile. Since this initial discovery, researchers have found that choline is not only present in the pancreas and the liver, but is, in fact, a component of every human cell As research on choline has continued, it has been found that its naming after the Greek word for bile is highly appropriate. Choline has similar fat-modifying properties to bile, whose primary job is to emulsify fat so that it can be transported around the body in the blood, which is a water-based substance. Choline retains similar fat-modifying effects in the cellular membrane, allowing these membranes to operate with greater flexibility in handling both fat- and water-soluble compounds. In the absence of choline, many fat-based nutrients and metabolic waste products would not be able to pass in and out of the cells Choline’s unique chemical structure as a trimethylated molecule (having three attached methyl groups) allows it to have other important functions in the body since many important chemical events in the body are possible through the transfer of methyl groups from molecule to molecule. For example, genes can be switched on and off through methyl group transfer, making choline an important factor in the processes of cellular signaling. There is now special interest in choline in the area of mental health where the maintenance of messages sent between nerves is especially critical. Functions of choline Cell membrane integrity maintenance Since choline is a critical component of many fat-containing compounds in the cell membrane, and the cell membrane is made up almost entirely of fats, the flexibility and integrity of the membrane is inextricably linked to adequate choline supplies. Phosphatidylcholineand sphingomyelin are examples of membrane structures that require choline. These fat-like molecules account for an unusually high percentage of total solids in the brain; therefore, choline is particularly important for the health of the brain and has significant potential for therapeutic use in brain disorders. Methyl group metabolism support As noted in the Description section, choline has a unique chemical structure in that it is trimethylated (has three methyl groups), which makes it an extremely important molecule in methyl group metabolism. The transfer of methyl groups is a key process in allowing many important chemical events to occur in the body. For example, genes can be switched on and off through methyl group transfer, making choline an important factor in the processes of cellular signaling. Through its role in methyl group metabolism, choline plays a role in ensuring that levels of homocysteine are kept within healthy range (excess homocysteine levels are related to the development of cardiovascular disease and other health conditions). Support of nervous system activity(EDITr why you need to take it with piracetam) Choline is a key component of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that carries messages between nerves and between nerves and muscles. Owing to its role in nerve-muscle function, choline supplemented in the form of lecithin or phosphatidlycholine has been used experimentally to help improve neuromuscular function in Alzheimer’s disease Health conditions that require special emphasis on choline Individuals who have the following health conditions should pay special attention to their choline status * Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) * Alcoholism * Alzheimer’s disease * Autism * Candidiasis * Cirrhosis * Coronary heart disease * Epilepsy * Failure to thrive in newborns * Hyperhomocysteineimia * Hypertension * Hypertriglyceridemia * Infertility * Memory deficit problems * Parkinson’s disease * Respiratory distress in newborns Choline, like the other SAM cycle nutrients, may also play a role in reducing the toxic effects of heavy metals, including lead, upon the body. While choline’s precise role in helping to protect against heavy metal toxicity is still not clear, the process is likely to be complex and to involve more than just the simple methylation of heavy metals since the addition of a methyl group to heavy metals often increases, rather than decreases, their toxicity. Food Sources Foods that are concentrated sources of choline Lecithin (phosphytidylcholine),the emulsifier that is added to foods to keep their components blended together, is the richest source of choline in the U.S diet. Soybeans are the source of most of the lecithin in the U.S.food supply. Food sources of choline include soybean and soybean products, egg yolk, butter, banana, barley, cauliflower, corn, flax seeds, lentils, milk, oranges, potatoes, sesame seeds, tomatoes and whole wheat bread. Many of these foods do not just contain choline itself, but also other forms of the nutrient including lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and sphingomyelin. Public Recommendations Current public health recommendations for choline intake In 1998, the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences set the following Adequate Intake (AI) levels for choline: * 0-6 months: 125 milligrams * 6-12 months: 150 milligrams * 1-3 years: 200 milligrams * 4-8 years: 250 milligrams * Males 9-13 years: 375 milligrams * Males 14 years and older: 550 milligrams * Females 9-13 years: 375 milligrams * Females 14-18 years: 400 milligrams * Females 19 years and older: 425 milligrams * Pregnant females of any age: 450 milligrams * Lactating females of any age: 550 milligrams Prevention of liver damage was the main criterion used in establishment of these recommended levels.